A Vogt in the Holy Roman Empire was a title of a reeve or advocate, an overlord exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice over a certain territory. The territory or area of responsibility of a Vogt is called a Vogtei; the term denotes a mayor of a village. The range of social status and degrees of responsibility of persons so titled varied from the humble—the equivalents of the English reeve or bailiff—to the elevated. At the upper end of its social range, the office of Vogt was held by noble and princely families in relation to ecclesiastical territories, a position which such families exploited to their own advantage, it is in this connection that it is most referred to; the concept of the Vogt was related to the Old German idea of the Munt, or guardian, but included some ideas of physical defence and legal representation. From the time of Charlemagne, who had such officials appointed in ecclesiastical territories not directly under the control of his counts, the Vogt was a state functionary representing ecclesiastical dignitaries or institutions in secular matters, before secular courts.
Such representatives had been assigned to the church since late antiquity, as it was not supposed to act for itself in worldly affairs. Therefore, in areas such as the territories of abbeys and bishoprics, which by virtue of their ecclesiastical status were free from the secular government of the local count, the Vogt fulfilled the function of a protective lordship commanding the military contingents of such areas. Beyond that, he administered the high justice instead of the count from the Vogt court. In the German-ruled Holy Roman Empire, the term Vogt can refer to two different offices: church Vogt or imperial Vogt. Imperial Vögte are further subdivided into land city Vögte. In addition, the term Vogt was used for administrative officers of territorial rulers, such as bailiffs. In private and family monasteries, the proprietor himself also held the office of Vogt retaining it after reform of the proprietorship; the three-way struggle for control of the Vogtei of the more important abbacies, played out among the central monarchy, the Church and the territorial nobility, was pretty well established as a prerogative of the nobility.
In Austria, the teaching of the Church that, according to canon law individuals were prohibited from exercising authority over Church property, was only with reluctance accepted by the nobles. The rights of advocacy were bought back by the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century abbeys in alliance with the Babenberg and early Habsburg dukes. An imperial Vogt was an officer of the king, who served as administrator and judge of a subdivision of royal property, or of a royal abbey; the seat of an imperial Vogt was at an imperial city. When the imperial cities gained more independence, the office was split into city Vogt for the cities and land Vogt for other areas; the offices of city Vögte were bought by the imperial cities by the late Middle Ages, which led to the independence of the cities. Most land Vogt offices became meaningless as the amount of royal property was reduced more and more in favor of territorial rulers; the land Vogt office of the Alsace, consisting of the ten imperial cities of the Décapole, was ceded to the king of France in 1648, but the cities remained part of the Holy Roman Empire.
However, the cities were soon thereafter annexed by France. Several small land Vögte continued to exist until the end of the Empire in 1806 in the Swabian Circle; the title of Landvogt appears in the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1415. A Landvogt ruled a Landvogtei, either representing a sovereign canton, or acting on behalf of the Confederacy, or a subset thereof, administering a condominium shared between several cantons. In the case of condominiums, the cantons took turns in appointing a Landvogt for a period of two years. In exceptional cases, the population of the Landvogtei was allowed to elect their own Landvogt; this concerned Oberhasli in particular, nominally a subject territory of Berne, but enjoyed a special status as a military ally. The office of Landvogt was abolished with the foundation of the Helvetic Republic. Although the title of Duke of Burgundy was extinguished by the French king after the annexation of its ancestral lands in 1477, the Habsburg kings of Spain and archdukes of Austria continued to use the title to refer to their realms in the Netherla
Hu Xijin is a Chinese journalist and editor of the Global Times, a state-controlled newspaper in the People's Republic of China. Hu was born in Beijing. After graduating with a master's degree in Russian literature from Beijing Foreign Studies University in 1989, Hu began his career as a journalist at the People's Daily. Hu took part in the Tiananmen protests in 1989, he calls the military action a tragedy caused by student naivety and government inexperience, he can speak Chinese and Russian. Working as a foreign correspondent for the paper, he covered both the Iraq War. After covering Yugoslavia's break-up as a war correspondent, he came to admire strong Communist rule. Hu became editor of the Global Times in 2005, editing both the Chinese-language version and, after its establishment in 2009, the English-language version. During Hu's time as editor of the Global Times, he has become known as a bellicose hard-liner. “Frisbee Hu,” a nickname for Hu Xijin, arose from a joke that he retrieves whatever the government throws at him.
He has been accused of being a propagandist. In response to the widely-supported pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong, he compared the protesters to "ISIS-like terrorists". According to Richard Burger, a former editor at the Global Times, in the wake of the arrest of Ai Weiwei, the Chinese staff of the Global Times were ordered by Hu to conduct an "astroturfing" campaign against Ai Weiwei in favour of the Chinese government's criticism of Ai as a "maverick". During the 2019 Hong Kong Protests, Hu urged for direct shooting towards the protesters, he advocated that the police should be waived from any responsibilities if the protesters were fatally shot. Hu warned that China would bar drafters of the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act, whose U. S. Senate sponsor is Florida Republican Marco Rubio, from entering mainland China as well as Hong Kong and Macau after U. S. President Trump signed it into law in November 2019
Alan Michael Ritchson is an American actor and singer. He is known for his modeling career as well as his portrayals of the superhero Aquaman on The CW's Smallville and Thad Castle on Spike TV's Blue Mountain State. Ritchson starred as Gloss in 2013's The Hunger Games: Catching Fire, Raphael in 2014's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles reboot, its sequel, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows, Adam in 2016's Lazer Team. Since 2018, he has portrayed Hank Hall / Hawk on the series Titans. Ritchson was born in Grand Forks, North Dakota, the son of Vickie, high school teacher and David Ritchson, a retired U. S. Air Force chief master sergeant, he is a father to three boys himself. During his childhood, his family moved to Illinois. At age 10, Ritchson's family settled in Florida, he attended Niceville High School and graduated in 2002. In a 2013 interview with Indonesian magazine Da Man, he stated that he once obtained a full music scholarship. From 1999 to 2003, he attended as a dual-enrollment student and graduated with an Associate of Arts degree at Okaloosa Walton Community College, now Northwest Florida State College.
He was a member of the Fine Arts division's Madrigal Singers. He began his modeling career in the Fitch catalogue. In 2008, he was appeared on N2N Bodywear. By early 2009, Ritchson made his final appearance in his modelling career for Fitch. Alan Ritchson first came to the attention of the public in 2004 when he appeared on American Idol as one of the top 87 contestants in the third season before being cut in Hollywood, his appearance on the show was noted for his striptease in one episode in which he wooed judge Paula Abdul. His television acting credits include a recurring guest star role on the television series Smallville as Arthur Curry, a.k.a. Aquaman, a small role as an army officer in the 2006 Hallmark Channel movie Though None Go with Me alongside Cheryl Ladd, the role of Lucian Manet in the 2009 Lifetime original film Nora Roberts' Midnight Bayou, his role in Smallville marked the first time that an actor portrayed Aquaman in an licensed live-action production. His Smallville co-star, Justin Hartley, has since portrayed Aquaman in an unaired pilot of the same name.
Ritchson reprised his role as Aquaman for a cameo appearance in the animated film: Justice League: The New Frontier, the final season of Smallville. In 2009, he appeared on a third-season episode of Starz's Head Case in which he played a male stripper. Ritchson made an appearance on CSI: Miami, in which he played a dead victim in episode 19 of season 8. In 2011, he appeared in an episode of season 3 of 90210 as a love interest for main character Teddy Montgomery. In 2010, he started playing the main role of Thad Castle, the captain of a college football team, in Spike TV's Blue Mountain State, he stayed on the show until it was cancelled after its third season in February 2012. He appeared in number of television shows, including Hawaii Five-0. In 2015, Ritchson became a regular on the NBC variety show I Can Do That alongside Nicole Scherzinger, Joe Jonas, Cheryl Burke and Jeff Dye, hosted by Marlon Wayans. In 2016, he appeared in "Nosedive", an episode of the anthology series Black Mirror. In 2017, he played the main character in the Syfy series Blood Drive.
In 2018, Ritchson played the recurring role of Hank Hall / Hawk in the DC Universe series Titans. He was promoted to a series regular for the second season, which premiered in 2019. Movie credits include a role in the 2006 film The Butcher, as well as a minor role in 2009's Fired Up! In 2007, director Robert Zemeckis used Ritchson for his facial image and movement for actor Ray Winstone of the title character of Beowulf. Ritchson portrayed Gloss, a tribute in the 75th Hunger Games, in The Hunger Games: Catching Fire. Ritchson portrayed Raphael in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, a reboot to the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles film series after the four previous films, he returned to his role as Thad Castle in the Blue Mountain State movie, Blue Mountain State: The Rise of Thadland. Ritchson co-starred in Rooster Teeth Production's first feature-length movie—the science fiction comedy Lazer Team in January 2016, he played a medium role in The Wedding Ringer. In 2018, Ritchson was announced as the director, co-writer, producer of Cicada 3301, a film based on the organization of the same name.
The film will be the first original project of a film fund run by Ritchson. Other projects include an independent album called This Is Next Time, released in late 2005 and appearing in a Russian commercial for Orbit gum. Alan appears in a web series entitled, "Enormous Friends" with his Blue Mountain State co-star, Rob Ramsay. Albums This Is Next Time Alan Ritchson on IMDb