Voiceless postalveolar fricative

A voiceless postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences: The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative The voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative The voiceless retroflex fricative The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative This article discusses the first two. A voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or voiceless domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in many languages, including English. In English, it is spelled ⟨sh⟩, as in ship; the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʃ⟩, the letter esh introduced by Isaac Pitman. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is S. An alternative symbol is ⟨š⟩, an s with a caron or háček, used in the Americanist phonetic notation and the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, as well as in the scientific and ISO 9 transliterations of Cyrillic, it originated with the Czech orthography of Jan Hus and was adopted in Gaj's Latin alphabet and other Latin alphabets of Slavic languages.

It features in the orthographies of many Baltic, Finno-Samic, North American and African languages. Features of the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative: Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence, its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, the front of the tongue bunched up at the palate. Its phonation is voiceless. In some languages the vocal cords are separated, so it is always voiceless, it is an oral consonant. It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides; the airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

In various languages, including English and French, it may have simultaneous labialization, i.e. although this is not transcribed. Classical Latin did not have. For example, ⟨ch⟩ in French chanteur "singer" is pronounced /ʃ/. Chanteur is descended from Latin cantare, where ⟨c⟩ was pronounced /k/; the ⟨ sc ⟩ in Latin scientia "science" was pronounced / sk has shifted to / ʃ / in Italian scienza. Proto-Germanic had neither nor, yet many of its descendants do. In most cases, this or descends from a Proto-Germanic /sk/. For instance, Proto-Germanic *skipą was pronounced /ˈski.pɑ̃/. The English word "ship" /ʃɪp/ has been pronounced without the /sk/ the longest, the word being descended from Old English "scip" /ʃip/, which also had the, though the Old English spelling etymologically indicated that the old /sk/ had once been present; this change took longer to catch on in West Germanic languages other than Old English, though it did. The second West Germanic language to undergo this sound shift was Old High German.

In fact, it has been argued that Old High German's /sk/ was already, because a single had shifted to. Furthermore, by Middle High German, that /s̠k/ had shifted to. After High German, the shift most then occurred in Low Saxon. After Low Saxon, Middle Dutch began the shift, but it stopped shifting once it reached /sx/, has kept that pronunciation since. Most through influence from German and Low Saxon, North Frisian experienced the shift. Swedish quite swiftly underwent the shift, which resulted in the uncommon phoneme, aside from Swedish, is only used in Colognian, a variety of High German, though not as a replacement for the standard High German /ʃ/ but a coronalized /ç/. However, the exact realization of Swedish /ɧ/ varies among dialects. See sj-sound for more details; the last to undergo the shift was Norwegian, in which the result of the shift was. The sound in Russian denoted by ⟨ш⟩ is transcribed as a palato-alveolar fricative but is a laminal retroflex fricative; the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound.

As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the post-alveolar consonants, this sound is transcribed ⟨ɹ̠̊˔⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\_-_0_r, its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant, its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge. Its phonation is voiceless. In some languages the vocal cords are separated, so it is always voiceless, it is


Champaner is a historical city in the state of Gujarat, in western India. It is located in 47 kilometres from the city of Vadodara; the city was the capital of the Sultanate of Gujarat. It was founded by the most prominent king of the Chavda Dynasty, in the 8th century, he named it after the name of his friend and general Champa known as Champaraj. By the 15th century, the Khichi Chauhan Rajputs held Pavagadh fort above the town of Champaner; the young Sultan of Gujarat, Mahmud Begada, deciding to attack Champaner, started towards it with his army on 4 December 1482. After defeating the Champaner army, Mahmud captured the town and besieged Pavagadh, the well-known hill-fortress, above Champaner, where king Jayasimha had taken refuge, he captured the Pavagadh fort on 21 November 1484, after a siege of 20 months. He spent 23 years rebuilding and embellishing Champaner, which he renamed Muhammadabad, after which he moved the capital there from Ahmedabad. In 1535, after chasing away Bahadur Shah, Humayun led 300 Mughals to scale the fort on spikes driven into rock and stonework in a remote and unguarded part of the citadel built over a precipitous hillside on Pavagadh Hill.

Large heaps of gold and jewels were the war bounty though Bahadur Shah had managed to escape with a lot to Diu Champaner is today the site of the Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, which UNESCO designated a World Heritage Site in 2004. Sultan Begada built a magnificent Jama Masjid in Champaner, which ranks amongst the finest architectural edifices in Gujarat, it is an imposing structure on a high plinth, with a central dome, two minarets 30 meters in height, 172 pillars, seven mihrabs, carved entrance gates with fine latticed windows called "jalis". The mausoleum of a holy saint Syed Khundmir is located here. There are total 23 places in champaner to visit. Maa Mahakalika Temple Jama Masjid Saher Masjid Stepwell Jain Temple Udan Khatola at Manchi Saat Kaman Amir Manzil Champaner Fort Citadel Of Mahmud Beghada Hissar I Khas Khapra Zaveri Palace Sikandar Shah S Tomb Virasat Van Vada Talav Khuniya Mahadev The 2001 Oscar nominated film Lagaan is set in Champaner. Gujarat Sultanate Panchmahal district

1965 German Grand Prix

The 1965 German Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Nürburgring on August 1, 1965. It was race 7 of 10 in both the 1965 World Championship of Drivers and the 1965 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers; the 15-lap race was won by Jim Clark, who in his Lotus-Climax, took pole position, the fastest lap of the race, led every lap. The victory ensured, it meant that Lotus won the 1965 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers at the same time. BRM driver, Graham Hill, finished the race in second position in front of Brabham-Climax driver, Dan Gurney, who completed the podium by finishing third. Graham Hill could still theoretically overhaul Clark for the championship; however Clark became Champion with a masterful performance, leading from pole to the flag and setting fastest lap, to gain maximum points with 3 Grand Prix still to be run. Behind him, the rest of the pack had all sorts of mechanical problems-Surtees had gear selection problems, Stewart bent a wishbone, Hulme punctured his fuel tank when his seat worked loose and Amon had transistor problems despite borrowing two transistor boxes.

Clark was duly crowned as champion at the start of August, the earliest the championship had been won until 2002, when Michael Schumacher obtained his 5th title on July 21. Lap Leaders: Jim Clark 15 laps. Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Only best 6 results counted toward the championship. Numbers without parentheses are championship points, numbers in parentheses are total points scored