Th-fronting is the pronunciation of the English "th" as "f" or "v". When th-fronting is applied, /θ/ becomes /f/ and /ð/ becomes /v/. Unlike the fronting of /θ/ to /f/, the fronting of /ð/ to /v/ does not occur word-initially although this was found in the speech of South-East London in a survey completed 1990-4. Th-fronting is a prominent feature of several dialects of English, notably Cockney, Essex dialect, Estuary English, some West Country and Yorkshire dialects, Newfoundland English, African American Vernacular English, Liberian English, as well as in many non-native English speakers; the first reference to th-fronting is in the "low English" of London in 1787, though only a single author in that century writes about it, it was perceived as an idiosyncrasy, rather than a full-fledged dialect feature of Cockney English into the early half of the twentieth century. The feature was presumed to be reasonably common in London speakers born around 1850 and in Bristol by 1880; the use of the labiodental fricatives and for the dental fricatives and was noted in Yorkshire in 1876.
In his 1892 book A Grammar of the Dialect of Windhill, Joseph Wright noted variable th-fronting in his district in words such as think and smithy. In some words, th-fronting has been lexicalised. For example, the word without was lexicalised to wivoot in some dialects of Northern England. In the Survey of English Dialects, th-fronting was found in two main areas of England. One was the area around Bristol in the West Country; the other was in the area around Essex. In 1988, it was noted as spreading amongst non-standard accents in England. Although th-fronting is found in the middle and upper class English accents as well, there is still a marked social difference between working and middle class speakers. Th-fronting is regarded as a'boundary marker' between Cockney and Estuary English, as depicted in the first descriptions of the latter form of English and confirmed by a phonetic study conducted by researcher Ulrike Altendorf. Altendorf points out that th-fronting is found in middle class speech as well and concludes that "it is making its way into the middle class English accent and thus into Estuary English".
In popular music, the singer Joe Brown's 1960s backing band was christened The Bruvvers. The 1960 musical Fings Ain't Wot They Used T'Be was stated to be a Cockney Comedy. Up until the late 20th century th-fronting was common in speakers of Australian English from North Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast of Queensland; this may stem from the high number of London cockneys who settled there during the Queensland gold rushes of the 19th century. The practice is dying out as the influx of interstate and international immigrants increases; the following is a sample of a speaker of the Cockney accent who has th-fronting: http://www.gazzaro.it/accents/sound/Cockney.mp3My dad came from Wapping and me mum came from Poplar. Me dad was one of eleven kids… and Wapping in them days was one of the poorest parts of London. I mean they didn't have shoes on their feet. I'm talking about seventy years ago now. Erm… and Poplar was… sli… just a cut above Wapping, but me father had a tough time because his father died when he was nineteen, leaving him the only one working to bring up eleven brothers… ten brothers and sisters and on a Thursday night he'd sometimes go home and the youngest two would be crying in the corner and he'd say “What's the matter with them, ma?”
“Oh, Harry, you know it's Thursday night, you don't get paid till tomorrow.” And they didn't have any food in the house. In that recording father and either are pronounced, and. Th-fronting in the speech of working-class adolescents in Glasgow was reported in 1998, provoking public as well as academic interest; the finding of th-fronting in Glaswegian creates a difficulty for models of language change which hinge on dialect contact associated with geographical mobility since the Glaswegian speakers who used most in the 1997 sample are those with the lowest geographical mobility. In addition, th-fronting was reported as "a new phenomenon" in Edinburgh in March 2013. List of th-fronting homophones
Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how the speech organs approach one another. Others include those involved in the r-like sounds, the sibilancy of fricatives; the concept of manner is used in the discussion of consonants, although the movement of the articulators will greatly alter the resonant properties of the vocal tract, thereby changing the formant structure of speech sounds, crucial for the identification of vowels. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, as being independent parameters. Homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, consider them to be independent. Manners of articulation with substantial obstruction of the airflow are called obstruents.
These are prototypically voiceless, but voiced obstruents are common as well. Manners without such obstruction are called sonorants. Voiceless sonorants are uncommon, but are found in Welsh and Classical Greek, in Standard Tibetan, the "wh" in those dialects of English that distinguish "which" from "witch". Sonorants may be called resonants, some linguists prefer that term, restricting the word'sonorant' to non-vocoid resonants. Another common distinction is between continuants. From greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates behave as if they were intermediate between stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, or towards more stricture in a process called fortition. Sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant, sibilants being the more common. Flaps are similar to brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are distinct enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length; the main articulatory difference between flaps and stops is that, due to the greater length of stops compared to flaps, a build-up of air pressure occurs behind a stop which does not occur behind a flap. This means that when the stop is released, there is a burst of air as the pressure is relieved, while for flaps there is no such burst. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs. Since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative. Trilled affricates are known. Nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound, it is most found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives and approximants are found.
When a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue; this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral vocal tract, no nasal air flow, so the air flow stops completely. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/. If the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel, as well as the release burst and its effect on the following vowel; the shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds. All languages have stops. Nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose; the shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds.
Examples include English /m, n/. Nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation. Examples include etc.. Most languages have fricatives, though many have only an /s/. However, the Indigenous Australian languages are completely devoid of fricatives of any kind. Sibilants are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the tongue toward the teeth, creating a high-pitched and distinctive sound; these are by far the most common fricatives. Fricatives at coronal places of articulation are though not always, sibilants. English sibilants include /s/ and /z/. Lateral fricatives are a rare type of fricative, where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of th
A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals carnivores use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes; the roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth hardness; the cellular tissues that become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm. The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position; the teeth of mammals have deep roots, this pattern is found in some fish, in crocodilians. In most teleost fish, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side. In cartilaginous fish, such as sharks, the teeth are attached by tough ligaments to the hoops of cartilage that form the jaw; some animals develop only one set of teeth. Sharks, for example, grow a new set of teeth. Rodent incisors grow and wear away continually through gnawing, which helps maintain constant length.
The industry of the beaver is due in part to this qualification. Many rodents such as voles and guinea pigs, but not mice, as well as leporidae like rabbits, have continuously growing molars in addition to incisors. Teeth are not always attached to the jaw. In many reptiles and fish, teeth are attached to the palate or to the floor of the mouth, forming additional rows inside those on the jaws proper; some teleosts have teeth in the pharynx. While not true teeth in the usual sense, the dermal denticles of sharks are identical in structure and are to have the same evolutionary origin. Indeed, teeth appear to have first evolved in sharks, are not found in the more primitive jawless fish – while lampreys do have tooth-like structures on the tongue, these are in fact, composed of keratin, not of dentine or enamel, bear no relationship to true teeth. Though "modern" teeth-like structures with dentine and enamel have been found in late conodonts, they are now supposed to have evolved independently of vertebrates' teeth.
Living amphibians have small teeth, or none at all, since they feed only on soft foods. In reptiles, teeth are simple and conical in shape, although there is some variation between species, most notably the venom-injecting fangs of snakes; the pattern of incisors, canines and molars is found only in mammals, to varying extents, in their evolutionary ancestors. The numbers of these types of teeth vary between species; the genes governing tooth development in mammals are homologous to those involved in the development of fish scales. Study of a tooth plate of a fossil of the extinct fish Romundina stellina showed that the teeth and scales were made of the same tissues found in mammal teeth, lending support to the theory that teeth evolved as a modification of scales. Teeth are among the most distinctive features of mammal species. Paleontologists use teeth to determine their relationships; the shape of the animal's teeth are related to its diet. For example, plant matter is hard to digest, so herbivores have many molars for chewing and grinding.
Carnivores, on the other hand, have canine teeth to tear meat. Mammals, in general, are diphyodont. In humans, the first set starts to appear at about six months of age, although some babies are born with one or more visible teeth, known as neonatal teeth. Normal tooth eruption at about six months can be painful. Kangaroos and manatees are unusual among mammals because they are polyphyodonts. In Aardvarks, teeth lack enamel and have many pulp tubules, hence the name of the order Tubulidentata. In dogs, the teeth are less than humans to form dental cavities because of the high pH of dog saliva, which prevents enamel from demineralizing. Sometimes called cuspids, these teeth are shaped like points and are used for tearing and grasping food Like human teeth, whale teeth have polyp-like protrusions located on the root surface of the tooth; these polyps are made of cementum in both species, but in human teeth, the protrusions are located on the outside of the root, while in whales the nodule is located on the inside of the pulp chamber.
While the roots of human teeth are made of cementum on the outer surface, whales have cementum on the entire surface of the tooth with a small layer of enamel at the tip. This small enamel layer is only seen in older whales where the cementum has been worn away to show the underlying enamel; the toothed whale is a suborder of the cetaceans characterized by having teeth. The teeth differ among the species, they may be numerous, with some dolphins bearing over 100 teeth in their jaws. On the other hand, the narwhals have a giant unicorn-like tusk, a tooth containing millions of sensory pathways and used for sensing during feeding and mating, it is the most neurologically complex tooth known. Beaked whales are toothless, with only bizarre teeth found in males; these teeth may be used for feeding but for demonstrating aggression and showmanship. In humans there are 20 primary teeth, 28 to 32 of what's known as permanent teeth, in addition to other four being third molars or wisdom teeth, each of which may or may not g
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese; because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Mandarin is placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers. Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast; this is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones; the final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop.
Many Mandarin varieties, including the Beijing dialect, retain retroflex initial consonants, which have been lost in southern dialect groups. The capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects influential; some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language. Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore, it is used as one of the working languages of the United Nations. It is one of the most used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally; the English word "mandarin" meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires. Since their native varieties were mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a Koiné language based on various northern varieties.
When Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it "Mandarin", from its Chinese name Guānhuà, or "language of the officials". In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, called "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects, it is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China, the de facto official language of the Republic of China, one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and in Taiwan, it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name "Chinese". Chinese speakers refer to the modern standard language as Pǔtōnghuà in Mainland China, Guóyǔ in Taiwan, or Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines,but not as Guānhuà. Linguists use the term "Mandarin" to refer to the diverse group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China, which Chinese linguists call Guānhuà.
The alternative term Běifānghuà, or "Northern dialects", is used less and less among Chinese linguists. By extension, the term "Old Mandarin" or "Early Mandarin" is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty. Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of "Mandarin" in a broader sense. Within Chinese social or cultural discourse, there is not a common "Mandarin" identity based on language. Speakers of forms of Mandarin other than the standard refer to the variety they speak by a geographic name—for example Sichuan dialect, Hebei dialect or Northeastern dialect, all being regarded as distinct from the standard language; the hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven major groups of dialects have been recognized. Aside from Mandarin, the other six are Wu, Xiang in central China, Min and Yue on the southeast coast.
The Language Atlas of China distinguishes three further groups: Jin, Huizhou in the Huizhou region of Anhui and Zhejiang, Pinghua in Guangxi and Yunnan. After the fall of the Northern Song and during the reign of the Jin and Yuan dynasties in northern China, a common speech developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital, a language referred to as Old Mandarin. New genres of vernacular literature were based on this language, including verse and story forms, such as the qu and sanqu poetry; the rhyming conventions of the new verse were codified in a rime dictionary called the Zhongyuan Yinyun. A radical departure from the rime table tradition that had evolved over the previous centuries, this dictionary contains a wealth of information on the phonology of Old Mandarin. Further sources are the'Phags-pa script based on the Ti
Eth is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic and Elfdalian. It was used in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages but was subsequently replaced with dh and d, it is transliterated as d. The lowercase version has been adopted to represent a voiced dental fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet. In Old English, ð was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English dental fricative phoneme /θ/, which exists in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now spelled "th". Unlike the runic letter þ, ð is a modified Roman letter. Ð was not found in the earliest records of Old English. A study of Mercian royal diplomas found that ð began to emerge in the early 8th century, with ð becoming preferred by the 780s. Another source indicates that the letter is "derived from Irish writing"; the lowercase version has retained the curved shape of a medieval scribe's d, which d itself in general has not. Ð was used throughout the Anglo-Saxon era but fell out of use in Middle English disappearing altogether by 1300.
In Icelandic, ð represents a voiced dental fricative, the same as the th in English that, but it never appears as the first letter of a word, where þ is used in its stead. The name of the letter is pronounced in isolation as and therefore with a voiceless rather than voiced fricative. In Faroese, ð is not assigned to any particular phoneme and appears for etymological reasons. In the Icelandic and Faroese alphabets, ð follows d. In Olav Jakobsen Høyem's version of Nynorsk based on Trøndersk, ð was always silent and was introduced for etymological reasons. Ð has been used by some in written Welsh to represent /ð/, represented as dd. U+1D9E ᶞ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL ETH is used in phonetic transcription. U+1D06 ᴆ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL ETH is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet; the letter ð is sometimes used in mathematics and engineering textbooks as a symbol for a spin-weighted partial derivative. This operator gives rise to spin-weighted spherical harmonics. A capital eth is used as the currency symbol for Dogecoin.
Thorn D with stroke African D Insular script Ladefoged, Peter. The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. Pétursson, Magnus, "Étude de la réalisation des consonnes islandaises þ, ð, s, dans la prononciation d'un sujet islandais à partir de la radiocinématographie", Phonetica, 33: 203–216, doi:10.1159/000259344 "Thorn and eth: how to get them right", Briem "Älvdalsk ortografi", Förslag till en enhetlig stavning för älvdalska, February 2007, Archived from the original on February 6, 2007CS1 maint: Unfit url
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic or Assyrian known as Eastern Syriac, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, spoken by Assyrian people. The various Assyrian Aramaic dialects, including Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, have been influenced by--though not directly descended from--Classical Syriac, the Middle Aramaic dialect of Edessa, after its adoption as an official liturgical language, they are also descended from Old Aramaic, the lingua franca in the phase of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, displacing the East Semitic Assyrian dialect of Akkadian beginning around the 10th century BC. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is spoken by an estimated 200,000 people who are native to Upper Mesopotamia, a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia in northwestern Iran to the Nineveh plains, the Erbil and Duhok regions in northern Iraq, together with the Al-Hasakah region of northeastern Syria, parts of southeastern Turkey. Instability throughout the Middle East over the past century has led to a worldwide diaspora of Assyrian speakers, with many speakers now living abroad in such places as North America and Europe.
Speakers of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo are ethnic Assyrians and are descendants of the ancient Assyrian inhabitants of Northern Mesopotamia. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is one of the largest Neo-Aramaic languages, with Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo making up most of the remaining Neo-Aramaic speakers. Despite the terms "Chaldean Neo-Aramaic" and "Assyrian Neo-Aramaic" indicating a separate ethnoreligious identity, both the languages and their native speakers originate from the same Upper Mesopotamian region. Nonetheless, all these languages evolve from Aramaic, which was, along with Latin and Greek, one of "the three most important Christian languages in the early centuries" of the Common Era. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is, to a significant degree, mutually intelligible with Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and they are sometimes considered to constitute dialects of the same language rather than two separate languages. To a moderate degree, Assyrian is intelligible with Senaya, Lishana Deni and Bohtan Neo-Aramaic, is intelligible with Lishan Didan, Hulaulá and Lishanid Noshan.
Its mutual intelligibility with Turoyo, a Central Neo-Aramaic language, is partial and asymmetrical, but more significant in written form. Evolved in the 13th century from Middle Aramaic, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a moderately-inflected, fusional language with a two-gender noun system and rather flexible word order. There is some Akkadian influence in the language. In its native region, speakers may use Iranian and Arabic loanwords, while diaspora communities may use loanwords borrowed from the languages of their respective countries. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is written from right-to-left and it uses the Madnhāyā version of the Syriac alphabet. Assyrian, alongside other modern Aramaic languages, is now considered endangered. Aramaic was the language of commerce and communication and became the vernacular language of Assyria in the late Iron Age and classical antiquity, it became the lingua franca of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire, the Parthian Empire, the Sasanian Empire.
Aramaic writing has been found as far north as Hadrians Wall in Ancient Britain, in the form of inscriptions in Aramaic, made by Assyrian and Aramean soldiers serving in the Roman Legions in northern England during the 2nd century AD. The Assyrian Empire resorted to a policy of deporting troublesome conquered peoples into the lands of Mesopotamia. By the 6th century, the indigenous and Akkadian-speaking Semites of Assyria and Babylonia, spoke Akkadian-infused dialects of Eastern Aramaic. During the Persian rule of Assyria, Aramaic became the main language spoken by the Assyrians. Before the Empire fell, Aramaic had become the lingua franca of its empire and Assyrians were capable of speaking both Akkadian and Aramaic. Local unwritten Aramaic dialects emerged from Imperial Aramaic in Assyria–northern Mesopotamia, an Akkadian-influenced version of the Old Aramaic language, introduced as the lingua franca of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by Tiglath-Pileser III; the first evidence of such dialects emerged in Assyria, begin to influence the written Imperial Aramaic from the 5th century BC.
Following the Achaemenid conquest of Assyria under Darius I, the Aramaic language was adopted as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages". After the conquest of Assyria by the Seleucid Empire in the late 4th century BC, Imperial Aramaic and other Aramaic dialects lost their status as imperial languages but continued to flourish as lingua francas alongside Ancient Greek. By the 1st century AD, Akkadian was extinct, although some loaned vocabulary and grammatical features still survives in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and other Assyrian languages to this day; the Neo-Aramaic languages evolved from Middle Aramaic by the 13th century. There is evidence. Much literary effort was put into the production of an authoritative translation of the Bible into Syriac, the Peshitta. At the same time, Ephrem the Syrian was producing the most treasured collection of poetry and theology in the Classical Syriac language. By the 3rd century AD, churches in Edessa in the kingdom
Northern or North Sami, sometimes simply referred to as Sami, is the most spoken of all Sami languages. The area where Northern Sami is spoken covers the northern parts of Norway and Finland; the number of Northern Sami speakers is estimated to be somewhere between 15,000 and 25,000. About 2,000 of these live in between 5,000 and 6,000 in Sweden. Among the first printed Sami texts is Svenske och Lappeske ABC Book, written in Swedish and what is a form of Northern Sami, it was published in two editions in 1638 and 1640 and includes 30 pages of prayers and confessions of Protestant faith. It has been described as the first book "with a regular Sami language form". Northern Sami was first described by Knud Leem in 1748 and in dictionaries in 1752 and 1768. One of Leem's fellow grammaticians, who had assisted him, was Anders Porsanger, himself Sami and in fact the first Sami to receive higher education, who studied at the Trondheim Cathedral School and other schools, but, unable to publish his work on Sami due to racist attitudes at the time.
The majority of his work has disappeared. The mass mobilization during the Alta controversy as well as a more tolerant political environment caused a change to the Norwegian policy of assimilation during the last decades of the twentieth century. In Norway, Northern Sami is an official language of two counties and six municipalities. Sami born before 1977 have never learned to write Sami according to the used orthography in school, so it is only in recent years that there have been Sami capable of writing their own language for various administrative positions; the consonant inventory of Northern Sami is large. Some analyses of Northern Sami phonology may include preaspirated stops and affricates and pre-stopped or pre-glottalised nasals. However, these can be treated as clusters for the purpose of phonology, since they are composed of two segments and only the first of these lengthens in quantity 3; the terms "preaspirated" and "pre-stopped" will be used in this article to describe these combinations for convenience.
Notes: Voiceless stops have voiced or voiced allophones when they occur adjacent to voiced sounds, sometimes word-initially. Stops before a homorganic nasal are realised as unreleased stops; some younger, speakers instead realise voiceless stops as a glottal stop in this position, decompose voiced stops into a homorganic nasal + glottal stop combination. /v/ is realised as a labiodental fricative in the syllable onset, as bilabial or in the syllable coda. Although is a fricative, it behaves phonologically like an approximant, in particular like /j/. Quantity 3 geminated plain stops and affricates are variously described as voiced or voiced. Voiceless sonorants are rare, but occur more as allophonic realisations. A combination of sonorant followed by /h/ in the coda, is realised as the equivalent voiceless sonorant. Voiceless only occurs this way, is quite rare. A combination of /h/ followed by a stop or affricate in the onset is realised as preaspiration. /θ/ is rare. Not all Northern Sami dialects have identical consonant inventories.
Some consonants are absent from some dialects. Western Finnmark lacks /ŋ/, using /ɲ/ in its place; this applies to sequences of pre-stopped /gːŋ/ and /kŋ/, which become /dːɲ/ and /tɲ/ respectively. Is retained before a velar consonant, but as an allophone of /n/. Eastern Finnmark does not have voiced pre-stopped nasals. Sea Sami does not have pre-stopped nasals at all, having geminate nasals in their place; the postaspirated stops do not occur in Western Finnmark dialects, plain stops are used instead. They occur only in recent loanwords from the Scandinavian languages, only before a stressed syllable when not next to another consonant. Consonants, including clusters, that occur after a stressed syllable can occur in multiple distinctive length types, or quantities; these are conventionally labelled Q1, Q2 and Q3 for short. The consonants of a word alternate in a process known as consonant gradation, where consonants appear in different quantities depending on the specific grammatical form. One of the possibilities is named the strong grade, while the other is named weak grade.
The consonants of a weak grade are quantity 1 or 2, while the consonants of a strong grade are quantity 2 or 3. Quantity 1 includes any single consonant, it originates from Proto-Samic single consonants in the weak grade. Quantity 2 includes any combination of consonants with a short consonant in the coda of the preceding syllable, it originates from Proto-Samic single consonants in the strong grade, as well as combinations of two consonants in the weak grade. Quantity 3 includes any combination of consonants with a long consonant in the coda of the preceding sylla