Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
The Fédération aéronautique internationale, is the world governing body for air sports, stewards definitions regarding human spaceflight. It was founded on 14 October 1905, is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, it maintains world records for aeronautical activities including ballooning, unmanned aerial vehicles, as well as flights into space. The FAI was founded at a conference held in Paris 12–14 October 1905, organised following a resolution passed by the Olympic Congress held in Brussels on 10 June 1905 calling for the creation of an Association "to regulate the sport of flying... the various aviation meetings and advance the science and sport of Aeronautics." The conference was attended by representatives from 8 countries: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, Spain and the United States. On 2 February 2017 the FAI announced its new strategic partnership with international asset management firm Noosphere Ventures. FAI Secretary General Susanne Schödel, FAI President Frits Brink and Noosphere Ventures Managing Partner Max Polyakov signed the agreement, making Noosphere Ventures FAI’s Global Technical Partner.
The FAI is the international governing body for the following activities: Aerobatics through the FAI Aerobatics Commission Aeromodeling and drones through the FAI Aeromodelling Commission Ballooning through the FAI Ballooning Commission General aviation through the FAI General Aviation Commission Gliding through the FAI Gliding Commission Hang gliding & Paragliding through the FAI Hang Gliding & Paragliding Commission Human-powered aircraft through the FAI Amateur-Built and Experimental Aircraft Commission Microlighting and Paramotoring through the FAI Microlight & Paramotor Commission Parachuting through the FAI Parachuting Commission Rotorcraft through the FAI Rotorcraft Commission The FAI establishes the standards for records in the activities. Where these are air sports, the FAI oversees international competitions at world and continental levels, organizes the World Air Games and FAI World Grand Prix; the FAI organises Expo. This event offers a platform for organisations and individuals to discuss how drones are used today and to create a framework for how they will be used and impact on life in the future.
The FAI keeps records set in human spaceflight, through the FAI Astronautic Records Commission The FAI defines the limit between Earth's atmosphere and outer space, the so-called Karman Line, as the altitude of 100 kilometres above Earth's sea level. Among the FAI's responsibilities are the verification of record-breaking flights. For a flight to be registered as a "World Record," it has to comply with the FAI's strict rules, which include a proviso that the record must exceed the previous record by a certain percentage. Since the late 1930s, military aircraft have dominated some classes of record for powered aircraft such as speed, distance and height, though other classes are claimed by civilians; some records are claimed by countries as their own though their achievements fail to meet FAI standards. These claims are not granted the status of official records. For example, Yuri Gagarin earned recognition for the first manned spaceflight, despite failing to meet FAI requirements; the FAI did not recognize the achievement because he did not land in his Vostok spacecraft, but it recognized that Gagarin was the first human to fly into space.
The FAI established "The Yuri A. Gagarin Gold Medal", awarded since 1968; the following types of craft have records: Class A Free Balloons Class B Airships Class C Aeroplanes Class CS Solar-Powered Aeroplanes Class D Gliders & Motorgliders Class E Rotorcraft Class F Model Aircraft Class F1 – Free flight Class F2 – Control line Class F3 – Radio control F3K - Discus Launch Glider F3F - Slope Soaring Class F4 – Scale model aircraft Class F5 – Electrically powered model aircraft Class F8 - Autonomous flight Class G Parachuting Class H Vertical Take-off and Landing Aeroplanes Class I Manpowered aircraft Class K Spacecraft Class M Tilt-Wing/Tilt Engine Aircraft Class N Short Take-off and Landing Aeroplanes Class O Hang Gliding & Paragliding Class P Aerospacecraft Class R Microlights and Paramotors Class S Space Models Class U Unmanned aerial vehicle The FAI Gold Air Medal was established in 1924 and was first awarded in 1925. It is reserved for those who have contributed to the development of aeronautics by their activities, achievements, initiative or devotion to the cause of Aviation.
The FAI has awarded the Paul Tissandier Diploma since 1952 to those who have served the cause of aviation in general and sporting aviation in particular. The FAI makes awards for each of the following air sports. Awards for Ballooning: The Montgolfier Ballooning Dipl
Voisin Type de Course
The Voisin Type de Course was an early French aircraft built by Voisin Frères. It was first flown early in 1910; the 1910 Type de Course was designed by Gabriel Voisin as a racing aircraft to take part in the many competitions being held at the time. A development of his successful 1907 biplane, it was a two-seater two-bay pusher configuration biplane with an elevator mounted on the upcurved front of the nacelle and rear-mounted empennage carried on two pairs of booms carrying the tail surfaces; the first aircraft flown, built for Henri Rougier, had a single rudder above the stabiliser and a fixed fin below: some examples differed slightly. The structure made extensive use of metal: the nacelle was constructed of circular and elliptical section nickel-steel tubing, the interplane struts were steel and the wings had steel spars and wooden ribs, it differed from the earlier Voisin aircraft in having provision for lateral control in the form of ailerons, which allowed Voisin to dispense with the "side-curtains" between the wings characteristic of his earlier aircraft.
Rougier's aircraft had biplane mid-gap ailerons mounted on the front outer pair of interplane struts. The undercarriage consisted of a pair of mainwheels under the wings, a large nosewheel carried between a pair of inverted V-struts under the front of the nacelle and a small tailwheel mounted on the bottom of the fin, it was powered by a 50 hp E. N. V. Water-cooled V8; the first example was flown by Rougier on the 13 April 1910. A second aircraft built for René Métrot differed in having monoplane ailerons, two rudders and an uncovered nacelle. Others were built for various customers, differing in the engine fitted: these included the 37 kW Gnome and the 4-cylinder Gobron. Six were flown at the second Reims Grande Semaine d'Aviation, but without any success in any of the competitions. Data from FlightGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 1 passenger Length: 9 m Wingspan: 9 m Wing area: 33 m2 Gross weight: 350 kg Powerplant: 1 × E. N. V. Type A V-8 water cooled piston engine. 37 kW Propellers: 2-bladed Voisin, 2.50 m diameter
Charles Voisin was an early aviation pioneer from France. He was the younger brother of Gabriel Voisin an aviation pioneer. Charles joined his brother in 1906 and the Appareils d'Aviation Les Frères Voisin was formed, their first successful plane was built in 1907. This machine, a pusher biplane powered by an Antoinette engine, was built for Leon Delagrange and was tested by Charles in February–April before being handed over to him; the first powered flight was made on 16 March 1907, when Charles flew for 10 metres at Neuilly-Bagatelle. Voisins' aircraft became a significant advance in the aviation history. Record breaking flier Henri Farman flew a Voisin pusher biplane in most of his early flights, notably so when he became first in Europe to complete a 1 km closed circuit at Issy-les-Moulineaux on January 13, 1908. Charles Voisin was present on the ground during this historic flight. Charles Voisin was killed in an automobile accident on 26 September 1912 near Belleville-sur-Saône; the early woman aviator Baroness de Laroche was injured in the same accident
The Hispano-Suiza 8 was a water-cooled V8 SOHC aero engine introduced by Hispano-Suiza in 1914, the most used liquid-cooled engine in the aircraft of the Entente Powers during the First World War. The original Hispano-Suiza 8A was rated at 140 hp and the larger displacement Hispano-Suiza 8F reached 330 hp. Hispano-Suiza 8 engines and variants produced by Hispano-Suiza and other companies under licence were built in twenty-one factories in Spain, Britain and the U. S. Derivatives of the engine were used abroad to power numerous aircraft types and the engine can be considered as the ancestor of another successful engine by the same designer, the Hispano-Suiza 12Y which served in the Second World War. At the beginning of the First World War the production lines of the Barcelona based Hispano-Suiza automobile and engine company were switched to the production of war materiel. Chief engineer Marc Birkigt led work on an aircraft engine based on his successful V8 automobile engine; the resulting engine, called the Hispano-Suiza 8A, made its first appearance in February 1915.
The first 8A kept the standard configuration of Birkigt's existing design: eight cylinders in 90° Vee configuration, a displacement of 11.76 litres and a power output of 140 hp at 1,900 rpm. In spite of the similarities with the original design, the engine had been refined; the crankshaft was machined from a solid piece of steel. The cylinder blocks were cast aluminium and of.'mono-block' type that is, in one piece with the SOHC cylinder heads. The inlet and exhaust ports were cast into the blocks, the valve seats were in the top face of the steel cylinder liners, which were screwed into the blocks. Using a rotary driveshaft coming up from the crankcase along the rear end of each cylinder bank, with the final drive for each cylinder bank's camshaft accommodated within a semicircular bulge at the rear end of each valve cover. Aluminium parts were coated in vitreous enamel to reduce leakage. All parts subject to wear, those critical for engine ignition were duplicated: spark plugs for dual ignition reliability, valve springs, etc.
Engine reliability and power to weight ratios were major problems in early aviation. The engine and its accessories weighed 185 kg, making it 40% lighter than a rotary engine of equivalent power; the new engine was presented to the French Ministry of War in February 1915, tested for 15 hours at full power. This was standard procedure for a new engine design to be admitted into military service. However, because of lobbying by French engine manufacturers, the Spanish-made engine was ordered to undergo a bench test that no French-made engine had yet passed: a 50-hour run at full speed; the HS-31 was therefore sent back to Chalais-Meudon on July 21, 1915 and tested for 50 hours, succeeding against all expectations. The design promised far more development potential than rotary engines which, in spite of being the most common type in use for aircraft, were getting close to the limits of their development. Rotary engines of increased power had increased weight, which in turn increased the serious gyroscopic torque generated by the engine's rotation.
A further increase in torque was considered unacceptable, the power to weight ratio of the new rotary engines under development did not appeal to aircraft designers. French officials ordered production of the 8A to be started as soon as possible and issued a requirement for a new single-seat high-performance fighter aircraft using the new engine; the Louis Béchereau-designed SPAD VII was the result of this requirement and allowed the Allies to regain air superiority over the Germans. Some data from: British Piston Engines and their AircraftNote: Hispano-Suiza company type numbers were prefixed by HS- or written in full as Hispano-Suiza Type 31, but military designations used the conventional system of Hispano-Suiza 8 A b r, thus Hispano-Suiza 8Abr. 8 100 kW, initial production and test engines, with few applications, including early Nieuport 14s. 8Aa 110 kW at 2000 rpm, entered production in July 1915. Early HS-8A engines were plagued with various problems which required further work and was the standard powerplant for early-production SPAD VIIs.
The demand for the Hispano-Suiza engine was such that other manufacturers began producing it under licence, in France, Great Britain and Russia. Total production of the HS-8Aa amounted to some 6,000 engines. 8Ab 130 kW at 2,100 rpm, increasing the compression ratio from 4.7 to 5.3, Birkigt was able to increase the power output. The 8Ab began replacing the 8Aa on SPAD VIIs in early 1917.8Ac 8Ad 120 mm × 130 mm bore x stroke, 160 kW for take-off. 8B 150 kW, compression ratio 5.3:1, geared at 0.75:1. The HS-36 was the 8B with a Lewis gun firing through the propeller boss. 8B twin Coupled 8B engines 8Ba 150 kW at 2,300 rpm, low compression ratio of 4.7:1, spur geared at 0.585:1. 8Bb 150 kW, compression ratio of 4.8:1, reduction gear 0.75:1. However the reduction gear system was fragile, broke down, sometimes with spectacular results ending up with the entire propeller and driven gear parting
Voisin Icare Aero-Yacht
The Voisin Icare Aero-yacht was an early flying boat built by Voisin Frères for the oil magnate and promoter of early aviation experimentation Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe. It first flew in 1912, it was built as a four-bay unequal-span biplane. The wings, which had trailing edge ailerons mounted on the upper surfaces only, were mounted on top of a Ricochet motorboat hull. A 200 hp Clerget engine drove a four bladed pusher configuration propeller mounted mid-gap via a chain; the inverted-T configuration empennage was mounted on booms. It carried six passengers, had provision for an armament of two cannon, it was modified by extending the lower wing and fitting inset ailerons to both upper and lower wings. It was first flown as a landplane on 23 November 1912 at Issy-les-Moulineaux with the full complement of six passengers. Data from Opdycke 1999 p.270General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 6 Length: 12.5 m Wingspan: 22.5 m Wing area: 62.5 m2 Gross weight: 2,050 kg Powerplant: 1 × Clerget, 150 kW Propellers: 4-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Louis Charles Joseph Blériot was a French aviator and engineer. He developed the first practical headlamp for cars and established a profitable business manufacturing them, using much of the money he made to finance his attempts to build a successful aircraft. Blériot was the first to use a combination of hand/arm-operated joystick and foot-operated rudder control, in use to the present day, for the basic format of aerodynamic aircraft control systems. Blériot was the first to make a working, piloted monoplane. In 1909 he became world-famous for making the first airplane flight across the English Channel, winning the prize of £1,000 offered by the Daily Mail newspaper, he was the founder of a successful aircraft manufacturing company. Born at No.17h rue de l'Arbre à Poires in Cambrai, Louis was the first of five children born to Clémence and Charles Blériot. In 1882, aged 10, Blériot was sent as a boarder to the Institut Notre Dame in Cambrai, where he won class prizes, including one for engineering drawing.
When he was 15, he moved on to the Lycée at Amiens. After passing the exams for his baccalaureate in science and German, he determined to try to enter the prestigious École Centrale in Paris. Entrance was by a demanding exam for which special tuition was necessary: Blériot spent a year at the Collège Sainte-Barbe in Paris, he passed the exam, placing 74th among the 243 successful candidates, doing well in the tests of engineering drawing ability. After three years of demanding study at the École Centrale, Blériot graduated 113th of 203 in his graduating class, he embarked on a term of compulsory military service, spent a year as a sub-lieutenant in the 24th Artillery Regiment, stationed in Tarbes in the Pyrenees. He got a job with an electrical engineering company in Paris, he left the company after developing the world's first practical headlamp for automobiles, using a compact integral acetylene generator. In 1897, Blériot opened a showroom for headlamps at 41 rue de Richlieu in Paris; the business was successful, soon he was supplying his lamps to both Renault and Panhard-Levassor, two of the foremost automobile manufacturers of the day.
In October 1900 Blériot was lunching in his usual restaurant near his showroom when his eye was caught by a young woman lunching with her parents. That evening, he told his mother. I will marry her, or I will marry no one." A bribe to a waiter secured details of her identity. Blériot set about courting her with the same determination that he would bring to his aviation experiments, on 21 February 1901 the couple were married. Blériot had become interested in aviation while at the Ecole Centrale, but his serious experimentation was sparked by seeing Clément Ader's Avion III at the 1900 Exposition Universelle. By his headlamp business was doing well enough for Blériot to be able to devote both time and money to experimentation, his first experiments were with a series of ornithopters. In April 1905, Blériot met Gabriel Voisin employed by Ernest Archdeacon to assist with his experimental gliders. Blériot was a spectator at Voisin's first trials of the floatplane glider he had built on 8 June 1905.
Cine photography was among Blériot's hobbies, the film footage of this flight was shot by him. The success of these trials prompted him to commission a similar machine from Voisin, the Blériot II glider. On 18 July an attempt to fly this aircraft was made, ending in a crash in which Voisin nearly drowned, but this did not deter Blériot. Indeed, he suggested that Voisin should stop working for Archdeacon and enter into partnership with him. Voisin accepted the proposal, the two men established the Ateliers d' Aviation Edouard Surcouf, Blériot et Voisin. Active between 1905 and 1906, the company built two unsuccessful powered aircraft, the Blériot III and the Blériot IV a rebuild of its predecessor. Both these aircraft were powered with the lightweight Antoinette engines being developed by Léon Levavasseur. Blériot became a shareholder in the company, in May 1906, joined the board of directors; the Blériot IV was damaged in a taxiing accident at Bagatelle on 12 November 1906. The disappointment of the failure of his aircraft was compounded by the success of Alberto Santos Dumont that day, when he managed to fly his 14-bis a distance of 220 m, winning the Aéro Club de France prize for the first flight of over 100 metres.
This took place at Bagatelle, was witnessed by Blériot. The partnership with Voisin was dissolved and Blériot established his own business, Recherches Aéronautiques Louis Blériot, where he started creating his own aircraft, experimenting with various configurations and creating the world's first successful powered monoplane; the first of these, the canard configuration Blériot V, was first tried on 21 March 1907, when Blériot limited his experiments to ground runs, which resulted in damage to the undercarriage. Two further ground trials damaging the aircraft, were undertaken, followed by another attempt on 5 April; the flight was only of around 6 m, after which he cut his engine and landed damaging the undercarriage. More trials followed, the last on 19 April when, travelling at a speed of around 50 kph, the aircraft left the ground, Blériot over-responded when the nose began to rise, the machine hit the ground nose–first, somersaulted; the aircraft was destroyed, but Blériot was, by great good fortune, unhurt.
The engine of the aircraft was behind his seat, he was lucky not to have been crushed by it. This