The Abkhaz alphabet uses letters from the Cyrillic script for the Abkhaz language which consists of 62 letters. Abkhaz did not become a written language until the 19th century, up until then, especially princes, had been using Greek and partially Turkish languages. The Abkhaz word for alphabet is анбан, which was borrowed from Georgian ანბანი, the first dedicated Abkhaz alphabet was created in 1862 by the Russian general Peter von Uslar. It had 37 letters and was based on the Cyrillic script, in 1909, it was expanded to 55 letters by Aleksey Chochua to adjust to the extensive consonantal inventory of Abkhaz. In 1926, during the policy in the Soviet Union. It featured 76 letters and was called the Abkhaz analytical alphabet, in 1928, this was replaced by another Latin alphabet. From 1938 to 1954 the Abkhaz language was written in 3 Georgian alphabets, since 1954, the Abkhaz language has been written in a new 62-letter Cyrillic alphabet. Of these,38 are graphically distinct, the rest are digraphs with ⟨ь⟩ and ⟨ә⟩ which indicate palatalization and labialization, respectively.
In 1996, the most recent reform of the alphabet was implemented, the Cyrillic plosive letters К П Т represent ejective consonants, the non-ejectives are derived from these by means of a descender at the bottom of the letter. In the case of the affricates, the letter are pulmonic. The modern Abkhaz orthography gives preference to the letters Г П with descender instead of hook, the characters Ԥ and ԥ are encoded in Unicode since version 5.2. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011
Urmia (Azerbaijani, اورمو –اورمیه, Persian, ارومیه is the second largest city in the Iranian Azerbaijan and the capital of West Azerbaijan Province. Urmia is situated at an altitude of 1,330 m above sea level, Lake Urmia, one of the worlds largest salt lakes, lies to the east of the city and the mountainous Turkish border area lies to the west. Urmia is the 10th most populated city in Iran, at the 2012 census, its population was 667,499 with 197,749 households. The citys inhabitants are predominantly Iranian Turks who speak Azeri Turkish, as well as Irans official language, Persian. There are minorities of Kurds and Armenians, the city is the trading center for a fertile agricultural region where fruits and tobacco are grown. An important town by the 9th century, Urmia was seized by the Seljuk Turks, for centuries the city has had a diverse population which has at times included Muslims, Jews, Baháís and Sufis. The name Urmia originated in the Kingdom of Urartu, Urartian fortresses and artifacts found across Azerbaijan and into the Azerbaijan province of Iran denote a Urartian etymology.
The citys Armenian population complements the idea of a Urartian origin, richard Nelson Frye suggested a Urartian origin for the name. Hence Urmia simply means Watertown — a befitting name for a city situated by a lake and surrounded by rivers, would be the cradle of water. This suggests, that the Assyrians referred to the Urartian influence in Urmia as ancestors of the inhabitants of the Sumerian city state Ur, referenced Biblically as Ur of the Chaldees. Thus the root of Urmia is an Assyrian reference to the etymology of the Urartu/Ur Kingdoms and the Aramaic word Mia meaning water, burrow noted, referenced the city that is situated by a lake and surrounded by rivers. As of 1921, Urmia was called and Urmi, according to Vladimir Minorsky, there were villages in the Urmia plain as early as 2000 BC, with their civilization under the influence of the Kingdom of Van. The excavations of the ancient ruins near Urmia led to the discovery of utensils that date to the 20th century BC. When in 1622, during the reign of Safavid king Abbas I Qasem Sultan Afshar was appointed governor of Mosul and he moved to the western part of Azerbaijan, and became the founder of the Afshar community of Urmia.
The city was the capital of the Urmia Khanate from 1747–1865, the first monarch of Irans Qajar dynasty, Agha Muhammad Khan, was crowned in Urmia in 1795. Due to the presence of substantial Christian minority at the end of the 19th century, another mission soon became operational in nearby Tabriz as well. During World War I the population was estimated at 30,000 by Dr. Caujole, during the 19th century, the region became the center of a short lived Assyrian renaissance with many books and newspapers being published in Syriac. Urmia was the seat of a Chaldean diocese, at the beginning of the First World War tens of thousands of Assyrians and Armenians from the Ottoman Empire found refuge in Urmia
The Armenian alphabet is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian. It was developed around 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, the Armenian word for alphabet is այբուբեն aybuben, named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet, ⟨Ա⟩ Armenian, այբ ayb and ⟨Բ⟩ Armenian, բեն ben. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters in Eastern Armenian or in Western Armenian, notes, ^ Only used in classical orthography, word-initially and in some compound words. ^ Except in ով /ov/ who and ովքեր /ovkʰer/ those, ^ Iranian Armenians pronounce this letter as, like in Classical Armenian. ^ In classical orthography, ու and և are considered a digraph, in reformed orthography, they are separate letters of the alphabet. ^ In reformed orthography, the letter ւ appears only as a component of ու, in classical orthography, the letter usually represents /v/, except in the digraph իւ /ju/. The spelling reform in Soviet Armenia replaced իւ with the trigraph յու, ^ Except in the present tense of to be, եմ /em/ I am, ես /es/ you are, ենք /enkh/ we are, եք /ekh/ you are, են /en/ they are.
^ The letter ը is generally used only at the start or end of a word, ancient Armenian manuscripts used many ligatures. Some of the commonly used ligatures are, ﬓ, ﬔ, ﬕ, ﬖ, ﬗ, և, Armenian print typefaces include many ligatures. In the new orthography, the character և is no longer a typographical ligature, Armenian punctuation is often placed above and slightly to the right of the vowel whose tone is modified, in order to reflect intonation. The computer-induced use of English-style single or double quotes is strongly discouraged in Armenian as they look too much like other – unrelated – Armenian punctuations, the storaket is used as a comma, and placed as in English. The mijaket is used like a colon, mainly to separate two closely related clauses, or when a long list of items follows. The verjaket is used as the full stop, and placed at the end of the sentence. The yerkaratsman nshan is used as an exclamation mark, the shesht is used as an emphasis mark, and usually placed over the last vowel of the interjection word to indicate stress.
The hartsakan nshan is used as a mark and placed after the last vowel of the question word. The apatarts is used as an apostrophe, only in Western Armenian, to indicate elision of a vowel. The yentamna is used as the ordinary Armenian hyphen, the pativ was used as an Armenian abbreviation mark, and was placed on top of an abbreviated word to indicate that it was abbreviated. ISO9985 transliterates the Armenian alphabet for modern Armenian as follows, In the linguistic literature on Classical Armenian, hübschmann-Meillet have The Armenian alphabet was introduced by Mesrop Mashtots and Isaac of Armenia in 405 CE
In recent years, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic has spread throughout the Assyrian diaspora. Speakers of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo are ethnic Assyrians and are descendants of the ancient Assyrian inhabitants of Northern Mesopotamia, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is the largest speaking Neo-Aramaic group, followed by Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo. Despite the terms Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic indicating an ethnic identity. Assyrian is a moderately inflected, fusional language with a two-gender noun system and it is a null-subject language and it features a pronoun drop to some degree. The word order of modern Assyrian is predominately SVO, although other sentence structures are used too. There is some Akkadian vocabulary and influence in the language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is written from right to left, and it uses the Madnhāyā version of the Syriac alphabet. To a moderate degree, Assyrian is intelligible with Senaya, Lishana Deni and it is somewhat partially intelligible with Lishan Didan, Hulaulá and Lishanid Noshan.
Its mutual intelligibility with Turoyo is rather limited, the Syriac language had evolved from Imperial Aramaic, an Akkadian infused dialect introduced as the lingua franca of Assyria and the Neo Assyrian Empire by Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC. Aramaic was the language of commerce and communication and became the language of Assyria in classical antiquity. It became the lingua franca of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire, the Parthian Empire, after the conquest of Assyria and other Aramaic dialects gradually lost their status as imperial languages but continued to flourish as lingua francas alongside Ancient Greek. By the 1st century AD, Akkadian was extinct, although some loaned vocabulary still survives in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic to this day. The Neo-Aramaic languages are descended from Old Aramaic, the lingua franca in the phase of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Neo-Aramaic languages evolved from Middle Aramaic by the 13th century, the Assyrian Empire resorted to a policy of deporting troublesome conquered peoples into the lands of Mesopotamia.
Consequently, during the Persian rule of Assyria, Aramaic gradually became the language spoken by the Assyrians. Even before the Empire fell, the Assyrians had made the language the lingua franca of its empire, there is evidence that the adoption of Syriac, the language of the Assyrian people, was led by missionaries. Much literary effort was put into the production of a translation of the Bible into Syriac. At the same time, Ephrem the Syrian was producing the most treasured collection of poetry, by the 3rd century AD, churches in Edessa began to use Syriac as the language of worship and the language became the literary and liturgical language of many churches in the Fertile Crescent. Syriac was the lingua franca of the Middle East until 900 AD, the differences with the Assyrian Church of the East led to the bitter Nestorian schism in the Syriac-speaking world
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties. This article deals primarily with Modern Standard Arabic, which is the standard variety shared by educated speakers throughout Arabic-speaking regions, MSA is used in writing in formal print media and orally in newscasts and formal declarations of numerous types. Modern Standard Arabic has 28 consonant phonemes and 6 vowel phonemes, all phonemes contrast between emphatic consonants and non-emphatic ones. Some of these phonemes have coalesced in the modern dialects. A phonemic quality of length applies to consonants as well as vowels, Modern Standard Arabic only has six vowel phonemes, or three pairs of corresponding short and long vowels. It has two diphthongs in classic Arabic with no allophones, allophony in different dialects of Arabic can occur, and is partially conditioned by neighboring consonants within the same word. /i, iː, u, uː/ Across North Africa and West Asia, /i/ may be realized as before emphatic consonants, /u/ can have different realizations, i. e.
Sometimes with one value for each vowel in both short and long lengths or two different values for each short and long lengths and they are distinct phonemes in loan words. In Egypt, close vowels have different values, short initial or medial, ← instead of /i, /i~ɪ/ and /u~ʊ/ completely become /e/ and /o/ respectively in some other particular dialects. Unstressed final long /aː, iː, uː/ are most often shortened or reduced, /aː/ →, /iː/ → /i/, even highly proficient speakers will import the vowel-retraction rules from their native dialects. Certain speakers exhibit a degree of asymmetry in leftward vs. rightward spread of vowel-retraction, the final heavy syllable of a root is stressed. However, the pronunciation of loanwords is highly dependent on the native variety. Foreign words often have a sprinkling of long vowels, as their word shapes do not conform to standardized prescriptive pronunciations written by letters for short vowels. For short vowels /e/ and /o/, there may be no vowel letter written, as is normally done in Arabic, the letters ي or و are always used to render the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/.
Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speakers background, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic is particularly rich in uvular, the emphatic coronals cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants. Long consonants are pronounced exactly like short consonants, but last longer, in Arabic, they are called mushaddadah, but they are not actually pronounced any stronger. Between a long consonant and a pause, an epenthetic occurs, the following restrictions apply, Onset First consonant, Can be any consonant, including a liquid
Hindi, or Modern Standard Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Along with the English language, Hindi written in the Devanagari script, is the language of the Government of India. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India, Hindi is the lingua franca of the so-called Hindi belt of India. Outside India, it is a language which is known as Fiji Hindi in Fiji, and is a recognised regional language in Mauritius and Tobago, Guyana. Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, apart from specialized vocabulary, Hindi is mutually intelligible with Standard Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani. Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with Official Language, under Article 343, official language of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English. Gujarat High Court, in 2010, has observed that there was nothing on record to suggest that any provision has been made or order issued declaring Hindi as a language of India.
Article 343 of the Indian constitution states The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script, the form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. It was envisioned that Hindi would become the working language of the Union Government by 1965. Each may designate a co-official language, in Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on the formation in power. Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of language in the following Union Territories, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu. National-language status for Hindi is a long-debated theme, an Indian court clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such. Outside Asia, Hindi is a language in Fiji as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji. It is spoken by 380,000 people in Fiji, Hindi is spoken by a large population of Madheshis of Nepal. Hindi is quite easy to understand for some Pakistanis, who speak Urdu, apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the large Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the Hindi Belt of India.
Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is considered to be a descendant of an early form of Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit. It has been influenced by Dravidian languages, Turkic languages, Arabic, Hindi emerged as Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A. D. By the 10th century A. D. it became stable, Braj Bhasha, Awadhi, Khari Boli etc. are the dialects of Hindi
Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another, others include those involved in the r-like sounds, and the sibilancy of fricatives. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, from greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant and flaps are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs, since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative, nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives, when a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue and this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the vocal tract. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/, if the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion, if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent.
What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the vowel, as well as the release burst. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds, nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds, nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation, examples include English /f, s/, /v, z/, etc
The Assamese script is a writing system of the Assamese language. It used to be the script of choice in the Brahmaputra valley for Sanskrit as well as languages such as Bodo, Khasi. By the 17th century three styles of Assamese script could be identified that converged to the script following typesetting required for printing. The present standard is identical to the Bengali alphabet except for three letters, the Buranjis were written during the Ahom dynasty in the Assamese language using the Assamese alphabet. Later, Sankardev used it in the 15th and 16th centuries to compose his oeuvre in Assamese and Brajavali dialect, the Ahom king Supangmung, was the first ruler who started issuing Assamese coins for his kingdom. A similar script with minor differences is used to write Maithili, Meithei, the Umachal rock inscription of the 5th century evidences the first use of a script in the region. The script was similar to the one used in Samudraguptas Allahabad Pillar inscription. Rock and copper plate inscriptions from onwards, and Xaansi bark manuscripts right up to the 18th–19th centuries show a development of the Assamese script.
The script could be said to develop proto-Assamese shapes by the 13th century, the script presently has a total of 11 vowel letters, used to represent the eight main vowel sounds of Assamese, along with a number of vowel diphthongs. All of these are used in both Assamese and Bengali, the two main languages using the script, for example, the Assamese script has two symbols for the vowel sound and two symbols for the vowel sound. This redundancy stems from the time when this script was used to write Sanskrit, a language that had a short and a long, and a short and a long. These letters are preserved in the Assamese script with their traditional names of hôrswô i and dirghô i, vowel signs can be used in conjunction with consonants to modify the pronunciation of the consonant. When no vowel is written, the vowel অ is often assumed, to specifically denote the absence of a vowel, may be written underneath the consonant. The names of the consonant letters in Assamese are typically just the consonants main pronunciation plus the inherent vowel ô, since the inherent vowel is assumed and not written, most letters names look identical to the letter itself.
Some letters that have lost their distinctive pronunciation in Modern Assamese are called by a more elaborate name. For example, since the consonant phoneme /n/ can be written ন, ণ, or ঞ, these letters are not simply called nô, they are called ন dôntiya nô, ণ murdhôinnya nô, and ঞ niô. Goswami the number of clusters is 143 symbolised by 174 conjunct letters. Three phoneme clusters are 21 in number, which are written by 27 conjunct clusters, a few of them are given hereafter as examples, Though ক্ষ is used in Bengali, it has a different pronunciation
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark