Hantsavichy Radar Station
Hantsavichy Radar Station is a 70M6 Volga-type radar near Hantsavichy. It is an early warning radar, run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces, it is designed to identify launches of ballistic missiles from western Europe and can track some artificial satellites replacing the demolished radar station at Skrunda in Latvia. The Volga was developed by NIIDAR from the Dunay-3U radar. Construction started in 1982 to counter the installation of Pershing II missiles in West Germany which were only 6 to 8 minutes away in flight time; these intermediate missiles were eliminated by the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, signed in December 1987. Work still continued on the radar though the Pershing missiles had been removed; the radar was not compliant with the 1972 ABM treaty. The Volga was in breach of this as it was designed to guide anti-ballistic missiles as well as acting as an early warning radar; as the United States had managed to get the Daryal radar at Yeniseysk demolished for being in breach of the treaty the Soviet Union removed ABM radar abilities from the Volga as it was being built.
Work on the radar stopped in 1991. It restarted in 1993 once it became apparent that Russia would lose the early warning station in Skrunda and with it coverage of missiles from the north west; some testing took place in 1994 and in 1995 a 25-year agreement was signed between Russia and Belarus giving Russia a 25-year lease on the ground and all buildings with no taxes and with no charge made for communication channels. When the Dnestr-M radars in Skrunda were shut down in 1998 Russia restarted the construction of the Volga. Test operations started in 1999 and pilot operations in 2002, it was commissioned on 1 October 2003. The radar was upgraded in 2016. One of the manufacturers was quoted as saying that two other Volga installations were once planned - one at Komsomolsk-na-Amur and one at Sevastopol. Another source says that a Volga was planned in Biysk in Altai Krai to provide coverage of China; the station, classed as a'Volga' type, is similar to a Daryal radar but operates on the UHF band rather than the VHF of the Daryal.
Like the Daryal it has a separate transmitter and receiver stations which in the case of the Volga are 3 kilometres apart.:86The radar has an Active Electronically Scanned Array, a type of phased array. It continuously radiates such that it is transmitting at the same time; the array consists of spiral radiators which rotate in different directions in the receiver and transmitter. The transmitter array is 36 by 20 metres and the receiver array is 36 by 36 metres. Both arrays are surrounded by a ferrite frame which absorbs radio waves.:86The Volga has a range of around 2,000 kilometres and an azimuth of 120°, with elevation of 4° to 70°.:86 Its GRAU index is 70M6. The radar is 48 kilometres from Baranavichy, it is in the Hantsavichy Raion of the Brest Region of Belarus. The military town for the radar is called Kletsk-2; when the station opened it was stated. In 2007 Kommersant estimated that 600 people worked at the station
Volga Volga (1928 film)
Volga Volga is a 1928 German silent drama film directed by Viktor Tourjansky and starring Hans Adalbert Schlettow, Lillian Hall-Davis and Boris de Fast. It was one of several Russian-themed films that exiled producer Joseph N. Ermolieff made in Munich during the 1920s; the film's sets were designed by the art directors Andrej Andrejew, Max Heilbronner and Erich Zander. It was distributed in the United States by Kinematrade Inc. in 1933 with dubbed English narration and dialogue, written by Alexander Bakshy, added. Hans Adalbert Schlettow as Stenka Rasin Lillian Hall-Davis as Princess Zaineb Boris de Fast as Atamann's confidant Iwaschka Rudolf Klein-Rogge as Kosak Hadschi-Ali George Seroff as Stable hand Filka Gustl Gstettenbaur as Kolka Valy Arnheim Alexej Bondireff Feodor Chaliapin Jr. Robert Garrison Heinrich Gotho Georg John Rudolf Lettinger Dillo Lombardi Philipp Manning Max Maximilian Ellen Plessow Alexander Polonsky Posemkowsky Georg Schmieter Max Schreck Ferry Sikla Mammey Terja-Basa Aruth Wartan Rollberg, Peter.
Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Cinema. Scarecrow Press, 2008. Volga Volga on IMDb
Volga is an automobile that originated in the Soviet Union to replace the venerated GAZ Pobeda in 1956. Their role in serving the Soviet nomenklatura made them a contemporary cultural icon. Several generations of the car have been produced. Despite the continuous modernisations, GAZ found it difficult to keep the ageing design competitive in a market economy. GAZ CEO Bo Andersson decided to discontinue the Volga range in 2010; the first Volga model was developed as a replacement for the GAZ-M20 Pobeda mid-size car, produced from 1946. Despite its fastback design with Ponton body styling, the evolution of postwar automotive design and powertrain meant that in 1951 a brief was issued for its eventual replacement. In 1952 this matured into two projects: Zvezda, an evolution of Pobeda's fastback contour with panoramic windows and large tailfins, the Volga with its conventional styling, more realistically suited for production in the 1950s. By the spring of 1954, the Volga prototypes were being test driven.
The new car introduced a range of advantages over the Pobeda. In addition to being larger, it had single panoramic forward and rear windscreens, a larger four-cylinder overhead-valve engine, central lubrication system of the main chassis elements, hypoid rear axle and an automatic hydromechanical gearbox; the car's m by Lev Yeremeev and though influenced by North American vehicles of the same period, the 1954 Ford Mainline in particular, the project was independent, with an exception for the automatic transmission, derived from the 3-speed Ford-O-Matic. After thorough testing of the car, which lasted for a further two years, a go-ahead was given by the state, the first pre-production batch left GAZ on 10 October 1956. Although there were many models and versions of the car, its production can nonetheless be split into three distinct generations and two derivatives. In total 639,478 Volgas were built from 1956 until 1970; the first prototype Volga appeared at a May 1955 trial from Moscow to the Crimea.
While the Soviet leadership touted the speed of its development, only five cars were built in 1955. The first generation is identified by its characteristic chromed bar fascia with a central badge containing the five pointed star. Serial production began on 10 October 1956, with all vehicles being powered by a 2,432 cc flathead engine modified to produce 65 hp; these were used in much publicised promotion drives across the whole Soviet Union, where they notched up to 30,000 kilometres. Unlike the Pobeda, Volga's engines were now to be produced at a specialised motor factory in Zavolzhye. Despite its hasty construction, it only began engine production in summer 1957, which meant that the first thousand or so vehicles were equipped with the Pobeda's flathead engine. Other features of this transitional series included the Spur gear rear axle from the ZIM and the manual 3-speed gearbox from the Pobeda. Drag coefficient was a low 0.42. Styling was by Leo Emerius; the chromed bars, being a decorative element, required excessive manual labour to assemble, not feasible for a mass-produced vehicle.
Moreover, they reduced the supporting strength of the front body panels. As the Soviet Union had great aspirations for the vehicle in generating foreign currency, it became apparent that the military connotation would scare potential western customers. At the Soviet pavilion Expo 58, which opened in April, the featured example was the facelift prototype with the 16-slit shark-mouth grille. Now in mass production, priced at 5,400 rubles, the popularity and genuine interest in the vehicle sealed the fate of the "Star", in November the "Star" was retired. In any case, in popular culture, the car's alternative nickname as "Zhukovka" survives to this date. Despite its short production span, only 32,000 cars being assembled, the "Star" was the Soviet automotive industry's first mass-produced vehicle to be equipped with an automatic transmission, it became apparent that such complex mechanism required a standard of service unavailable in the USSR. More problematic became the sourcing of transmission fluid, as these cars were only allocated for private ownership.
Faced with such difficulties, a manual transmission became available, with synchromesh on the top two gears. The first generation contained the following models; these are listed in Russian alphabetical order, but not chronological. The base version, to have an automatic gearbox and the 70 hp engine was designated GAZ-M-21, without any suffixes. A taxicab version was called GAZ-M-21A, featured the manual gearbox, but the identical ZMZ-21 engine; the "transitional" series was GAZ-M-21B for the taxi with the 60 hp engine. GAZ-M-21V was the next standard version with manual transmission; the early GAZ-M-21G was the "transitional" series for the 1956–1957 years, with the 65 hp engine and ZIM's differential. Export versions were called manual and automatic respectively, their difference from the domestic Volgas was an uprated 80 hp engine. This was achi
The Volga is the longest river in Europe with a catchment area of 1,350,000 square kilometres. It is Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and drainage basin; the river flows through central Russia and into the Caspian Sea, is regarded as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, are located in the Volga's drainage basin; some of the largest reservoirs in the world are located along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture and is referred to as Волга-матушка Volga-Matushka in Russian literature and folklore; the Russian hydronym Volga derives from Proto-Slavic *vòlga "wetness, moisture", preserved in many Slavic languages, including Ukrainian volóha "moisture", Russian vlaga "moisture", Bulgarian vlaga "moisture", Czech vláha "dampness", Serbian vlaga "moisture", Croatian vlaga "moisture" and Slovene vlaga "moisture" among others. The Slavic name is a loan translation of earlier Scythian Rā "Volga" "wetness", cognate with Avestan Raŋhā "mythical stream" and Vedic Sanskrit rasā́ "dew, juice.
The Scythian name survives in modern Mordvin Rav "Volga". The Turkic peoples living along the river referred to it as Itil or Atil "big river". In modern Turkic languages, the Volga is known as İdel in Tatar, Атăл in Chuvash, Idhel in Bashkir, Edil in Kazakh, İdil in Turkish; the Turkic peoples associated the Itil's origin with the Kama. Thus, a left tributary to the Kama was named the Aq Itil "White Itil" which unites with the Kara Itil "Black Itil" at the modern city of Ufa; the name Indyl is used in Adyge language. Among Asians, the river was known by its other Turkic name Sarı-su "yellow water", but the Oirats used their own name, Ijil mörön or "adaptation river". Presently the Mari, another Uralic group, call the river Jul, they called the river Volgydo, a borrowing from Old East Slavic. The Volga is the longest river in Europe, its catchment area is entirely inside Russia, though the longest river in Russia is the Ob–Irtysh river system, it belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea, being the longest river to flow into a closed basin.
Rising in the Valdai Hills 225 meters above sea level northwest of Moscow and about 320 kilometers southeast of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Dubna, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Samara and Volgograd, discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 meters below sea level. At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don. Volgograd Stalingrad, is located there; the Volga has many tributaries, most the rivers Kama, the Oka, the Vetluga, the Sura. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which flows through an area of about 1,350,000 square kilometres in the most populated part of Russia; the Volga Delta has a length of about 160 kilometres and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans and lotuses may be found; the Volga freezes for most of its length for three months each year. The Volga drains most of Western Russia.
Its many large reservoirs provide hydroelectric power. The Moscow Canal, the Volga–Don Canal, the Volga–Baltic Waterway form navigable waterways connecting Moscow to the White Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution have adversely affected its habitats; the fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat, has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centers on the Volga valley. Other resources include natural gas and potash; the Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the center of the caviar industry. A number of large hydroelectric reservoirs were constructed on the Volga during the Soviet era, they are: Volgograd Reservoir Saratov Reservoir Kuybyshev Reservoir – the largest in Europe by surface Cheboksary Reservoir Gorky Reservoir Rybinsk Reservoir Uglich Reservoir Ivankovo Reservoir Volgograd Nizhny Novgorod Kazan Samara Saratov Tolyatti Yaroslavl Astrakhan Ulyanovsk Cheboksary Tver The area downstream of the Volga believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Slavs and other Turkic peoples in the first millennium AD, replacing the Scythians.
The ancient scholar Ptolemy of Alexandria mentions the lower Volga in his Geography. He calls it the Rha, the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean Mountains; the Russian ethnicity in Western Russia and around the Volga river evolved among other tribes, out of the East Slavic tribe of the Buzhans. Several localities in Russia are connected to the Buzhans, like for example Sredniy Buzhan in the Orenburg Oblast and the Buzan river in the Astrakhan Oblast. Buzhan is a village in Nishapur, Iran. Subsequently, the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama jo
Volga River (Iowa)
The Volga River is an 80.7-mile-long river in the U. S. state of Iowa. It is the major tributary of the Turkey River in the northeastern part of the state; the river runs through Clayton counties before joining the Turkey River near Elkport. The Turkey River runs into the Mississippi River near the town of Cassville, Wisconsin; the Volga River State Recreation Area is a state park along the river near Fayette. List of Iowa rivers
The Volga class is a class of Russian river passenger ships. It is named after the first ship in the class Volga. Three deck cruise ships built by Österreichische Schiffswerften AG at their shipyard in Korneuburg, Austria in 1970. List of river cruise ships Valerian Kuybyshev-class motorship Rossiya-class motorship Rossiya-class motorship Anton Chekhov-class motorship Vladimir Ilyich-class motorship Rodina-class motorship Baykal-class motorship Sergey Yesenin-class motorship Oktyabrskaya Revolyutsiya-class motorship Yerofey Khabarov-class motorship Dunay-class motorship Amur-class motorship Dmitriy Furmanov-class motorship
Volga, South Dakota
Volga is a city in Brookings County, South Dakota, United States with a population of 1,768 at the 2010 census. Volga was founded by the Western Town Lot Company on December 1879 by Col. Arthur Jacoby, it was named "Bandy Town" after the Bandy family, early settlers there. In 1880, the railroad assigned it the name "Volga", after the Volga River, in Russia. Volga is talked about in the juvenile novel The Long Winter by Laura Ingalls Wilder in the chapter titled "Pa Goes to Volga". Volga is located at 44°19′19″N 96°55′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.91 square miles, all of it land. Volga has been assigned the ZIP code 57071 and the FIPS place code 67700; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,768 people, 734 households, 483 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,942.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 783 housing units at an average density of 860.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.2% White, 0.3% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 0.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 734 households of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.5% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.2% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the city was 33.8 years. 26.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,435 people, 571 households, 413 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,862.1 people per square mile. There were 596 housing units at an average density of 773.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.75% White, 0.42% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.63% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.42% of the population. There were 571 households out of which 37.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $41,818, the median income for a family was $51,131. Males had a median income of $31,083 versus $23,190 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,237.
About 3.4% of families and 6.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.1% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. Old Timer's Day in Volga occurs in the first week of June every year and is capped off by an over-21-only street dance and many private parties; the Brookings County Historical Museum is located in Volga, as well as a home of an early settler by the city park. Volga is served by the Sioux Valley School District; the district has one elementary school, one middle school, one high school. Students attend Sioux Valley High School. Three communities are included in the Sioux Valley school system: Bruce and Volga; the Sioux Valley Cossacks football team is traditionally one of the strongest teams in the 11B classification.https://www.sdhsaa.com/athletics/boyssports/football.aspx Volga has a private K through 8th school called the Volga Christian School. Del Paddock, Major League Baseball player Sioux Valley High School Sioux Valley School District