Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters, The vowels are shown in bold. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters, the earliest mention of Albanian writings describes them Licet Albanenses aliam omnino linguam a latina habeant et diversam, tamen litteram latinam habent in uso et in omnibus suis libris. The history of the Albanian alphabet is closely linked with the influence of religion among Albanians, there were attempts for an original Albanian alphabet in the period of 1750–1850. The current alphabet in use among Albanians is one of the two approved in the Congress of Manastir held by Albanian intellectuals from November 14 to 22 November 1908. A first reference for Latin letters was in a medieval Latin manuscript of 1332, the earliest document discovered so far that is written in Albanian is a manuscript from 1210 by Theodor of Shkodra, presumably written in Latin characters. The first certain document in Albanian Formula e pagëzimit, issued by Pal Engjëlli, was written in Latin characters.
It was a phrase that was supposed to be used by the relatives of a dying person if they couldnt make it to churches during the troubled times of the Ottoman invasion. The Greek intellectual Anastasios Michael, in his speech to the Berlin Academy mentions an Albanian alphabet produced recently by Kosmas from Cyprus and it is assumed that this is the alphabet used for the Gospel of Elbasan. Anastasios calls Kosmas the Cadmus of Albania, in 1857 Kostandin Kristoforidhi, an Albanian scholar and translator, drafted in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, a Memorandum for the Albanian language. He went to Malta, where he stayed until 1860 in a Protestant seminary, finishing the translation of The New Testament in the Tosk and he was helped by Nikolla Serreqi from Shkodër with the Gheg version of the Testament. In November 1869, a Commission for the Alphabet of the Albanian Language was gathered in Istanbul, one of its members was Kostandin Kristoforidhi and the main purpose of the Commission was the creation of a unique alphabet for all the Albanians.
In January 1870 the Commission ended its work of the standardization of the alphabet, a plan on the creation of textbooks and spread of Albanian schools was drafted. However this plan was not realized, because the Ottoman Government wouldnt finance the expenses for the establishment of such schools, Sami Frashëri, Koto Hoxhi, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto created an alphabet. This was based on the principle of one sound one letter and this was called the Istanbul alphabet. In 1905 this alphabet was in use in all Albanian territory and South, including Catholic, Muslim. One year earlier, in 1904 had been published the Albanian dictionary of Kostandin Kristoforidhi, the dictionary had been drafted 25 years before its publication and was written in the Greek alphabet. The so-called Bashkimi alphabet was designed by the Society for the Unity of the Albanian Language for being written on a French typewriter, in 1908, the Congress of Monastir was held by Albanian intellectuals in Bitola, Ottoman Empire, modern-day Republic of Macedonia.
The Congress was hosted by the Bashkimi club, and prominent delegates included Gjergj Fishta, Ndre Mjeda, Mithat Frashëri, Sotir Peçi, Shahin Kolonja, there was much debate and the contending alphabets were Istanbul and Agimi
Turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime in fluid dynamics characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity. It is in contrast to a flow regime, which occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers. Turbulence is caused by kinetic energy in parts of a fluid flow. For this reason turbulence is easier to create in low viscosity fluids, in general terms, in turbulent flow, unsteady vortices appear of many sizes which interact with each other, consequently drag due to friction effects increases. This would increase the energy needed to pump fluid through a pipe, however this effect can be exploited by such as aerodynamic spoilers on aircraft, which deliberately spoil the laminar flow to increase drag and reduce lift. The onset of turbulence can be predicted by a constant called the Reynolds number. However, turbulence has long resisted detailed physical analysis, and the interactions within turbulence creates a complex situation. Richard Feynman has described turbulence as the most important unsolved problem of classical physics, smoke rising from a cigarette is mostly turbulent flow.
However, for the first few centimeters the flow is laminar, the smoke plume becomes turbulent as its Reynolds number increases, due to its flow velocity and characteristic length increasing. If the golf ball were smooth, the boundary layer flow over the front of the sphere would be laminar at typical conditions. However, the layer would separate early, as the pressure gradient switched from favorable to unfavorable. To prevent this happening, the surface is dimpled to perturb the boundary layer. This results in higher skin friction, but moves the point of boundary layer separation further along, resulting in form drag. The flow conditions in industrial equipment and machines. The external flow over all kind of such as cars, ships. The motions of matter in stellar atmospheres, a jet exhausting from a nozzle into a quiescent fluid. As the flow emerges into this external fluid, shear layers originating at the lips of the nozzle are created and these layers separate the fast moving jet from the external fluid, and at a certain critical Reynolds number they become unstable and break down to turbulence.
Biologically generated turbulence resulting from swimming animals affects ocean mixing, snow fences work by inducing turbulence in the wind, forcing it to drop much of its snow load near the fence
Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another, others include those involved in the r-like sounds, and the sibilancy of fricatives. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, from greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant and flaps are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs, since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative, nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives, when a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue and this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the vocal tract. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/, if the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion, if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent.
What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the vowel, as well as the release burst. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds, nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds, nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation, examples include English /f, s/, /v, z/, etc
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration and this is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Voiceless and supra-glottal phonations are included under this definition, the phonatory process, or voicing, occurs when air is expelled from the lungs through the glottis, creating a pressure drop across the larynx. When this drop becomes sufficiently large, the vocal folds start to oscillate, the minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure, and for humans with normal vocal folds, it is approximately 2–3 cm H2O. The motion of the vocal folds during oscillation is mostly lateral, there is almost no motion along the length of the vocal folds. The oscillation of the vocal folds serves to modulate the pressure and flow of the air through the larynx, the sound that the larynx produces is a harmonic series.
In other words, it consists of a fundamental tone accompanied by harmonic overtones, in linguistics, a phone is called voiceless if there is no phonation during its occurrence. In speech, voiceless phones are associated with folds that are elongated, highly tensed. Fundamental frequency, the main acoustic cue for the percept pitch, large scale changes are accomplished by increasing the tension in the vocal folds through contraction of the cricothyroid muscle. Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce intonation and tone, There are currently two main theories as to how vibration of the vocal folds is initiated, the myoelastic theory and the aerodynamic theory. These two theories are not in contention with one another and it is possible that both theories are true and operating simultaneously to initiate and maintain vibration. A third theory, the theory, was in considerable vogue in the 1950s. Pressure builds up again until the cords are pushed apart. The rate at which the open and close—the number of cycles per second—determines the pitch of the phonation.
The aerodynamic theory is based on the Bernoulli energy law in fluids, the push occurs during glottal opening, when the glottis is convergent, whereas the pull occurs during glottal closing, when the glottis is divergent. Such an effect causes a transfer of energy from the airflow to the fold tissues which overcomes losses by dissipation. The amount of pressure needed to begin phonation is defined by Titze as the oscillation threshold pressure. During glottal closure, the air flow is cut off until breath pressure pushes the folds apart and this theory states that the frequency of the vocal fold vibration is determined by the chronaxie of the recurrent nerve, and not by breath pressure or muscular tension
Ezh /ˈɛʒ/, called the tailed z, is a letter whose lower case form is used in the International Phonetic Alphabet, representing the voiced postalveolar fricative consonant. It is pronounced as the s in treasure or the si in the word precision, Ezh is used as a letter in some orthographies of Skolt Sami, both by itself, and with a caron. These denote partially voiced alveolar and post-alveolar affricates, broadly represented /dz/ and it appears in the orthography of some African languages, for example in the Aja language of Benin and the Dagbani language of Ghana, where the uppercase variant looks like a reflected sigma. As a phonetic symbol, ezh originates with Isaac Pitmans English Phonotypic Alphabet in 1847, the symbol is based on medieval cursive forms of Latin z, evolving into the blackletter z letter. In Unicode, the z is considered a glyph variant of z. In contexts where tailed z is used in contrast to tail-less z, notably in standard transcription of Middle High German, Unicode ʒ is sometimes used, Unicode offers ȥ z with hook as a grapheme for Middle High German coronal fricative instead.
In Unicode 1.0, the character was unified with the character yogh. Historically, ezh is derived from Latin z, but yogh is derived from Latin g by way of insular G, the characters look very similar and do not appear alongside each other in any alphabet. To differentiate between the two more clearly, the Oxford University Press and the Early English Text Society extend the uppermost tip of the yogh into a little curvature upward, the capital ezh looks similar to the common form of the figure three. To differentiate between the two characters, Ezh includes the sharp zigzag of the z, while the number is usually curved. This still remains a problem though, as some clocks use an identical to a capital ezh for three. Ezh looks similar to ろ, the Japanese hiragana letter for the mora ro, the central corner of ろ points out further away to the left than that of ezh. Furthermore, the hiragana for ru is る, appearing identical to ろ except for the loop at the end, the Unicode codepoints are U+01B7 for Ʒ and U+0292 for ʒ.
The IPA historically allowed for ezh to be ligatured to other letters, dezh ligatures ezh with the letter D. Lezh ligatures ezh with the letter L. Tezh ligatures ezh with the letter T. Abkhazian Dze Cyrillic Ze Michael Eversons essay On the derivation of Yogh and Ezh
The Armenian alphabet is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian. It was developed around 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, the Armenian word for alphabet is այբուբեն aybuben, named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet, ⟨Ա⟩ Armenian, այբ ayb and ⟨Բ⟩ Armenian, բեն ben. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters in Eastern Armenian or in Western Armenian, notes, ^ Only used in classical orthography, word-initially and in some compound words. ^ Except in ով /ov/ who and ովքեր /ovkʰer/ those, ^ Iranian Armenians pronounce this letter as, like in Classical Armenian. ^ In classical orthography, ու and և are considered a digraph, in reformed orthography, they are separate letters of the alphabet. ^ In reformed orthography, the letter ւ appears only as a component of ու, in classical orthography, the letter usually represents /v/, except in the digraph իւ /ju/. The spelling reform in Soviet Armenia replaced իւ with the trigraph յու, ^ Except in the present tense of to be, եմ /em/ I am, ես /es/ you are, ենք /enkh/ we are, եք /ekh/ you are, են /en/ they are.
^ The letter ը is generally used only at the start or end of a word, ancient Armenian manuscripts used many ligatures. Some of the commonly used ligatures are, ﬓ, ﬔ, ﬕ, ﬖ, ﬗ, և, Armenian print typefaces include many ligatures. In the new orthography, the character և is no longer a typographical ligature, Armenian punctuation is often placed above and slightly to the right of the vowel whose tone is modified, in order to reflect intonation. The computer-induced use of English-style single or double quotes is strongly discouraged in Armenian as they look too much like other – unrelated – Armenian punctuations, the storaket is used as a comma, and placed as in English. The mijaket is used like a colon, mainly to separate two closely related clauses, or when a long list of items follows. The verjaket is used as the full stop, and placed at the end of the sentence. The yerkaratsman nshan is used as an exclamation mark, the shesht is used as an emphasis mark, and usually placed over the last vowel of the interjection word to indicate stress.
The hartsakan nshan is used as a mark and placed after the last vowel of the question word. The apatarts is used as an apostrophe, only in Western Armenian, to indicate elision of a vowel. The yentamna is used as the ordinary Armenian hyphen, the pativ was used as an Armenian abbreviation mark, and was placed on top of an abbreviated word to indicate that it was abbreviated. ISO9985 transliterates the Armenian alphabet for modern Armenian as follows, In the linguistic literature on Classical Armenian, hübschmann-Meillet have The Armenian alphabet was introduced by Mesrop Mashtots and Isaac of Armenia in 405 CE
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties. This article deals primarily with Modern Standard Arabic, which is the standard variety shared by educated speakers throughout Arabic-speaking regions, MSA is used in writing in formal print media and orally in newscasts and formal declarations of numerous types. Modern Standard Arabic has 28 consonant phonemes and 6 vowel phonemes, all phonemes contrast between emphatic consonants and non-emphatic ones. Some of these phonemes have coalesced in the modern dialects. A phonemic quality of length applies to consonants as well as vowels, Modern Standard Arabic only has six vowel phonemes, or three pairs of corresponding short and long vowels. It has two diphthongs in classic Arabic with no allophones, allophony in different dialects of Arabic can occur, and is partially conditioned by neighboring consonants within the same word. /i, iː, u, uː/ Across North Africa and West Asia, /i/ may be realized as before emphatic consonants, /u/ can have different realizations, i. e.
Sometimes with one value for each vowel in both short and long lengths or two different values for each short and long lengths and they are distinct phonemes in loan words. In Egypt, close vowels have different values, short initial or medial, ← instead of /i, /i~ɪ/ and /u~ʊ/ completely become /e/ and /o/ respectively in some other particular dialects. Unstressed final long /aː, iː, uː/ are most often shortened or reduced, /aː/ →, /iː/ → /i/, even highly proficient speakers will import the vowel-retraction rules from their native dialects. Certain speakers exhibit a degree of asymmetry in leftward vs. rightward spread of vowel-retraction, the final heavy syllable of a root is stressed. However, the pronunciation of loanwords is highly dependent on the native variety. Foreign words often have a sprinkling of long vowels, as their word shapes do not conform to standardized prescriptive pronunciations written by letters for short vowels. For short vowels /e/ and /o/, there may be no vowel letter written, as is normally done in Arabic, the letters ي or و are always used to render the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/.
Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speakers background, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic is particularly rich in uvular, the emphatic coronals cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants. Long consonants are pronounced exactly like short consonants, but last longer, in Arabic, they are called mushaddadah, but they are not actually pronounced any stronger. Between a long consonant and a pause, an epenthetic occurs, the following restrictions apply, Onset First consonant, Can be any consonant, including a liquid