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Voiced labiodental approximant

The voiced labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is similar to an English w pronounced with the teeth and lips held in the position used to articulate the letter V; the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʋ⟩, the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\. The labiodental approximant is the typical realization of /v/ in the Indian South African variety of English; as the voiceless /f/ is realized as an approximant, it is an example of a language contrasting voiceless and voiced labiodental approximants. Features of the voiced labiodental approximant: Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream, its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. Its phonation is voiced, it is an oral consonant. Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds. List of phonetics topics R-labialization Rhotacism: pronouncing ⟨r⟩ as List of languages with on PHOIBLE

Munt la Schera Tunnel

The Munt la Schera Tunnel is a single lane road tunnel located in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. It connects the Engadin valley with Lago di Livigno, through Munt la Schera. Completed in 1965, the tunnel is 3,394 metres in length; the tunnel was built to transport building materials for the construction of the Punt dal Gall dam. It was opened for public use in 1968, but is still owned and operated by the hydroelectric power company Engadiner Kraftwerke AG; the tunnel is only wide enough for a single vehicle so traffic moves in alternate directions, controlled by traffic lights which change every 15 minutes. The tunnel is open 24 hours a day to motor vehicles no more than 3.6 metres in height and 2.5 metres in width but since 2008 it is closed to cyclists. From June to September, cyclists may take their cycles on a half-hourly shuttle bus, at other times they may use a limited number of places on the public bus service; as of May 2015, the standard daytime toll for a single car journey through the tunnel is CHF16/EUR15.

Higher tolls are charged at night. Media related to Munt la Schera Tunnel at Wikimedia Commons

1999 Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council election

Elections to Wigan Council were held on 6 May 1999. One-third of the council was up for election. Prior to the election, the Liberal Democrats had gained the seat being fought in Beech Hill from Labour in a by-election, long-time Labour councillor for Atherton, Jack Sumner, had defected to independent. All wards were fought for the first time since 1992, the election boasted the highest number of candidates excepting the all-out elections of 1973 and 1980; the increase came from the Green Party standing a full-slate energised by their third place the previous year, with both Labour and the Conservatives repeating their recent contesting rates. The Lib Dem's showing of six candidates, resembled a party resigned to fourth place. Elsewhere the aforementioned Independent was fighting Leigh East, an incumbent Independent Labour candidate sought her fourth term in Hindley; the previous year had brought about the worst turnout recorded, this election did little to improve upon it, increasing by just one percent to 18.4%.

The general picture too was one of little difference to the preceding election. All three main parties managed to improve their vote upon the previous year's historic lows, but none were able to in a significant manner, as such, their figures remained at poor levels; the party shares were little changed, with a modest recovery of the Lib Dems and the Greens achieving a new peak at the expense of Labour. Labour, made a net gain as they retook their seat in Beech Hill from last year's by-election victors the Lib Dems, ousted the Independent Labour who'd held her seat in Hindley for more than a decade, their solitary loss was a shock defeat in their safe seat of Hindsford, as the Lib Dems surged on a 21.6% swing to displace Samuel Little from the council – whose incumbency had been uninterrupted in the 25-year-long history of the council up to that point. The comparable record of the independent was ended as he made little progress in Leigh East and the Greens looked no more competitive than the previous year – and less in certain areas.

This result had the following consequences for the total number of seats on the Council after the elections