Phonetic symbols in Unicode
Unicode supports several phonetic scripts and notations through the existing writing systems and the addition of extra blocks with phonetic characters. These phonetic extras are derived of a script, usually Latin. In Unicode there is no IPA script, apart from IPA, extensions to the IPA and obsolete and nonstandard IPA symbols, these blocks contain characters from the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet and the Americanist Phonetic Alphabet. The International Phonetic Alphabet makes use of letters from other writing systems as most phonetic scripts do, IPA notably uses Latin and Cyrillic characters. Combining diacritics adds meaning to the phonetic text, these phonetic alphabets make use of modifier letters, that are specially constructed for the phonetic meaning. For example, ʰ should not occur on its own but modifies the preceding or following symbol, thus, tʰ is a single IPA symbol, distinct from t. In practice, several of these letters are used as full graphemes, e. g. ʿ as transliterating Semitic ayin or Hawaiian okina.
The following tables indicates the Unicode code point sequences for phonemes as used in the International Phonetic Alphabet, a bold code point indicates that the Unicode chart provides an application note such as voiced retroflex lateral for U+026D ɭ LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH RETROFLEX HOOK. Vowels appearing in pairs in the figure to the right indicate rounded and unrounded variations respectively, characters with Unicode names referring to phonemes are indicated by bold text. Those with explicit application notes are indicated by bold italic text and those from borrowed unchanged from another script are indicated by italics. The characters in the Spacing Modifier Letters block are intended as forming a unity with the preceding letter, diacritics are not always properly rendered, however. These all include several ranges of characters in addition to the IPA, modern Web browsers generally do not need any configuration to display these symbols, provided that a font capable of doing so is available to the operating system.
Further Information, Unicode input#Selection from a screen Many systems provide a way to select Unicode characters visually, ISO14755 refers to this as a screen-selection entry method. Microsoft Windows has provided a Unicode version of the Character Map program since version NT4.0 – appearing in the edition since XP. This is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane, characters are searchable by Unicode character name, and the table can be limited to a particular code block. More advanced third-party tools of the type are available. MacOS provides a character palette with much the same functionality, along with searching by related characters, glyph tables in a font, etc. It can be enabled in the menu in the menu bar under System Preferences → International → Input Menu or can be viewed under Edit → Emoji & Symbols in many programs
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
The Republic of Dagestan, spelled Daghestan, is a federal subject of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region. Its capital and largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan on the Caspian Sea. With a population of 2,910,249, Dagestan is very diverse and Russias most heterogeneous republic, with none of its several dozen ethnicities. Largest among these ethnicities are the Avar, Kumyk, Laks, Tabasaran, ethnic Russians comprise about 3. 6% of Dagestans total population. Russian is the official language and the lingua franca among the ethnicities. Dagestan has been a scene of Islamic insurgency, occasional outbreaks of separatism, according to International Crisis Group, the militant Islamist organization Shariat Jamaat is responsible for much of the violence. The word Dagestan is of Turkish and Persian origin, dağ means mountain in Turkish and -stan is a Persian suffix meaning land. Some areas of Dagestan were known as Albania, the name Dagestan referred to Dagestan Oblast during 1860 to 1920, corresponding to the southeastern part of the present-day Republic.
It is the southernmost part of Russia, and is bordered on its side by the Caspian Sea. Major rivers include, Sulak River Samur River Terek River Vladas River Ccenter River Dagestan has about 405 kilometers of coast line on the Caspian Sea, most of the Republic is mountainous, with the Greater Caucasus Mountains covering the south. The highest point is the Bazardüzü/Bazardyuzyu peak at 4,470 meters on the border with Azerbaijan, the southernmost point of Russia is located about seven kilometers southwest of the peak. Other important mountains are Diklosmta, Gora Addala Shukgelmezr and Gora Dyultydag, Dagestan is rich in oil, natural gas and many other minerals. The climate is hot and dry in the summer but the winters are harsh in the mountain areas, Average January temperature, +2 °C Average July temperature, +26 °C Average annual precipitation,250 to 800 mm. Dagestan is administratively divided into forty-one districts and ten cities/towns. The districts are subdivided into nineteen urban-type settlements, and 363 rural okrugs.
In the first few centuries AD, Caucasian Albania became a vassal, with the advent of the Sassanian Empire, it became a satrapy within the vast domains of the empire. In antiquity, it was a few times fought over by the Roman Empire, over the centuries, to a relatively large extent, the peoples within the Dagestan territory converted to Christianity alongside Zoroastrianism. In the 5th century AD, the Samian peregrinations took place from Ukraine to this land, during the Sassanian era, southern Dagestan became a bastion of Iranian culture and civilisation, with its centre at Derbent, and a policy of Persianisation can be traced over many centuries. In 664, the Persians were succeeded in Derbent by the Arabs, by the 15th century, Albanian Christianity had died away, leaving a 10th-century church at Datuna as the sole monument to its existence
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
IPA Braille is the modern standard Braille encoding of the International Phonetic Alphabet, as recognized by the International Council on English Braille. A braille version of the IPA was first created by Merrick and Potthoff in 1934 and it was used in France and anglophone countries. However, it was not updated as the IPA evolved, in 1990 it was officially reissued by BAUK, but in a corrupted form that made it largely unworkable. In 1997 BANA created a new system for the United States. However, it was incompatible with braille IPA elsewhere in the world and in addition proved to be cumbersome, in 2008 Robert Englebretson revised the Merrick and Potthoff notation and by 2011 this had been accepted by BANA. It is largely true to the original in consonants and vowels, though the diacritics were completely reworked, the diacritics were made more systematic, and follow rather than precede the base letters. However, it has no procedure for marking tone. IPA Braille does not use the conventions of English Braille and it is set off by slash or square brackets, which indicate that the intervening material is IPA rather than national orthography.
Thus brackets are required in braille even when not used in print, the choice for ⟨ɹ⟩ may reflect the shape of that letter in print. Many of the vowels are used for modified vowels in national alphabets, a few other letters such as ⠹ occur, but only as parts of digraphs. Other IPA letters are indicated with digraphs or even trigraphs usinɡ 5th-decade letters, the component letter ⠲. for example, is equivalent to the tail of the retroflex consonants. This presumably derives from the old IPA practice of using a dot for retroflex consonants. It marks vowels which in print are formed by rotating the letter, is treated as a rotated ⟨o⟩, and ⟨ɯ⟩ as a rotated ⟨u⟩ rather than ⟨m⟩, perhaps facilitated by braille ⟨u⟩ and ⟨m⟩ themselves being a rotated pair. The basic braille letters ⠹ and ⠯, which do not occur on their own in IPA usage, ⠨ is used with letters of the fifth decade for transcriber-defined symbols, which need to be specified for each text, as they have no set meaning. These are ⠨⠂, ⠨⠆, ⠨⠒, ⠨⠲, ⠨⠢, ⠨⠖, ⠨⠶, ⠨⠦, ⠨⠔, ⠨⠴. ⠴ is used for barred vowels. ⠖ is used for other hooks, as in flaps, ⠯ is used for click letters.
These are far more legible in braille than in print, regardless of whether these are written with a tie bar or as actual ligatures in print, are indicated by dot 5, so ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ and ⟨ʧ⟩ are both ⠞⠐⠱. This includes the historic ligatures ⟨ɮ⟩ ⠇⠐⠮ and ⟨ɚ⟩ ⠢⠐⠗, ejectives are written as ligatures with an apostrophe, ⠄, so ⟨tʼ⟩ is ⠞⠐⠄. IPA Braille diacritics are written in two cells, the first indicates the position, whether superscript, mid-line, or subscript
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx. Stops and trills can be produced only at the epiglottis. When they are treated as distinct places of articulation, the term radical consonant may be used as a cover term, in many languages, pharyngeal consonants trigger advancement of neighboring vowels. Pharyngeals thus differ from uvulars, which nearly always trigger retraction, in addition and vowels may be secondarily pharyngealized. Also, strident vowels are defined by an accompanying epiglottal trill, pharyngeal/epiglottal consonants in the International Phonetic Alphabet, *A voiced epiglottal stop may not be possible. When an epiglottal stop becomes voiced intervocalically in Dahalo, for example, however, voiceless vs voiced affricates or off-glides are attested. ** Although traditionally placed in the row of the IPA chart, is usually an approximant. Frication is difficult to produce or to distinguish because the voicing in the glottis, the IPA symbol is ambiguous, but no language distinguishes fricative and approximant at this place of articulation.
For clarity, the diacritic may used to specify that the manner is approximant. The Hydaburg dialect of Haida has a trilled epiglottal and a trilled epiglottal affricate ~, because and occur at the same Pharyngeal/Epiglottal place of articulation, the logical phonetic distinction to make between them is in manner of articulation, trill versus fricative. Edmondson et al. distinguish several subtypes of pharyngeal consonant, pharyngeal or epiglottal stops and trills are usually produced by contracting the aryepiglottic folds of the larynx against the epiglottis. That articulation has been distinguished as aryepiglottal, in pharyngeal fricatives, the root of the tongue is retracted against the back wall of the pharynx. The IPA does not have diacritics to distinguish this articulation from standard aryepiglottals, Edmonson et al. use the ad hoc, somewhat misleading, transcriptions ⟨ʕ͡ʡ⟩, there are, several diacritics for subtypes of pharyngeal sound among the Voice Quality Symbols. Although upper-pharyngeal stops are not found in the languages, as far as is known.
In Finnish, a weak pharyngeal fricative is the realization of /h/ after the vowels /ɑ/ or /æ/ in syllable-coda position, such as star, the approximant is more common, as it is the realization of /r/ in such European languages as Danish and Swabian German. According to the theory, Proto-Indo-European might have had pharyngeal consonants. The fricatives and trills are frequently conflated with pharyngeal fricatives in literature and that was the case for Dahalo and Northern Haida, for example, and it is likely to be true for many other languages. The distinction between these sounds was recognized by IPA only in 1989, and it was little investigated until the 1990s, pharyngealization Strident vowel Ayin Heth Guttural Ladefoged, Maddieson, Ian
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties. This article deals primarily with Modern Standard Arabic, which is the standard variety shared by educated speakers throughout Arabic-speaking regions, MSA is used in writing in formal print media and orally in newscasts and formal declarations of numerous types. Modern Standard Arabic has 28 consonant phonemes and 6 vowel phonemes, all phonemes contrast between emphatic consonants and non-emphatic ones. Some of these phonemes have coalesced in the modern dialects. A phonemic quality of length applies to consonants as well as vowels, Modern Standard Arabic only has six vowel phonemes, or three pairs of corresponding short and long vowels. It has two diphthongs in classic Arabic with no allophones, allophony in different dialects of Arabic can occur, and is partially conditioned by neighboring consonants within the same word. /i, iː, u, uː/ Across North Africa and West Asia, /i/ may be realized as before emphatic consonants, /u/ can have different realizations, i. e.
Sometimes with one value for each vowel in both short and long lengths or two different values for each short and long lengths and they are distinct phonemes in loan words. In Egypt, close vowels have different values, short initial or medial, ← instead of /i, /i~ɪ/ and /u~ʊ/ completely become /e/ and /o/ respectively in some other particular dialects. Unstressed final long /aː, iː, uː/ are most often shortened or reduced, /aː/ →, /iː/ → /i/, even highly proficient speakers will import the vowel-retraction rules from their native dialects. Certain speakers exhibit a degree of asymmetry in leftward vs. rightward spread of vowel-retraction, the final heavy syllable of a root is stressed. However, the pronunciation of loanwords is highly dependent on the native variety. Foreign words often have a sprinkling of long vowels, as their word shapes do not conform to standardized prescriptive pronunciations written by letters for short vowels. For short vowels /e/ and /o/, there may be no vowel letter written, as is normally done in Arabic, the letters ي or و are always used to render the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/.
Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speakers background, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic is particularly rich in uvular, the emphatic coronals cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants. Long consonants are pronounced exactly like short consonants, but last longer, in Arabic, they are called mushaddadah, but they are not actually pronounced any stronger. Between a long consonant and a pause, an epenthetic occurs, the following restrictions apply, Onset First consonant, Can be any consonant, including a liquid
Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another, others include those involved in the r-like sounds, and the sibilancy of fricatives. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, from greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant and flaps are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs, since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative, nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives, when a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue and this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the vocal tract. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/, if the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion, if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent.
What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the vowel, as well as the release burst. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds, nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds, nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation, examples include English /f, s/, /v, z/, etc