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Volcanic Explosivity Index

The Volcanic Explosivity Index is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. It was devised by Chris Newhall of the United States Geological Survey and Stephen Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982. Volume of products, eruption cloud height, qualitative observations are used to determine the explosivity value; the scale is open-ended with the largest volcanoes in history given magnitude 8. A value of 0 is given for non-explosive eruptions, defined as less than 10,000 m3 of tephra ejected; the scale is logarithmic, with each interval on the scale representing a tenfold increase in observed ejecta criteria, with the exception of between VEI-0, VEI-1 and VEI-2. With indices running from 0 to 8, the VEI associated with an eruption is dependent on how much volcanic material is thrown out, to what height, how long the eruption lasts; the scale is logarithmic from VEI-2 and up. As such there is a discontinuity in the definition of the VEI between indices 1 and 2; the lower border of the volume of ejecta jumps by a factor of one hundred, from 10,000 to 1,000,000 m3, while the factor is ten between all higher indices.

In the following table, the frequency of each VEI indicates the approximate frequency of new eruptions of that VEI or higher. About 40 eruptions of VEI-8 magnitude within the last 132 million years have been identified, of which 30 occurred in the past 36 million years. Considering the estimated frequency is on the order of once in 50,000 years, there are many such eruptions in the last 132 Mya that are not yet known. Based on incomplete statistics, other authors assume that at least 60 VEI-8 eruptions have been identified; the most recent is Lake Taupo's Oruanui eruption, more than 27,000 years ago, which means that there have not been any Holocene eruptions with a VEI of 8. There have been at least 10 eruptions of VEI-7 in the last 10,000 years. There are 58 plinian eruptions, 13 caldera-forming eruptions, of large, but unknown magnitudes. By 2010, the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution had catalogued the assignment of a VEI for 7,742 volcanic eruptions that occurred during the Holocene which account for about 75% of the total known eruptions during the Holocene.

Of these 7,742 eruptions, about 49% have a VEI of ≤ 2, 90% have a VEI ≤ 3. Under the VEI, lava, lava bombs, ignimbrite are all treated alike. Density and vesicularity of the volcanic products in question is not taken into account. In contrast, the DRE is sometimes calculated to give the actual amount of magma erupted. Another weakness of the VEI is that it does not take into account the power output of an eruption, which makes the VEI difficult to determine with prehistoric or unobserved eruptions. Although VEI is quite suitable for classifying the explosive magnitude of eruptions, the index is not as significant as sulphur dioxide emissions in quantifying their atmospheric and climatic impact, as a 2004 paper by Georgina Miles, Roy Grainger and Eleanor Highwood points out. "Tephra, or fallout sediment analysis, can provide an estimate of the explosiveness of a known eruption event. It is, not related to the amount of SO2 emitted by the eruption; the Volcanic Explosivity Index was derived to catalogue the explosive magnitude of historical eruptions, based on the order of magnitude of erupted mass, gives a general indication as to the height the eruptive column reached.

The VEI itself is inadequate for describing the atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions. This is demonstrated by two eruptions, Agung and El Chichón, their VEI classification separates them by an order of magnitude in explosivity, although the volume of SO2 released into the stratosphere by each was measured to be broadly similar, as shown by the optical depth data for the two eruptions." Timeline of volcanism on Earth List of large volcanic eruptions of the 19th century List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century List of large volcanic eruptions in the 21st century List of large volcanic eruptions List of largest volcanic eruptions Supervolcano Lists of volcanoes List of natural disasters by death toll List of volcanic eruptions by death toll Dispersal index VEI glossary entry from a USGS website How to measure the size of a volcanic eruption, from The Guardian The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth, a 2004 article from the Bulletin of Volcanology List of Large Holocene Eruptions from the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program


Fushitsusha is a Japanese rock band specialising in the experimental and psychedelic rock genres. The band consists of electric guitarist and singer Keiji Haino, a shifting cast of complementary musicians; the group released the majority of its material in the 1990s. Haino formed Fushitsusha in 1978, although their first LP was not released until 1989; the band consisted of Haino on guitar and vocals, Tamio Shiraishi on synthesizer. After the departure of Shiraishi, Ayuo joined in 1979 before Fushitsusha became a trio with the addition of Jun Hamano and Shuhei Takashima; the lineup soon changed, adding Yasushi Jun Kosugi throughout the 1990s. Their 1993 album Allegorical Misunderstanding was released on John Zorn's record label, although most of their albums have come out on independent label PSF and on major label Tokuma. Fushitsusha returned to duo status, with Haino supplementing percussion with tape loops, though the band is believed to have been on hiatus since 2001. In February 2008, longtime bassist Yasushi Ozawa died.

In August 2015, bassist Chiyo Kamekawa was dismissed because he plays in another band MANNERS. Yasumune Morishige joined as a bassist. In 2018, Mitsuru Nasuno joined as a bassist; the band's sound is influenced by German krautrock bands of the 1970s and British psychedelic music of the 1960s and 1970s. They are considered part of the Japanese psychedelic music scene alongside bands like Ghost and Acid Mothers Temple, their music ventures to the more aggressive "Japanoise" end of the sonic spectrum, but remains haunting and contemplative. 1991.9.26 – VHS Official Unofficial Biography at Allmusic Interview with Fushitsusha Fushitsusha discography Another Fushitsusha discography Forced Exposure page Video of Fushitsusha

Jason Owen

Jason Owen is an Australian singer from Dubbo, New South Wales and was the runner-up to Samantha Jade in The X Factor in 2012 and subsequently received a recording contract with Sony Music Australia. Owen released his debut single "Make It Last", which would have been his winner's single if he had won The X Factor, on 23 November 2012; the single peaked at number 47 on the ARIA Singles Chart. Owen's debut studio album Life Is a Highway was released on 26 April 2013, debuted at number five on the ARIA Albums Chart and was the thirtieth highest selling album by an Australian artist in 2013. Owen left Sony Music Australia and signed with Social Family Records in June 2014, his second album Friday Night was released on 6 March 2015, debuted at number nine on the ARIA Albums Chart. It was the 53rd highest selling country album in Australia in 2015, his third album Proud was released on 6 May 2016. It is his first album of original material. In August 2018, Owen wrote and recorded the song "These Are the Times", with funds raised going towards drought relief.

2014 Nomination: CMAA'Highest Selling Country Album of the Year'

Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai

Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai was a Vietnamese revolutionary and a leader of the Indochinese Communist Party during the 1930s. Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai was born on 1 November 1910 in Vinh, Nghệ An Province, Viet Nam. In 1927, she co-founded the New Revolutionary Party of Vietnam, a predecessor of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In 1930, she went to Hong Kong and became a secretary for Hồ Chí Minh in the office of the Orient Bureau of the Comintern. From 1931 to 1934, she was jailed by the British administration in Hong Kong. In 1934, she and Lê Hồng Phong were voted to be attendees in the Seventh Congress of Comintern in Moscow, she married Lê. In 1936, she became the top leader of the communists in Saigon, she was seized by the French colonial government in 1940 and was executed by firing squad the next year. Her husband Lê had been jailed in June 1939, died in the tiger cages at Poulo Condore prison in September 1942. Today, Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai is honoured as a revolutionary martyr by the Vietnamese Communist Party, some roads and administrative units in Vietnam are named after her.

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Airport 24/7: Miami

Airport 24/7: Miami is an American reality television series on the Travel Channel. The series debuted on October 2, 2012. In January 2013, Travel Channel renewed the series for a second season that premiered on April 30, 2013. Travel Channel green-lit a 6-episode third season. Airport 24/7: Miami follows the day-to-day life at Miami International Airport along with the airport's security, border protection and first-responder operations. Albert Cordeschi — Triangle Services Ramp Duty Manager Chris "Stretch" Rutledge — Motorcycle Officer for Miami-Dade Police Department Darius Bradshaw — Terminal Operations Control Room Agent Dickie Davis — Director of Terminal Operations Ericka Middleton — Terminal Security Agent Heidi Anthony — Terminal Operations Senior Agent Ken Pyatt — Deputy Director for Operations Lauren Stover — Director of Security Tony Cooper — Terminal Operations Senior Agent Official website Airport 24/7: Miami on IMDb

Irving Saraf

Irving Saraf was a Polish-born American film producer, film editor, film director and academic. Saraf won an Oscar for producing the 1991 documentary film, In the Shadow of the Stars. In total, Saraf had television production credits, his resume included Communism's New Look, a 1965 television film. Saraf was raised in Israel, he emigrated to the United States in 1952. He was married to producer Allie Light, for 38 years. Light and Saraf formed a professional production partnership beginning in 1981. Saraf received a Bachelor of Arts in motion pictures from University of Los Angeles. In addition to producing, Saraf taught film production at San Francisco State University. Saraf founded the film division of a PBS channel in San Francisco, he worked as the manager of the production company, Fantasy Films, owned by film producer, Saul Zaentz. Saraf produced many films with Zaentz, including as the post production supervisor for One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. In 1995, Light and Saraf were jointly nominated for a News and Documentary Emmy for their work on the PBS show, Dialogues with Madwomen.

Irving Saraf died of complications from three years of Lou Gehrig's disease at his home in San Francisco on December 26, 2012, at the age of 80. He was survived by his second wife of Allie Light. Peter Saraf is an Academy Award nominated producer whose credits include Adaptation, Little Miss Sunshine, Our Idiot Brother. Irving Saraf on IMDb Irving Saraf at Women Make Movies