Soviet Armed Forces
The Soviet Armed Forces called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union were the armed forces of the Russian SFSR, the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991. According to the all-union military service law of September 1925, the Soviet Armed Forces consisted of three components: the Ground Forces, the Air Forces, the Navy, the State Political Directorate, the convoy guards; the OGPU was made independent and amalgamated with the NKVD in 1934, thus its Internal Troops were under the joint management of the Defense and Interior Commisariats. After World War II, the Strategic Missile Troops, Air Defence Forces and troops of the All-Union National Civil Defence Forces were added, standing first and sixth in the official Soviet reckoning of comparative importance; the Council of People's Commissars set up the Red Army by decree on January 15, 1918, basing it on the already-existing Red Guard.
The official Red Army Day of February 23, 1918 marked the day of the first mass draft of the Red Army in Petrograd and Moscow, of the first combat action against the advancing Imperial German Army. February 23 became an important national holiday in the Soviet Union celebrated as "Soviet Army Day", it continues as a day of celebration in present-day Russia as Defenders of the Motherland Day. Credit as the founder of the Red Army goes to Leon Trotsky, the People's Commissar for War from 1918 to 1924. At the beginning of its existence, the Red Army functioned as a voluntary formation, without ranks or insignia. Democratic elections selected the officers. However, a decree of May 29, 1918 imposed obligatory military service for men of ages 18 to 40. To service the massive draft, the Bolsheviks formed regional military commissariats, which as of 2005 still exist in Russia in this function and under this name. Democratic election of officers was abolished by decree, while separate quarters for officers, special forms of address and higher pay were all reinstated.
After General Aleksei Brusilov offered the Bolsheviks his professional services in 1920, they decided to permit the conscription of former officers of the Imperial Russian Army. The Bolshevik authorities set up a special commission under the chair of Lev Glezarov, by August 1920 had drafted about 315,000 ex-officers. Most they held the position of military advisor. A number of prominent Soviet Army commanders had served as Imperial Russian generals. In fact, a number of former Imperial military men, notably a member of the Supreme Military Council, Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich, had joined the Bolsheviks earlier; the Bolshevik authorities assigned to every unit of the Red Army a political commissar, or politruk, who had the authority to override unit commanders' decisions if they ran counter to the principles of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Although this sometimes resulted in inefficient command, the Party leadership considered political control over the military necessary, as the Army relied more and more on experienced officers from the pre-revolutionary Tsarist period.
The Polish–Soviet War represented the first foreign campaign of the Red Army. The Soviet counter-offensive following the 1920 Polish invasion of Ukraine at first met with success, but Polish forces halted it at the disastrous Battle of Warsaw. In 1934, Mongolia and the USSR, recognising the threat from the mounting Japanese military presence in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, agreed to co-operate in the field of defence. On March 12, 1936, the co-operation increased with the ten-year Mongolian-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, which included a mutual defence protocol. In May 1939, a Mongolian cavalry unit clashed with Manchukuoan cavalry in the disputed territory east of the Halha River. There followed a clash with a Japanese detachment; the Soviet troops quartered there in accordance with the mutual defence protocol intervened and obliterated the detachment. Escalation of the conflict appeared imminent, both sides spent June amassing forces. On July 1 the Japanese force numbered 38,000 troops; the combined Soviet-Mongol force had 12,500 troops.
The Japanese crossed the river, but after a three-day battle their opponents threw them back over the river. The Japanese kept probing the Soviet defences throughout July, without success. On August 20 Georgy Zhukov opened a major offensive with heavy air attack and three hours of artillery bombardment, after which three infantry divisions and five armoured brigades, supported by a fighter regiment and masses of artillery, stormed the 75,000 Japanese force entrenched in the area. On August 23 the entire Japanese force found itself encircled, on August 31 destroyed. Artillery and air attacks wiped out those Japanese. Japan requested a cease-fire, the conflict concluded with an agreement between the USSR, Mongolia and Japan signed on September 15 in Moscow. In the conflict, th
Orenburg Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Orenburg. From 1938 to 1957, it bore the name Chkalov Oblast in honor of Valery Chkalov. Population: 2,033,072; the most important river of the oblast is the Ural. Orenburg is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal longitude. Population: 2,033,072 . Vital statistics for 2012Births: 29 736 Deaths: 28 225 Total fertility rate: 2009 - 1.76 | 2010 - 1.80 | 2011 - 1.80 | 2012 - 1.95 | 2013 - 2.00 | 2014 - 2.03 | 2015 - 2.01 | 2016 - 1.95According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows: Russians: 75.9% Tatars: 7.6% Kazakhs: 6% Ukrainians: 2.5% Bashkirs: 2.3% Mordvinians: 1.9% Germans: 0.6% Chuvash: 0.6% Belarusians: 0.3% Azeris: 0.4% other groups, none more than 0.2% of the population 30,449 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
As of a 2012 survey 40.2% of the population of Orenburg Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% declare themselves to be generic nondenominational Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to any church or belong to non-Russian Orthodox churches. Muslims constitute 13% of the population. 3% of the population are followers of the Slavic native faith, 6.8% are followers of other religions or did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 20% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist. Orenburg Oblast is one of the major agricultural areas of Russia, its climate is favorable to farming with a humid spring, dry summer and a large number of sunny days, which make perfect conditions for cultivating hard wheat and rye, potatoes, beans and gourds. The range of the oblast's export commodities includes: oil and oil products and gas produced products, rolled ferrous and non-ferrous metals, asbestos, chromium compounds, rough copper, electric engines, products of machine-building industry.
Ashchebutak List of Chairmen of the Legislative Assembly of Orenburg Oblast Black Dolphin Prison
Alexander Ignatyevich Sedyakin was a Soviet division commander and Komandarm 2nd rank. He was born in St. Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire, he fought in the Imperial Russian Army in World War I before going over to the Bolsheviks. He fought against Finland and the pro-Finnish separatists of the Republic of East Karelia in East Karelia. On November 11, 1935, he was one of the 10 people made Komandarm 2nd rank, he received the Order of the Red Banner twice. Sedyakin was born in St. Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire, he was the oldest in a family of a girl. A member of his family served in the Preobrazhensky Regiment, his siblings were brothers Konstantin, Theophylakt and sister Klavdia. In 1908, the family moved to Kurgan Oblast. After staying in Krasnoyarsk, Sedyakin worked as a surveyor in Tobolsk Governorate, in modern-day Tyumen Oblast. In November 1914, Sedyakin enlisted in the Imperial Russian Army. After being commissioned an officer in October 1915, he was sent to the front as a lieutenant in the 151st infantry regiment.
During his two years on the front lines, he was promoted to senior captain. He rose from platoon commander to company and regiment commander. After the February Revolution in March 1917, he was made chair of the regimental committee, he was made vice chairman of the soldiers' committee for the 38th Infantry Division in May 1917 and formally joined the Bolsheviks in August 1917. After the October Revolution in November 1917, he was elected to the Constituent Assembly. In March 1918, Sedyakin formally joined the Red Army alongside soldiers he had commanded. In May 1918, Sedyakin was conscription officer for the 2nd Pskov Rifle Division. On August 6, 1918, Sedyakin was on Eastern Front battling the forces of Alexander Kolchak. In September 1918, he was on the Southern Front, where he was appointed commander of the 2nd Kursk Infantry Brigade in November 1918 and deputy commander of the 13th Army in January 1919. In this capacity, he battled the forces of Anton Denikin, he was appointed commander of the 3rd Rifle Brigade of Voronezh in August 1919 and the 31st Rifle Division on October 12, 1919.
On November 12, 1919, he moved his forces against those of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel until he was incapacitated by injury. From October 1920 to February 1921, Sedyakin was commander of the 10th Reserve Rifle Brigade, he was executed during the Great Purge and posthumously rehabilitated in 1956. Радиоконтроль — Тачанка /. — М.: Военное изд-во М-ва обороны СССР, 1980. — 693 с. —. Звезда и смерть командарма Седякина
Boris Mikhaylovich Shaposhnikov was a Soviet military commander, Chief of the Staff of the Red Army, Marshal of the Soviet Union. Shaposhnikov, born at Zlatoust, near Chelyabinsk in the Urals, had Orenburg Cossack origins, he joined the army of the Russian Empire in 1901 and graduated from the Nicholas General Staff Academy in 1910, reaching the rank of colonel in the Caucasus Grenadiers division in September 1917 during World War I. In 1917, unusually for an officer of his rank, he supported the Russian Revolution, in May 1918 joined the Red Army. Shaposhnikov was one of the few Red Army commanders with formal military training, in 1921 he became 1st Deputy Chief of Staff of the Army's General Staff, where he served until 1925, he was appointed commander of the Leningrad Military District in 1925 and of the Moscow Military District in 1927. From 1928 to 1931 he served as Chief of the Staff of the Red Army, replacing Mikhail Tukhachevsky, with whom he had a strained relationship commanded the Volga Military District from 1931 to 1932.
In 1932 he was appointed commandant of the Red Army's Frunze Military Academy in 1935 returned to the command of the Leningrad region. In 1937 he was appointed Chief of the General Staff, in succession to Alexander Ilyich Yegorov, a victim of a Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization secret trial during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1940 he was appointed a Marshal of the Soviet Union. Despite his background as a Tsarist officer, Shaposhnikov won the trust of Stalin, his status as a professional officer—he did not join the Communist Party until 1939—may have helped him avoid Stalin's suspicions. The price he paid for his survival during the purges was collaboration in the destruction of Tukhachevsky and of many other colleagues. Stalin showed his admiration for the officer by always keeping a copy of Shaposhnikov's most important work, Mozg Armii, on his desk. Shaposhnikov was one of the few men whom Stalin addressed by his Christian patronymic. Mozg Armii has remained on the curriculum of the General Staff Academy since its publication in 1929.
For the Soviet Union, Shaposhnikov had a fine military mind and high administrative skills. He combined these talents with his position in Stalin's confidence to rebuild the Red Army leadership after the purges, he obtained the release from the Gulag of 4,000 officers deemed necessary for this operation. In 1939 Stalin accepted Shaposhnikov's plan for a rapid buildup of the Red Army's strength. Although the plan was not completed before the German invasion of June 1941, it had advanced sufficiently to save the Soviet Union from complete disaster. Shaposhnikov planned the 1939 invasion of Finland, but was much less optimistic about its duration than Stalin and the campaign's commander Kliment Voroshilov; this Winter War did not deliver the immediate success the Soviet side had hoped for, Shaposhnikov resigned as Chief of the General Staff in August 1940, due to ill health and to disagreements with Stalin about the conduct of that campaign. Following the German invasion, he was reinstated as Chief of the General Staff to succeed Georgy Zhukov, became Deputy People's Commissar for Defence, the post he held until his career was cut short by ill-health in 1943.
He resigned again as Chief of the General Staff due to ill-health on 10 May 1942. He held the position of commandant of the Voroshilov Military Academy until his death in 1945. Shaposhnikov had groomed his successor as Chief of Staff, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, remained an influential and respected advisor to Stalin until his death. Russian EmpireOrder of St. Anna, 4th class, 3rd class with Swords and Bow, 2nd class with Swords Order of St. Vladimir, 4th class with Swords and Bow Order of Saint Stanislaus, 3rd class with Swords and Bow Soviet UnionThree Orders of Lenin Order of the Red Banner, twice Order of Suvorov, 1st class Order of the Red Star, twice Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" Medal "For the Defence of Moscow" Russian destroyer Marshal Shaposhnikov Newspaper clippings about Boris Shaposhnikov in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Samara Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire, located in the Volga Region. It existed from 1851 to 1928; the governorate was divided into seven uyezds. These were: Bugulminsky Uyezd Buguruslansky Uyezd Buzuluksky Uyezd Nikolayevsky Uyezd Novouzensky Uyezd Samarsky Uyezd Stavropolsky Uyezd
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937. He commanded the Soviet Western Front in the Polish–Soviet War of 1920–1921 and served as chief of staff of the Red Army from 1925 through 1928, as assistant in the People's Commissariat of Defense after 1934 and as commander of the Volga Military District in 1937, he contributed to the modernization of Soviet armament and army force structure in the 1920s and 1930s and became instrumental in the development of aviation and airborne forces. As a theoretician, he was a driving force behind Soviet development of the theory of deep operations; the Soviet authorities accused him of treason and had him shot during the military purges of 1937–1938, but rehabilitated his reputation in the late 1950s. Tukhachevsky was born at Alexandrovskoye, Safonovsky District, into a family of impoverished hereditary nobles. Legend states that his family descended from a Flemish count who ended up stranded in the East during the Crusades and took a Turkish wife before settling in Russia.
His great-grandfather Alexander Tukhachevsky served as a Colonel in the Imperial Russian Army. He was of Russian ethnicity. After attending the Moscow Military School in 1912, he moved on to the Aleksandrovskoye Military School, whence he graduated in 1914. At the outset of the First World War he joined the Semyenovsky Guards Regiment as a Second Lieutenant, declaring: I am convinced that all, needed in order to achieve what I want is bravery and self-confidence. I have enough self-confidence.... I told myself that I shall not be alive by then. Taken prisoner by the Imperial German Army in February 1915, Tukhachevsky escaped four times from prisoner-of-war camps and was held as an incorrigible escapee in Ingolstadt fortress in Bavaria. There he shared a cell with Captain Charles de Gaulle, who reported that he played his violin, spouted nihilist beliefs and spoke against Jews, whom he called dogs who "spread their fleas throughout the world". Tukhachevsky's fifth escape met with success, after crossing the Swiss-German border he returned to Russia in September 1917.
Following the October Revolution of 1917, Tukhachevsky joined the Bolsheviks and went on to play a key role in the Red Army - despite his noble ancestry. He became an officer in the newly established Red Army and advanced in rank because of his great ability. During the Russian Civil War, he was given responsibility for defending Moscow; the Bolshevik Defence Commissar, Leon Trotsky, gave Tukhachevsky command of the 5th Army in 1919, he led the campaign to capture Siberia from the anticommunist White forces of Aleksandr Kolchak. Tukhachevsky used concentrated attacks to exploit the enemy's open flanks and threaten them with envelopment, he helped defeat General Anton Denikin in the Crimea in 1920, conducting the final operations. In February 1920, he launched an offensive into the Kuban, using cavalry to disrupt the enemy's rear. In the retreat that followed, Denikin's force disintegrated, Novorossiysk was evacuated hastily. In the final stage of the civil war, Tukhachevsky commanded the 7th Army during the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921.
He commanded the assault against the Tambov Republic between 1921 and 1922. Tukhachevsky commanded the Soviet invasion of Poland during the Polish-Soviet War in 1920. In the leadup to hostilities, Tukhachevsky concentrated his troops near Vitebsk, which he theatrically dubbed, "The Gates of Smolensk"; when he issued his troops orders to cross the border, Tukhachevsky said, "The fate of world revolution is being decided in the west: the way leads over the corpse of Poland to a universal conflagration.... On to Wilno and Warsaw -- forward!"According to Richard M. Watt, "The boldness of Tukhachevsky's drive westward was the key to his success; the Soviet High Command dispatched 60,000 men as reinforcements, but Tukhachevsky never stopped to let them catch up. His onrushing armies were leaving behind greater numbers of stragglers every day, but Tukhachevsky ignored these losses, his supply services were in chaos and his rear scarcely existed as an organized entity, but Tukhachevsky was unconcerned.
On the day his troops captured Minsk, a new cry arose--'Give us Warsaw!' Tukhachevsky was determined to give them. All things considered, Tukhachevsky's performance was a virtuoso display of energy, and, rashness."His armies were defeated by Józef Piłsudski outside Warsaw. It was during the Polish war. Both blamed the other for the Soviet failure to capture Warsaw. Tukhachevsky lamented: There can be no doubt that if we had been victorious on the Vistula, the revolutionary fires would have reached the entire continent, his book about the war was published together with a book by Piłsudski. According to Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin regarded Tukhachevsky as his bitterest rival and dubbed him Napoleonchik. Upon Stalin's ascension to Party leadership in 1929, he began receiving denunciations from senior officers who disapproved of Tukhachevsky's tactical theories. In 1930, the Joint State Political Directorate forced two officers to testify that Tukhachevsky was plotting to overthrow the Politburo via a coup d'état.
According to Montefiore: In 1930, this was too outrageous for the Bolsheviks. Stalin, not yet dictator, probed his powerful ally Sergo Ordzhonikidze: "Only Molotov and now you are in the know