Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Bad faith is double mindedness or double heartedness in duplicity, fraud, or deception. It may involve intentional deceit of others, or self-deception, the expression bad faith is associated with double heartedness, which is translated as double mindedness. A bad faith belief may be formed through self-deception, being double minded, bad faith may be viewed in some cases to not involve deception, as in some kinds of hypochondria with actual physical manifestations. People may hold beliefs in their minds even though they are directly contradicted by facts and these are beliefs held in bad faith. But there is debate as to whether this self-deception is intentional or not, in his book Being and Nothingness, the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre defined bad faith as hiding the truth from oneself. The fundamental question about bad faith self-deception is how it is possible, in order for a liar to successfully lie to the victim of the lie, the liar must know that what is being said is false. In order to be successful at lying, the victim must believe the lie to be true, when a person is in bad faith self-deception, the person is both the liar and the victim of the lie.
So at the time the liar, as liar, believes the lie to be false. So there is a contradiction in that a person in bad faith self-deception believes something to be true, various commentators and translators have discussed being of two beliefs or faiths in being double hearted or double minded. Websters Dictionary equates bad faith with being of two hearts, the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament Epistles admonish religious believers not to be double minded. In Psalms 119,113, one translation is I hate double-minded men, the New Living Translation emphasises divided loyalty translating the passage as I hate those with divided loyalties, but I love your instructions. The Epistle of James warns against trusting a person that perpetually disagrees with himself and it is not a hypocrite that is meant, but a fickle, wavering man, as the context shows. Alfords translation of the Bible uses the ancient Greek literatures waverer to express double minded, in James 1,8, it denotes instability of a cognitive attitude, he is a double-minded man, unstable in attitude.
In the Gods Word Translation, a person who has doubts is thinking about two different things at the time and cant make up his mind about anything. Youngs Literal Translation translates this as being two souled, in Clarkes Commentary on the Bible, a double-minded man is one of two souls in that one is for earth, and the other for heaven, wishing to secure both worlds at once. Gills exposition of the Bible refers to asking for one thing and meaning another, honoring in word but not in heart, such persons could make no progress in Divine things. The Catholic Church does not consider everyone with heretical views to have bad faith, for example, people who seek the truth. The true desires of the subconscious express themselves as wish fulfillment in dreams, bad faith wish fulfillment is central to the ethics of belief, which discusses questions at the intersection of epistemology, philosophy of mind, Freudian psychoanalysis, and ethics
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable by law as a binding legal agreement. Contract is a branch of the law of obligations in jurisdictions of the civil law tradition, Contract law concerns the rights and duties that arise from agreements. A contract arises when the parties agree that there is an agreement, formation of a contract generally requires an offer, consideration, and a mutual intent to be bound. Each party to a contract must have capacity to enter the agreement, intoxicated persons, and those under a mental affliction may have insufficient capacity to enter a contract. Some types of contracts may require formalities, such as a memorialization in writing, at common law, the elements of a contract are offer, intention to create legal relations, and consideration. Not all agreements are necessarily contractual, as the parties generally must be deemed to have an intention to be legally bound, a so-called gentlemens agreement is one which is not intended to be legally enforceable, and which is binding in honour only.
In order for a contract to be formed, the parties must reach mutual assent and this is typically reached through offer and an acceptance which does not vary the offers terms, which is known as the mirror image rule. An offer is a statement of the offerors willingness to be bound should certain conditions be met. If a purported acceptance does vary the terms of an offer, it is not an acceptance but a counteroffer and, the Uniform Commercial Code disposes of the mirror image rule in §2-207, although the UCC only governs transactions in goods in the USA. As a court cannot read minds, the intent of the parties is interpreted objectively from the perspective of a reasonable person and it is important to note that where an offer specifies a particular mode of acceptance, only an acceptance communicated via that method will be valid. Contracts may be bilateral or unilateral, a bilateral contract is an agreement in which each of the parties to the contract makes a promise or set of promises to each other.
For example, in a contract for the sale of a home, less common are unilateral contracts in which one party makes a promise, but the other side does not promise anything. In these cases, those accepting the offer are not required to communicate their acceptance to the offeror, in a reward contract, for example, a person who has lost a dog could promise a reward if the dog is found, through publication or orally. The payment could be conditioned on the dog being returned alive. Those who learn of the reward are not required to search for the dog, but if someone finds the dog and delivers it, the High Court of Australia stated that the term unilateral contract is unscientific and misleading. In certain circumstances, a contract may be created. A contract is implied in fact if the circumstances imply that parties have reached an agreement even though they have not done so expressly, quantum meruit claims are an example. Carbolic, a firm, advertised a smoke ball marketed as a wonder drug that would, according to the instructions
A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust. Confidence tricks exploit characteristics of the human psyche such as dishonesty, compassion, irresponsibility, naïveté, the perpetrator of a confidence trick is often referred to as a confidence man, con-artist, or a grifter. Samuel Thompson was the confidence man. Thompson was a swindler who asked his victims to express confidence in him by giving him money or their watch rather than gaining their confidence in a more nuanced way. A few people trusted Thompson with their money and watches, Thompson was arrested in July 1849. Reporting about this arrest, Dr. James Houston, a reporter of the New York Herald, although Thompson was an unsuccessful scammer, he gained reputation as a genius operator mostly because Houstons satirical writing wasnt understood. The National Police Gazette coined the term confidence game a few weeks after Houston first used the name, the confidence man. A confidence trick is known as a con game, a con, a scam, a grift, a hustle, a bunko, a swindle, a flimflam.
The intended victims are known as marks, suckers, or gulls, when accomplices are employed, they are known as shills. A short con or small con is a fast swindle which takes just minutes and it typically aims to rob the victim of everything in his or her wallet. A long con or big con is a scam that unfolds over several days or weeks and involves a team of swindlers, as well as props, extras and scripted lines. It aims to rob the victim of huge sums of money or valuable things, often by getting him or her to empty out banking accounts, in Confessions of a Confidence Man, Edward H. Smith lists the six definite steps or stages of growth of a confidence game. He notes that some steps may be omitted, foundation Work Preparations are made in advance of the game, including the hiring of any assistants required. Build-up The victim is given an opportunity to profit from a scheme, the victims greed is encouraged, such that their rational judgment of the situation might be impaired. Pay-off or Convincer The victim receives a small payout as a demonstration of the schemes effectiveness and this may be a real amount of money, or faked in some way.
In a gambling con, the victim is allowed to win small bets. In a stock market con, the victim is given fake dividends, the Hurrah A sudden crisis or change of events forces the victim to act immediately. This is the point at which the con succeeds or fails, the In-and-In A conspirator puts an amount of money into the same scheme as the victim, to add an appearance of legitimacy to the scheme
Cundy v Lindsay
However, the ultimate question is whether the identity of the other contracting party was crucial to the contract. The problem for the courts was essentially which of the two innocent parties should bear the loss of the goods, Lindsay & Co were manufacturers of linen handkerchiefs, amongst other things. They received correspondence from a man named Blenkarn and he had rented a room at 37 Wood Street, but purported to be Blenkiron & Co. Lindsay & Co knew of a business of this name which resided at 123 Wood Street. Believing the correspondence to be from this company, Lindsay & Co delivered to Blenkarn a large order of handkerchiefs, Blenkarn sold the goods –250 dozen linen handkerchiefs – to an innocent third party, Cundy. When Blenkarn failed to pay, Lindsay & Co sued Cundy for the goods, the Divisional Court held that Lindsay could not recover the handkerchiefs from Cundy. Blackburn J, giving judgment, held the following, mellor J and Lush J agreed. The House of Lords held that Lindsay & Co had meant to deal only with Blenkiron & Co, there could therefore have been no agreement or contract between them and the rogue.
Accordingly, title did not pass to the rogue, and could not have passed to Cundy and they were forced to therefore return the goods. Lord Cairns explained the mistake to identity, and the consequences, As such and this has introduced a distinction from cases such as Phillips v Brooks, where parties dealing face to face are presumed to contract with each other. Despite still being good law, commentators, as well as the courts, have been critical of this distinction, in Shogun Finance Ltd v Hudson Lord Nicholls, stated it to be an eroded principle of law. Kings Norton Metal Co v Edridge Merrett & Co Mistake in English law C MacMillan, Mistake as to identity clarified
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the only national library in Japan. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy, the library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two facilities in Tokyo and Kyoto, and several other branch libraries throughout Japan. The Diets power in prewar Japan was limited, and its need for information was correspondingly small, the original Diet libraries never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity. Until Japans defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information. The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II.
In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee, hani Gorō, a Marxist historian who had been imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as both a citadel of popular sovereignty, and the means of realizing a peaceful revolution, the National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes. The first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori, the philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL merged with the National Library and became the national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained a million volumes previously housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, in 1986, the NDLs Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals.
The Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items, in May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Childrens Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno. This branch contains some 400,000 items of literature from around the world. Though the NDLs original mandate was to be a library for the National Diet. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries, in contrast, as Japans national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. The NDL has an extensive collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences
Black's Law Dictionary
Blacks Law Dictionary is the most widely used law dictionary in the United States. It was founded by Henry Campbell Black and it is the reference of choice for terms in legal briefs and court opinions and has been cited as a secondary legal authority in many U. S. Supreme Court cases. The latest editions, including abridged and pocket versions, are starting points for the layman or student when faced with an unfamiliar legal term. The first edition was published in 1891, and the edition in 1910. The sixth and earlier editions of the book provided case citations for the term cited, the eighth edition introduced a unique system of perpetually updated case citations and cross-references to legal encyclopedias. The ninth edition was published in the summer of 2009, because many legal terms are derived from a Latin root word, the Dictionary gives a pronunciation guide for such terms. In addition, the entries provide pronunciation transcriptions pursuant to those found among North American practitioners of law or medicine.
The second edition of Blacks Law Dictionary is now in the public domain, the Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. has reprinted the first and second editions. Also, it is available as a Windows Phone application, complete translation of 6th edition into Czech language. Farhang-i ḥuqūqī-i Bahman, Ingilīsī-Fārsī, bar asās-i Blacks law dictionary Muqtadirah-yi Qaumī Zabān. org
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. Law as a system helps regulate and ensure that a community show respect, private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. Islamic Sharia law is the worlds most widely used religious law, the adjudication of the law is generally divided into two main areas referred to as Criminal law and Civil law. Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order, Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality, there is an old saying that all are equal before the law, although Jonathan Swift argued that Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through.
In 1894, the author Anatole France said sarcastically, In its majestic equality, the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets, and steal loaves of bread. Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared, The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual, mikhail Bakunin said, All law has for its object to confirm and exalt into a system the exploitation of the workers by a ruling class. Cicero said more law, less justice, marxist doctrine asserts that law will not be required once the state has withered away. Regardless of ones view of the law, it today a completely central institution. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries, at the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance. There have been attempts to produce a universally acceptable definition of law. In 1972, one indicated that no such definition could be produced.
McCoubrey and White said that the question what is law, glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word law depends on the context in which that word is used. He said that, for example, early customary law and municipal law were contexts where the law had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word law and it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word law. The history of law links closely to the development of civilization, Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books