State highways in Oregon
The state highway system of the U. S. state of Oregon is a network of highways that are owned and maintained by the Highway Division of the Oregon Department of Transportation. The state highway system consists of about 8,000 miles of state highways, with about 7,400 miles when minor connections and frontage roads are removed; this is about 9% of the total road mileage in the state, including Oregon's portion of the Interstate Highway System and many other highways ranging from statewide to local importance. Transfers of highways between the state and county or local maintenance require the approval of the Oregon Transportation Commission, a five-member governor-appointed authority that meets monthly; these transfers result in discontinuous highways, where a local government maintains part or all of a main road within its boundaries. Two separate numbering systems are used; these comprise the Interstate highways, U. S. Routes, Oregon Routes. Highways, on the other hand, are used internally by ODOT.
The two systems, while overlapping, are not congruent. Many routes are signed on streets which are maintained by counties and cities, thus are not part of the state highway system at all, e.g. OR 8, whose eastern- and westernmost portions, Canyon Road and Gales Creek Road, are not state highways. On the other hand, some state highways are not signed as routes at all. Signed routes may comprise several highways. 110, Nehalem Hwy No. 102, Tualatin Valley Highway No. 29. Highways may consist of several routes; every highway is state-maintained, every route is at least state-maintained. The OTC designates the paths of these routes as they follow local roads. S. Route or Interstate numbers must be approved by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Route signs are maintained by the same agency as the roads they are posted along. If a local government maintains a numbered route, it signs an agreement with the state to keep the signs posted, thus keeping a continuous route for the benefit of travelers.
The initial primary state highway system was designated in 1917 consisting of 36 named and numbered highways, including some designated earlier that year by the Oregon State Legislature and others added to the network by the Oregon State Highway Commission, the predecessor to the OTC. The first signed routes were the U. S. Routes, in 1926, it was not until 1932 that Oregon Routes were numbered by the OTC and marked by the Oregon State Highway Department. S. Route received a route number at that time. Starting in late 1931, the state took over maintenance of many county "market roads", which became secondary state highways with three-digit numbers; the primary, two-digit route numbers were laid out in a grid system, similar to the Interstate Highway System. Odd-numbered routes were north-south and increased in number bearing west, ranging from OR 3 in Wallowa County to OR 53 in Clatsop and Tillamook counties. Even-numbered routes were east-west and increased in number bearing south, ranging from OR 6 in Tillamook and Washington counties to OR 70 in Klamath County.
East-west highways in eastern Oregon were given route numbers between OR 74 and OR 86, again increasing in number to the south. Despite this pattern, the internally used highway numbers for primary highways remained ad-hoc. A few route numbers were added after the 1930s, broke these patterns for continuity reasons: OR 99, OR 126, OR 138, OR 140. Secondary route numbers, three digits starting with 2, were laid out to increase bearing west, they ranged from OR 201 in Malheur County to OR 240 in Yamhill County. The internally used highway numbers for secondary highways were three digit numbers, but were designated by county, from No. 10X in Clatsop County, No. 11X in Columbia County, No. 12X in Multnomah County, etc. until No. 45X in Malheur County. In 2002 and 2003, ODOT decided to assign route numbers to most of the unsigned secondary highways; these new route numbers were identical to the old highway numbers, range from OR 103 to OR 454. In cases where the highway number was in use by a different route, the first digit of the new route number was changed to 5.
Most of these new route numbers are unsigned as of 2015. Two state highways lack route numbers: Century Drive Hwy No. 372 and Midland Hwy No. 420. The following highways were constructed and/or planned, subsequently demolished or cancelled. In some cases, the cancellation resulted from freeway revolts. Mount Hood Freeway Rose City Freeway Harbor Drive Roosevelt Freeway West Eugene Parkway Interstate 305 Interstate 505 These projects represent proposed new major routes within the state of Oregon. Improvements to existing facilities are n
California State Route 89
State Route 89 is a California State Highway that travels in the north–south direction, is the major thoroughfare for many mountain communities. It starts from U. S. Route 395 near Topaz Lake, winding its way up to the 8,314-foot Monitor Pass, down to the Carson River, up again over the 7,740-foot Luther Pass. From that point on, the route loses elevation on its way past Lake Tahoe, through Tahoe and Plumas National Forests until Lake Almanor. For nine miles the route is a part of State Route 36; the route ascends to the 5,753-foot Morgan Summit. After it enters Lassen Volcanic National Park it continues to gain elevation until it reaches its highest point in an unnamed pass in the middle of Lassen Peak and Bumpass Mountain; the road descends and heads northwest terminating at Interstate 5 at the foot of Mount Shasta at around 3,600 feet. SR 89 begins at an intersection with US 395; the highway goes west through a few switchbacks before crossing into Alpine County and the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest.
The southernmost section of State Route 89 over Monitor Pass is closed in winter due to snow accumulation. SR 89 continues by Heenan Lake before intersecting with the eastern end of SR 4 and turning northwest, passing through Markleeville. SR 89 continues northwest to the town of Woodfords, where it turns west, running concurrently with SR 88 for a brief distance before turning into El Dorado County; the section of SR 89 from SR 88 north to US 50 is co-signed as US 50 Alternate for use as a detour for when US 50 closes. The highway continues north to Meyers, where it runs concurrently with US 50 into the city of South Lake Tahoe. SR 89 continues along the western shore of Lake Tahoe, where it passes through Camp Richardson, Emerald Bay, Meeks Bay and Tahoma. After crossing into Placer County, SR 89 passes through Chambers Lodge, Tahoe Pines, Timberland and Tahoe Tavern before coming to an intersection with SR 28, where SR 89 continues to the west, away from the lake; the road curves to the north through Tahoe National Forest before crossing into Nevada County and the city of Truckee.
This portion of the highway has been designated the "10th Mountain Division Memorial Highway", honoring the US Army division that lost 992 soldiers during the Italian Campaign in World War II. SR 89 runs concurrently with I-80 eastbound before exiting to the north and continuing through the city of Truckee and passing near Prosser Creek Reservoir outside of the city limits. SR 89 continues through Hobart Mills before crossing into Sierra County and continuing northwest to Randolph and Sierraville, where SR 89 runs concurrently with SR 49 southbound through the town of Sattley, where they intersect CR A23 before splitting off to the northwest. SR 89 continues through Calpine before crossing into Plumas County. SR 89 continues through Clio and Graeagle before running concurrently with SR 70 through Plumas National Forest, passing through Blairsden, Feather River Inn, Spring Garden, East Quincy, the city of Quincy. SR 70 and SR 89 continue north through Keddie before SR 89 splits off to the north and passes through Indian Falls, Crescent Mills and Canyondam.
The section of SR 89 from SR 70 north to Crescent Mills was built over the abandoned railway bed of the Indian Valley Railroad. SR 89 intersects with the south end of SR 147 before paralleling the southern shore of Lake Almanor and running concurrently with SR 36 westbound, crossing into Tehama County and Lassen National Forest. SR 36 and SR 89 intersect the northern terminus of SR 32 and SR 172 before SR 36 splits off to the west and SR 89 enters Lassen Volcanic National Park; the SR 89 designation does not run through the national park. The continuation of SR 89 that runs through Lassen Volcanic National Park is closed in winter due to heavy snowfall and snowpack; when it is open, a park fee is charged. At the other park entrance in the northwest corner in Shasta County, one can continue along SR 44 to the northeast. SR 89 continues north from SR 44 through Hat Creek and Doyles Corner before intersecting SR 299; the highway passes through Four Corners and Cayton before intersecting CR A19 and crossing into Siskiyou County.
SR 89 passes through the Klamath National Forest and Bartle and McCloud before coming to an interchange with I-5. SR 89 merges with Mount Shasta Boulevard and terminates just outside the Mount Shasta City city limits. One point of interest along California State Route 89 includes the Pony Express remount station in Woodfords, the Lake Tahoe Outlet Gates in Tahoe City, Plumas-Eureka State Park, Lake Almanor and Lassen Volcanic National Park. Many other points of interest, including Brokeoff Mountain, Sulphur Works, Emerald Lake, Lake Helen, Bumpass Hell, Lassen Peak and Summit Lake are located on this highway. SR 89 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, north of the southern SR 44 junction is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 89 is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System.
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g. in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been explained as mantle plumes; these so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.
Volcanoes are not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere. Volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines; the word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology. The study of volcanoes is sometimes spelled vulcanology. At the mid-oceanic ridges, two tectonic plates diverge from one another as new oceanic crust is formed by the cooling and solidifying of hot molten rock; because the crust is thin at these ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates, the release of pressure leads to adiabatic expansion and the partial melting of the mantle, causing volcanism and creating new oceanic crust.
Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans. Black smokers are evidence of this kind of volcanic activity. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed. Subduction zones are places where two plates an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. In this case, the oceanic plate subducts, or submerges, under the continental plate, forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, thus creating magma; this magma tends to be viscous because of its high silica content, so it does not attain the surface but cools and solidifies at depth. When it does reach the surface, however, a volcano is formed. Typical examples are the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Hotspots are volcanic areas believed to be formed by mantle plumes, which are hypothesized to be columns of hot material rising from the core-mantle boundary in a fixed space that causes large-volume melting.
Because tectonic plates move across them, each volcano becomes dormant and is re-formed as the plate advances over the postulated plume. The Hawaiian Islands are said to have been formed in such a manner; this theory, has been doubted. The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit; the features of volcanoes are much more complicated and their structure and behavior depends on a number of factors. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have landscape features such as massive plateaus. Vents that issue volcanic material and gases can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puʻu ʻŌʻō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea. Other types of volcano include cryovolcanoes on some moons of Jupiter and Neptune. Active mud volcanoes tend to involve temperatures much lower than those of igneous volcanoes except when the mud volcano is a vent of an igneous volcano.
Volcanic fissure vents are linear fractures through which lava emerges. Shield volcanoes, so named for their broad, shield-like profiles, are formed by the eruption of low-viscosity lava that can flow a great distance from a vent, they do not explode catastrophically. Since low-viscosity magma is low in silica, shield volcanoes are more common in oceanic than continental settings; the Hawaiian volcanic chain is a series of shield cones, they are common in Iceland, as well. Lava domes are built by slow eruptions of viscous lava, they are sometimes formed within the crater of a previous volcanic eruption, as in the case of Mount Saint Helen
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades; the small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U. S. term, as in North Cascades National Park. The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier in Washington at 14,411 feet; the Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes; the two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have occurred since, most from 2004 to 2008; the Cascade Range is a part of the American Cordillera, a nearly continuous chain of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America. The Cascades extend northward from Lassen Peak in northern California to the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson rivers in British Columbia; the Fraser River separates the Cascades from the Coast Mountains in Canada, as does the Willamette Valley from the upper portion of the Oregon Coast Range. The highest volcanoes of the Cascades, known as the High Cascades, dominate their surroundings standing twice the height of the nearby mountains, they have a visual height of one mile or more. The highest peaks, such as the 14,411-foot Mount Rainier, dominate their surroundings for 50 to 100 miles; the northern part of the range, north of Mount Rainier, is known as the North Cascades in the United States but is formally named the Cascade Mountains north of the Canada–United States border, reaching to the northern extremity of the Cascades at Lytton Mountain.
Overall, the North Cascades and Canadian Cascades are rugged. The southern part of the Canadian Cascades the Skagit Range, is geologically and topographically similar to the North Cascades, while the northern and northeastern parts are less glaciated and more plateau-like, resembling nearby areas of the Thompson Plateau; because of the range's proximity to the Pacific Ocean and the region's prevailing westerly winds, precipitation is substantial on the western slopes due to orographic lift, with annual snow accumulations of up to 1,000 inches in some areas. Mount Baker in Washington recorded a national record single-season snowfall in the winter of 1998–99 with 1,140 inches. Prior to that year, Mount Rainier held the American record for snow accumulation at Paradise in 1978, it is not uncommon for some places in the Cascades to have over 500 inches of annual snow accumulation, such as at Lake Helen, near Lassen Peak. Most of the High Cascades are therefore white with ice year-round; the western slopes are densely covered with Douglas-fir, western hemlock and red alder, while the drier eastern slopes feature ponderosa pine, with some western larch, mountain hemlock and subalpine fir and subalpine larch at higher elevations.
Annual rainfall is as low as 9 inches on the eastern foothills due to a rain shadow effect. Beyond the eastern foothills is an arid plateau, created 17 to 14 million years ago by the many flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Together, these sequences of fluid volcanic rock form the 200,000-square-mile Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and parts of western Idaho; the Columbia River Gorge is the only major break of the range in the United States. When the Cascades began to rise 7 million years ago in the Pliocene, the Columbia River drained the low Columbia Plateau; as the range grew, erosion from the Columbia River was able to keep pace, creating the gorge and major pass seen today. The gorge exposes uplifted and warped layers of basalt from the plateau. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area for thousands of years and developed their own myths and legends about the Cascades. In these legends, St. Helens with its pre-1980 graceful appearance, was regarded as a beautiful maiden for whom Hood and Adams feuded.
Native tribes developed their own names for the High Cascades and many of the smaller peaks, including "Tahoma", the Lushootseed name for Mount Rainier, "Koma Kulshan" or "Kulshan" for Mount Baker, "Louwala-Clough", meaning "smoking mountain" for Mount St. Helens. In early 1792, British navigator George Vancouver explored Puget Sound and gave English names to the high mountains he saw. Mount Baker was named for Vancouver's third lieutenant, Joseph Baker, although the first European to see it was Manuel Quimper, who named it la gran montaña del Carmelo in 1790. Mount Rainier was named after Admiral Peter Rainier. In 1792, Vancouver had his lieutenant William Robert Broughton explore the lower Columbia River, he named Mount Hood after an admiral of the Royal Navy. Mount St. Helens was sighted by Vancouver from near the mouth of the Columbia River, it was named for Al
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
National Scenic Byway
A National Scenic Byway is a road recognized by the United States Department of Transportation for one or more of six "intrinsic qualities": archeological, historic, natural and scenic. The program was established by Congress in 1991 to preserve and protect the nation's scenic but less-traveled roads and promote tourism and economic development; the National Scenic Byways Program is administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The most-scenic byways are designated All-American Roads, which must meet two out of the six intrinsic qualities; the designation means they have features that do not exist elsewhere in the United States and are unique and important enough to be tourist destinations unto themselves. As of November 2010, there are 120 National Scenic Byways and 31 All-American Roads, located in 46 states; the NSBP was established under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, which provided $74.3 million in discretionary grants. On May 18, 1995, FHWA specified the intrinsic qualities that would serve as criteria for designating road as National Scenic Byways or All-American Roads.
In September U. S. Transportation Secretary Federico Peña announced the first 14 National Scenic Byways and six All-American Roads. On June 9, 1998, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century provided $148 million to states so they could develop state roads to take advantage of the program. On August 10, 2005, President George W. Bush signed the Safe, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users, which provided $175 million to states and Indian tribes. Most on October 16, 2009, U. S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood designated 37 new roads as National Scenic Byways and five new All-American Roads. National Scenic Byways go through a nomination procedure, they must be designated state scenic byways to be nominated. For designation as a National Scenic Byway a road must have one of six intrinsic qualities. To be designated an All-American Road, a road must have at least two of the six qualities. Scenic quality is the heightened visual experience derived from the view of natural and manmade elements of the visual environment of the scenic byway corridor.
The characteristics of the landscape are strikingly distinct and offer a pleasing and most memorable visual experience. Natural quality applies to those features in the visual environment that are in a undisturbed state; these features predate the arrival of human populations and may include geological formations, landform, water bodies and wildlife. There may be evidence of human activity. Historic quality encompasses legacies of the past that are distinctly associated with physical elements of the landscape, whether natural or manmade, that are of such historic significance that they educate the viewer and stir an appreciation for the past; the historic elements reflect the actions of people and may include buildings, settlement patterns, other examples of human activity. Cultural quality is evidence and expressions of the customs or traditions of a distinct group of people. Cultural features include, but are not limited to, music, rituals, speech, special events, or vernacular architecture.
Archeological quality involves those characteristics of the scenic byways corridor that are physical evidence of historic or prehistoric human life or activity. The scenic byway corridor's archeological interest, as identified through ruins, structural remains, other physical evidence have scientific significance that educate the viewer and stir an appreciation for the past. Recreational quality involves outdoor recreational activities directly associated with and dependent upon the natural and cultural elements of the corridor's landscape; the recreational activities provide opportunities for passive recreational experiences. They include, but are not limited to, downhill skiing, boating and hiking. Driving the road itself may qualify as a pleasurable recreational experience; the recreational activities may be seasonal, but the quality and importance of the recreational activities as seasonal operations must be well recognized. A corridor management plan must be developed, with community involvement, the plan "should provide for the conservation and enhancement of the byway's intrinsic qualities as well as the promotion of tourism and economic development".
The plan includes, but is not limited to: A map identifying the corridor boundaries and the location of intrinsic qualities and different land uses within the corridor. A strategy for maintaining and enhancing those intrinsic qualities. A strategy describing how existing development might be enhanced and new development might be accommodated while still preserving the intrinsic qualities of the corridor. A general review of the road's or highway's safety and accident record to identify any correctable faults in highway design, maintenance, or operations. A signage plan that demonstrates how the State will insure and make the number and placement of signs more supportive of the visitor experience. A narrative describing how the National Scenic Byway will be positioned for marketing. Corridor management plans for All-American Roads must include: A narrative on how the All-American Road would be promoted and marketed in order to attract travelers those from other countries. A plan to encourage the accommodation of increased tourism, if this is projected