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Volatiles

In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and sulfur dioxide. In astrogeology, these compounds, in their solid state comprise large proportions of the crusts of moons and dwarf planets. In contrast with volatiles and compounds with high boiling points are known as refractory substances. Planetary scientists classify volatiles with exceptionally low melting points, such as hydrogen and helium, as gases, whereas those volatiles with melting points above about 100 K are referred to as ices; the terms "gas" and "ice" in this context can apply to compounds that may be solids, liquids or gases. Thus and Saturn are gas giants, Uranus and Neptune are ice giants though the vast majority of the "gas" and "ice" in their interiors is a hot dense fluid that gets denser as the center of the planet is approached; the Moon is low in volatiles: its crust contains oxygen chemically bound into the rocks, but negligible amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, or carbon.

In igneous petrology the term more refers to the volatile components of magma that affect the appearance and explosivity of volcanoes. Volatiles in a magma with a high viscosity felsic with a higher silica content, tend to produce eruptions that are explosive. Volatiles in a magma with a low viscosity mafic with a lower silica content, tend to vent and can give rise to a lava fountain; some volcanic eruptions are explosive because the mixing between water and magma reaching the surface, releases energy suddenly. Moreover, in some cases, the eruption is caused by volatiles dissolved in the magma. Approaching the surface, pressure decreases and the volatiles evolve creating bubbles that circulate in the liquid; the bubbles are connected together forming a network. This increments the fragmentation into small drops or spray or coagulate clots in gas. 95-99% of magma is liquid rock. However, the small percentage of gas present, represents a large volume when it expands on reaching atmospheric pressure.

Gas is a preponderant part in a volcano system. Magma in the mantle and lower crust have a lot of volatiles within and water and carbon dioxide are not the only volatiles that volcanoes release, they leak hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is possible to find in basaltic and rhyolite rocks. Volcanoes release a high amount of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride as volatiles. There are three main factors that affect the dispersion of volatiles in magma: confining pressure, composition of magma, temperature of magma. Pressure and composition are the most important parameters. To understand how the magma behaves rising to the surface, the role of solubility within the magma must be known. An empirical law has been used for different magma-volatiles combination. For instance, for water in magma the equation is n=0.1078 P where n is the amount of dissolved gas as weight percentage, P is the pressure in megapascal that acts on the magma. The value changes for example for water in rhyolite where n=0.4111 P and for the carbon dioxide is n=0.0023 P.

These simple equations work. However, in reality, the situation is not so simple because there are multiple volatiles in a magma, it is a complex chemical interaction between different volatiles. Simplifying, the solubility of water in rhyolite and basalt is function of pressure and depth below the surface in absence of other volatiles. Both basalt and rhyolite lose water with decreasing pressure; the solubility of water is higher in rhyolite than in basaltic magma. Knowledge of the solubility allows the determination of the maximum amount of water that might be dissolved in relation with pressure. If the magma contains less water than the maximum possible amount, it is undersaturated in water. Insufficient water and carbon dioxide exist in the deep crust and mantle, so magma is undersaturated in these conditions. Magma becomes saturated. If the magma continues to rise up to the surface and more water is dissolved, it becomes supersaturated. If more water is dissolved in magma, it can be ejected as bubbles or vapor water.

This happens because pressure decreases in the process and velocity increases and the process has to balance between decrease of solubility and pressure. Making a comparison with the solubility of carbon dioxide in magma, this is less than water and it tends to exsolve at greater depth. In this case water and carbon dioxide are considered independent. What affects the behavior of the magmatic system is the depth at which carbon dioxide and water are released. Low solubility of carbon dioxide means that it starts to release bubbles before reaching the magma chamber; the magma is at this point supersaturated. The magma enriched in carbon dioxide bubbles, rises up to the roof of the chamber and carbon dioxide tends to leak through cracks into the overlying caldera. During an eruption the magma loses more carbon dioxide than water, that in the chamber is supersaturated. Overall, water is the main volatile during an eruption. Bubble nucleation happens; the bubbles are composed of molecules that tend to aggregate spontaneously in a process called homogeneous nucleation.

The surface tension acts on the bubbles shrinking the surface

David Gailey

David Gailey was one of a number of Enrolled Pensioner Guards who came to the Swan River Colony between 1850 and 1868. Their role was to oversee the work of the prisoners transported to Western Australia. In common with many of the Enrolled Pensioner Guards, Gailey was Catholic, he was born in Old Ross County in Watford in 1807. In December 1825, at the age of 18 years, he enlisted in the British Army, serving as a private in the 18th Regiment, he served for 20 years and was discharged in September 1846. He was 39 years of age, his record indicates his character was "extremely good" and he was awarded three good conduct badges. He was described as 5 feet 8.5 inches with a fair complexion, grey eyes and hair dark. He married Margaret Hannen and in 1849 they had a son named John. In 1851 Gailey and his family travelled with a number of other Pensioner Guards to the settlement of Toodyay, where they were temporarily housed in A-framed straw huts at the first Toodyay Convict Hiring Depot and Pensioner Guard Barracks, allotted 5-acre plots of land.

These allotments were transferred to the permanent Convict Hiring Depot, 3 kilometres upstream of the town. Thirteen allotments, S1 to S13, were marked out, from 1852 to 1856 two-roomed brick cottages were erected; the Gaileys, whose family had increased with the birth of two daughters, Anna in 1851 and Ellen in 1856, were allocated one of the first three cottages to be completed. The Depot became known as the Pensioner Village. Canon Raffaele Martelli, appointed in 1855 by Bishop Salvado to look after Toodyay’s Catholic community, occupied one of the cottages for a short time; when more Pensioner Guard families arrived at the Depot, Martelli had to vacate the cottage and return to the townsite, where he was offered Gailey’s straw hut as temporary quarters. Martelli kept regular correspondence with Salvado and in one letter he thanks the bishop for sending a jar of butter that he wanted to give to Gailey. Martelli’s correspondence reveals a high regard for Gailey. Now I find myself, as I mentioned in my other letter to you, living in the straw hut of this excellent man Mr Gailey.

I am reasonably comfortable there…. ` I received some herbs which I gave as a present to Mr Gailey. In 1858, Gailey and many other Enrolled Pensioner Guards in the colony contributed to the Indian Relief Fund, set up in England following the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Many of the EPGs had served in India with the British Army before their retirement; the mutiny led to the ending of the East India Company in 1858, the establishment of the British Raj. In 1860 the new town of Newcastle, located around the Convict Hiring Depot, had been surveyed. Gailey was allocated Lot S7 of 4 acres, purchased Lot 17 consisting of 6 acres; this lot was located across the road from what became the Sisters of Mercy Convent, at the southern end of Lot 17, the Roman Catholic St John the Baptist church was erected in 1863. Around the same time a Catholic Presbytery was built across the road from the church on Lot S19. During the 1860s Gailey employed four ticket-of-leave men, conducted a small school, worked as a bootmaker.

He offered to take in the Quinlan children and his sister Mary when their mother died while giving birth to twins. Their father was up north with a government party at the time; when their father died the children were placed with Joseph Thomas Reilly, a prominent Catholic newspaperman and active citizen, who raised them with his own children. Timothy Quinlan went on to become a prominent politician and husband to Daniel Connor's daughter Teresa. Gailey continued to be a resident in Toodyay, dying on 18 April 1881; this article incorporates text by Robyn Taylor available under the CC BY SA 2.5 AU licence

Random effects model

In statistics, a random effects model called a variance components model, is a statistical model where the model parameters are random variables. It is a kind of hierarchical linear model, which assumes that the data being analysed are drawn from a hierarchy of different populations whose differences relate to that hierarchy. In econometrics, random effects models are used in panel analysis of hierarchical or panel data when one assumes no fixed effects; the random effects model is a special case of the fixed effects model. Contrast this to the biostatistics definitions, as biostatisticians use "fixed" and "random" effects to refer to the population-average and subject-specific effects. Random effect models assist in controlling for unobserved heterogeneity when the heterogeneity is constant over time and not correlated with independent variables; this constant can be removed from longitudinal data through differencing, since taking a first difference which will remove any time invariant components of the model.

Two common assumptions can be made about the individual specific effect: the random effects assumption and the fixed effects assumption. The random effects assumption is that the individual unobserved heterogeneity is uncorrelated with the independent variables; the fixed effect assumption is that the individual specific effect is correlated with the independent variables. If the random effects assumption holds, the random effects model is more efficient than the fixed effects model. However, if this assumption does not hold, the random effects model is not consistent. Suppose m. Suppose that n pupils of the same age are chosen randomly at each selected school, their scores on a standard aptitude test are ascertained. Let Yij be the score of the jth pupil at the ith school. A simple way to model the relationships of these quantities is Y i j = μ + U i + W i j, where μ is the average test score for the entire population. In this model Ui is the school-specific random effect: it measures the difference between the average score at school i and the average score in the entire country.

The term Wij is the individual-specific random effect, i.e. it's the deviation of the j-th pupil’s score from the average for the i-th school. The model can be augmented by including additional explanatory variables, which would capture differences in scores among different groups. For example: Y i j = μ + β 1 S e x i j + β 2 P a r e n t s E d u c i j + U i + W i j, where Sexij is the dummy variable for boys/girls and ParentsEducij records, the average education level of a child’s parents; this is a mixed model, not a purely random effects model, as it introduces fixed-effects terms for Sex and Parents' Education. The variance of Yij is the sum of the variances σ2 of Ui and Wij respectively. Let Y ¯ i ∙ = 1 n ∑ j = 1 n Y i j be the average, not of all scores at the ith school, but of those at the ith school that are included in the random sample. Let Y ¯ ∙ ∙ = 1 m n ∑ i = 1 m ∑ j = 1 n Y i j be the grand average. Let S S W = ∑ i = 1 m ∑ j = 1 n 2 S S B = n ∑ i = 1 m 2 be the sum of squares due to differences within groups and the sum of squares due to difference between groups.

It can be shown that 1 m E = σ 2 and 1 n E ( S

Forest Heath

Forest Heath was a local government district in Suffolk, England. Its council was based in Mildenhall. Other towns in the district included Newmarket; the population of the district at the 2011 Census was 59,748. The district's name reflected the fact that it contains parts of both Thetford Forest and the heathlands of Breckland; the district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of Newmarket Urban District and Mildenhall Rural District. Forest Heath district was merged with the borough of St Edmundsbury on 1 April 2019 to form a new West Suffolk district. Forest Heath was the home to two of the largest United States Air Force airbases in the UK: RAF Lakenheath and RAF Mildenhall, as well as the headquarters of British horse racing, Newmarket Racecourse. Forest Heath had had a high suicide rate when compared to the rest of Suffolk, to the East of England and to England overall; the reasons for this are unknown. In the English indices of deprivation 2010 report published by the Department for Communities and Local Government, two parts of Forest Heath have the highest employment out of 32483 areas in England.

As of the 2015 Local Government Elections, the Conservatives held overall control of the District Council. The district contains twenty civil parishes; the Shi-Tennoji School in UK in Herringswell, Forest Heath was in operation beginning in 1985, ending on 17 July 2000. Forest Heath District Council

Eugène Collache

Eugène Collache was French Navy officer who fought in Japan for the shōgun during the Boshin War. Eugène Collache was an officer of the French Navy in the 19th century. Based on the ship Minerva of the French Oriental Fleet, he deserted when the ship was anchored at Yokohama harbour, with his friend Henri Nicol to rally other French officers, led by Jules Brunet, who had embraced the cause of the Bakufu in the Boshin War. On 29 November 1868, Eugène Collache and Nicol left Yokohama on board a commercial ship, the Sophie-Hélène, chartered by a Swiss businessman; the two French officers first reached Samenoura Bay in the province of Nanbu, where they learned that the Imperial forces had subdued the daimyōs of Northern Japan, that the rebel forces favorable to the shōgun had fled to the island of Hokkaidō. They went further north to Aomori. A visiting American ship brought them the news. Eugène Collache and Nicol decided to board the American ship and reached Hokkaidō. During the winter of 1868–1869, Collache was put in charge of establishing fortifications in the volcanic mountain chain protecting Hakodate.

On 18 May, the decision was taken to make a surprise attack on the Imperial Navy, moving north to confront them. Collache thus participated to the Naval Battle of Miyako, he was on the former Aschwelotte, which he was commanding. The two other ships were the Kaiten and the Banryū; the ships encountered bad weather, in which the Takao suffered from engine trouble, the Banryū was separated. The Banryu returned to Hokkaidō, without joining the battle. To create surprise, the Kaiten planned to enter Miyako harbour with an American flag. Unable to achieve more than three knots due to engine trouble, the Takao trailed behind, the Kaiten first joined battle; the Kaiten approached the enemy ships and raised the Bakufu flag seconds before boarding the Imperial warship Kōtetsu. The Kōtetsu managed to repel the attack with a Gatling gun, with huge losses on the attacking side; the Kaiten, pursued by the Imperial fleet, steamed out of Miyako Bay just as the Takao was entering it. The Kaiten escaped to Hokkaidō, but the Takao was unable to leave the pursuers and wrecked herself voluntarily.

Trying to escape through the mountain, Collache surrendered after a few days together with his troops to the Japanese authorities. They were brought to Edo to be imprisoned, he was judged and condemned to death, but he was pardoned. He was transferred to Yokohama on board the French Navy frigate Coëtlogon, where he joined the remaining of the French rebel officers led by Jules Brunet. Back in France, he was discharged from the armed forces and court-martialed as a deserter, but the sentence was light, he was allowed to reenlist for the Franco-Prussian War together with his friend Nicol. Collache wrote "An Adventure in Japan 1868–1869", published in 1874. William Adams, known in Japanese as Anjin Miura, was an English navigator who travelled to Japan and is believed to be the first Englishman to reach the country. Jan Joosten – known in Japanese as Yayōsu was a Dutch colleague of Adams, was the only known Dutch samurai. Today, Yaesu neighborhood in Tokyo is named after him. John Henry Schnell – known in Japanese as Hiramatsu Buhei was a Prussian arms dealer, who served the Aizu domain as a military instructor and procurer of weapons.

Jules Brunet – was a French officer who fought for the shōgun in the Boshin War and became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. List of foreign-born samurai in Japan Eugène Collache "Une aventure au Japon", in Le Tour du Monde No. 77, 1874

Seiji Yokoyama

Seiji Yokoyama was a prolific Japanese incidental music composer from Hiroshima, best known for his work on the Space Pirate Captain Harlock and Saint Seiya series. He was a graduate student of Kunitachi College of Music, he made his debut as a composer for the ending theme of The Adventures of Hutch the Honeybee in 1971. He was known for his symphonic sound for many television programs. On July 8, 2017, Seiji Yokoyama died from pneumonia. Koseidon Megaloman Metalder Winspector Ohranger The New Adventures of Hutch the Honeybee Ginguiser Space Pirate Captain Harlock Armored Fleet Dairugger XV Ikkiman Saint Seiya Magical Taluluto Merhen Ōkoku Dracula: Sovereign of the Damned Haguregumo Shōnen Miyamoto Musashi Future War 198X The Snow Country Prince Saint Seiya films Magical Taluluto films Sangōkushi trilogy GeGeGe no Kitarō: Explosive Japan!! SeriesThe Human Revolution Saint Seiya: Hades Single episodeAoi Umi to Shōnen Shōnen to Sakura The Princess and the Moon Panzer World Galient: Crest of Iron Xanadu: The Legend of Dragon Slayer The Poem of Wind and Trees: Sanctus Rainbow Across the Pacific Ocean Kanta and the Deer Journey to Hiroshima The Two Princes Peace River The Himalayan Kingdom of Light The Prince and the White Horse The Prince and the Coral Sea The Princess of the Desert Kingdom The Treasures of the Desert The Flower and the Phoenix Seiji Yokoyama at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Seiji Yokoyama on IMDb Seiji Yokoyama anime at Media Arts Database