Voiced retroflex stop

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Voiced retroflex stop
ɖ
IPA number 106
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɖ
Unicode (hex) U+0256
X-SAMPA d`
Kirshenbaum d.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
Listen

The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɖ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a d, the letter that is used for the corresponding alveolar consonant. Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [ɖ].

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced retroflex stop:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Astierna dialect ḷḷingüa [ɖiŋɡwä] 'tongue' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Bengali[1] ডাকাত [ɖäkät̪] 'robber' Apical postalveolar.[1] See Bengali phonology
English Indian dialects dine [ɖaɪn] 'to eat' Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2] [ɖə] (name of a letter) Subapical.[2] See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4] डालना/ڈالنا [ɖäːlnäː] 'to put' Apical postalveolar.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Javanese ꦣꦲꦂ/dhahar [ɖahaɽ] 'to eat'
Kannada ಸು [ʌɖʌsu] 'to join'
Malayalam പാണ്ഡവര് [ˈpäːɳɖäʋər] 'Pandavas'
Marathi[2] हा [häːɖ] 'bone' Subapical.[2] See Marathi phonology
Nihali [biɖum] 'one'
Norwegian varde [ˈʋɑɖːə] 'beacon' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto ډﻙ [ɖak] 'full'
Punjabi ਡੱਡੂ [ɖəɖːu] 'frog'
Sardinian cherveddu About this sound [kerˈveɖːu]  'brain'
Sicilian coddu [kɔɖːu] 'neck'
Somali dhul [ɖul] 'earth, land, ground' See Somali phonology
Swedish nord [nuːɖ] 'north' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2][5] ண்டி [ʋəɳɖi] 'cart' Subapical;[2] allophone of /ʈ/.[5] See Tamil phonology
Telugu రు [ʌɖʌru] 'to arise'
Torwali[6] ڈىغو [ɖiɣu] 'late afternoon' Realised as [ɽ] between vowels.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]