The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Rutland; the region has an area of 15,627 km2, with a population over 4.5 million in 2011. There are five main urban centres, Leicester, Lincoln and Nottingham. Others include Boston, Chesterfield, Grantham, Kettering, Mansfield, Newark-on-Trent and Wellingborough. Relative proximity to London and its position on the national motorway and trunk road networks help the East Midlands to thrive as an economic hub. Nottingham and Leicester are each classified as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the region is served by East Midlands Airport, which lies between Derby and Nottingham. The high point at 636 m is Kinder Scout, in the Peak District of the southern Pennines in northwest Derbyshire near Glossop. Other upland, hilly areas of 95 to 280 m in altitude, together with lakes and reservoirs, rise in and around the Charnwood Forest north of Leicester, in the Lincolnshire Wolds.
The region's major rivers, the Nene, the Soar, the Trent and the Welland, flow in a northeasterly direction towards the Humber and the Wash. The Derwent, rises in the High Peak before flowing south to join the Trent some 2 miles before its conflux with the Soar; the centre of the East Midlands area lies between Bingham and Bottesford, Leicestershire. The geographical centre of England lies in Higham on the Hill in west Leicestershire, close to the boundary between the Leicestershire and Warwickshire; some 88 per cent of the land is rural in character, although agriculture accounts for less than three per cent of the region's jobs. Lincolnshire is the only maritime county of the six, with a true North Sea coastline of about 30 miles due to the protection afforded by Spurn Head and the North Norfolk foreshore. Church Flatts Farm in Coton in the Elms, South Derbyshire, is the furthest place from the sea in the UK. In April 1936 the first Ordnance Survey trig point was sited at Cold Ashby in Northamptonshire.
The Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts and The Wildlife Trusts are based next to the River Trent and Newark Castle railway station. The National Centre for Earth Observation is at the University of Leicester; the region is home to large quantities of limestone, the East Midlands Oil Province. Charnwood Forest is noted for its abundant levels of volcanic rock, estimated to be 600 million years old. A quarter of the UK's cement is manufactured in the region, at three sites in Hope and Tunstead in Derbyshire, Ketton Cement Works in Rutland. Of the aggregates produced in the region, 25 per cent are from Derbyshire and four per cent from Leicestershire. Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire each produce around 30 per cent of the region's sand and gravel output. Barwell in Leicestershire was the site of Britain's largest meteorite on 24 December 1965; the 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake was 5.2 in magnitude. Areas of the East Midlands designated by the East Midlands Biodiversity Partnership as Biodiversity Conservation Areas include: Charnwood Forest Coversand Heaths Derbyshire Peak Fringe and Lower Derwent Humberhead Levels Leighland Forest The Lincolnshire Limewoods and Heaths The Lincolnshire coast The Peak District Rockingham Forest Sherwood Forest Rutland, SW Lincolnshire and N Northamptonshire The Wash Areas of the East Midlands designated by the East Midlands Biodiversity Partnership as Biodiversity Enhancement Areas include: The Coalfields The Daventry Grasslands The Fens The Lincolnshire Coastal Grazing Marshes The Lincolnshire Wolds The National Forest The Yardley-Whittlewood RidgeTwo of the nationally designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty are: The Peak District The Lincolnshire Wolds Several towns in the southern part of the region, including Market Harborough, Rothwell, Kettering, Thrapston and Stamford, lie within the boundaries of what was once Rockingham Forest – designated a royal forest by William the Conqueror and was long hunted by English kings and queens.
The National Forest is an environmental project in central England run by The National Forest Company. Areas of north Leicestershire, south Derbyshire and south-east Staffordshire covering around 200 square miles are being planted in an attempt to blend ancient woodland with new plantings, it stretches from the western outskirts of Leicester in the east to Burton upon Trent in the west, is planned to link the ancient forests of Needwood and Charnwood. Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire attracts many visitors, is best known for its ties with the legend of Robin Hood. Regional financial funding decisions for the East Midlands are taken by East Midlands Councils, based in Melton Mowbray. East Midlands Councils is an unelected body made up of representatives of local government in the region; the defunct East Midlands Development Agency was headquartered next to the BBC's East Midlands office in Nottingham and made financial decisions regarding economic development in the region. Since the Conservative-Lib Dem coalition government launched its austerity programme after the 2010 general election, regional bodies such as those have been devolved to smaller groups now on a county level.
As a region today, there is no overriding body with significant financial or planning powers for the East Midlands. The East Midlands' largest settlements are Leicester, Derby, Chesterfield, Mansfield and Kettering. Leicester is the largest
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region; the name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military, features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire. Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are vast stretches of unspoiled countryside; this can be found in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and with the open aspect of some of the major cities. Yorkshire has been named "God's Own County" or "God's Own Country"; the emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, the most used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background, which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.
Yorkshire Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect. Yorkshire is covered by different Government Office Regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber while the extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar and Startforth, falls within North East England. Small areas in the west of the county are covered by the North West England region. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for Jórvík. "Shire" is from scir meaning care or official charge. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ "shuh", or /-ʃiə/, a homophone of "sheer". Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi; the Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.
That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county; the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius; this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the region. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD. The fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all Roman Britain; the emperor Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from Eboracum for the two years before his death. Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD; this saw his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his contributions to Christianity, proclaimed emperor in the city. In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline. After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and the Kingdom of Elmet to the west. Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king and annexed the region.
At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in the south. Scandinavian York or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before being annexed into England in 954, it was associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army as its enemies referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD; the Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.
The Danes went on to conque
Roman conquest of Britain
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain. The Romans forced their way inland through several battles against Celtic tribes, including the Battle of the Medway, the Battle of the Thames, the Battle of Caer Caradoc and the Battle of Mona. Following a general uprising in which the Celts sacked Camulodunum and Londinium, the Romans suppressed the rebellion in the Battle of Watling Street and went on to push as far north as Caledonia in the Battle of Mons Graupius. Tribes in modern-day Scotland and northern England rebelled against Roman rule and two military bases were established in Britain to protect against rebellion and incursions from the north, from which Roman troops built and manned Hadrian's Wall. Great Britain had frequently been the target of invasions and actual, by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. In common with other regions on the edge of the empire, Britain had enjoyed diplomatic and trading links with the Romans in the century since Julius Caesar's expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, Roman economic and cultural influence was a significant part of the British late pre-Roman Iron Age in the south.
Between 55 BC and the 40s AD, the status quo of tribute and client states without direct military occupation, begun by Caesar's invasions of Britain remained intact. Augustus prepared invasions in 34 BC, 27 BC and 25 BC; the first and third were called off due to revolts elsewhere in the empire, the second because the Britons seemed ready to come to terms. According to Augustus's Res Gestae, two British kings and Tincomarus, fled to Rome as supplicants during his reign, Strabo's Geography, written during this period, says Britain paid more in customs and duties than could be raised by taxation if the island were conquered. By the 40s AD, the political situation within Britain was in ferment; the Catuvellauni had displaced the Trinovantes as the most powerful kingdom in south-eastern Britain, taking over the former Trinovantian capital of Camulodunum, were pressing their neighbours the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Julius Caesar's former ally Commius. Caligula may have planned a campaign against the Britons in 40, but its execution was unclear: according to Suetonius' The Twelve Caesars, he drew up his troops in battle formation facing the English Channel and, once his forces had become quite confused, ordered them to gather seashells, referring to them as "plunder from the ocean due to the Capitol and the Palace".
Alternatively, he may have told them to gather "huts", since the word musculi was soldier's slang for engineer's huts and Caligula himself was familiar with the Empire's soldiers. In any case this readied the troops and facilities that would make Claudius' invasion possible three years later. For example, Caligula built a lighthouse at Bononia, the Tour D'Ordre, that provided a model for the one built soon after at Dubris. In 43 by re-collecting Caligula's troops from 40, Claudius mounted an invasion force to re-instate Verica, an exiled king of the Atrebates. Aulus Plautius, a distinguished senator, was given overall charge of four legions, totalling about 20,000 men, plus about the same number of auxiliaries; the legions were: Legio II Augusta – The Second Augustan Legion Legio IX Hispana – The Ninth Spanish Legion Legio XIV Gemina – The Fourteenth Twin Legion Legio XX Valeria Victrix – The Twentieth Legion Valiant and VictoriousThe II Augusta is known to have been commanded by the future emperor Vespasian.
Three other men of appropriate rank to command legions are known from the sources to have been involved in the invasion. Cassius Dio mentions Gnaeus Hosidius Geta, who led the IX Hispana, Vespasian's brother Titus Flavius Sabinus the Younger, he wrote that Sabinus was Vespasian's lieutenant, but as Sabinus was the older brother and preceded Vespasian into public life, he could hardly have been a military tribune. Eutropius mentions Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus, although as a former consul he may have been too senior, accompanied Claudius later; the main invasion force under Aulus Plautius crossed in three divisions. The port of departure is taken to have been Boulogne, the main landing at Rutupiae. Neither of these locations is certain. Dio does not mention the port of departure, although Suetonius says that the secondary force under Claudius sailed from Boulogne, it does not follow that the entire invasion force did. Richborough has a large natural harbour which would have been suitable, archaeology shows Roman military occupation at about the right time.
However, Dio says the Romans sailed east to west, a journey from Boulogne to Richborough is south to north. Some historians suggest a sailing from Boulogne to the Solent, landing in the vicinity of Noviomagus or Southampton, in territory ruled by Verica. An alternative explanation might be a sailing from the mouth of the Rhine to Richborough, which would be east to west. British resistance was led by Togodumnus and Caratacus, sons of the late king of the Catuvellauni, Cunobeline. A substantial British force met the Romans at a river crossing thought to be near Rochester on the River Medway; the battle raged for two days. Gnaeus Hosidius Geta was captured, but recovered and turned the battle so decisively that he was awarded the "Roman triumph"; the British were pushed back to the Thames. They were pursued by the Romans across the river causing some Roman losses in the marshes of Essex. Whether the Romans made use of an e
Lightcliffe is a village in West Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is situated three miles east of Halifax and two miles north west of Brighouse in the metropolitan district of Calderdale, it was created a separate parish in 1846. Lightcliffe is a dormitory village for people working in Halifax and Bradford, commuting to Leeds and Sheffield, it stretches along the Leeds roads, surrounded by fields and rolling countryside. Lightcliffe feels established and green – with many mature trees and large houses. Lightcliffe's main park, "the Stray", is 11 acres of lawn and trees and contains a war memorial erected in 1923. In April 1937, an avenue of trees was planted in the park to commemorate King George VI's coronation. Towards the village centre is the cricket club. There are the long established Lightcliffe Golf Club and Crow's Nest Golf Club; the oldest part of the village contains the Sun Inn – a former coaching inn, along what was in antiquity the main road to London. The new Lightcliffe Anglican church, St Matthew's, was built in 1875 to replace the old church.
It is a Gothic Revival building, with an embattled parapet, reminiscent of a medieval castle. On Leeds Road is situated the URC church – now converted to offices. A feature of this church is, it has a tall stained glass. The church congregation has joined with Hipperholme Methodist Church to form a Local Ecumenical Partnership worshipping at Christ Church at the main Crossroads. Lightcliffe Academy is a secondary school serving the area. Lightcliffe Church of England Primary School is located in an old stone building and Cliffe Hill Primary has newer premises. Sir Titus Salt, a wealthy businessman known for his factory at Saltaire once lived in Crow's Nest Mansion. Lightcliffe railway station
Honley is a large village in West Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is situated near to Holmfirth and Huddersfield, on the banks of the River Holme in the Holme Valley. According to the 2001 Census it had a population of 5,897; the annual Honley Agricultural Show takes place on the second Saturday of June. The show has used farmland between Honley and Meltham, more farmland in Farnley Tyas. Honley has both male voice choirs. There are three schools in the village. Honley Infant and Nursery School for ages 3–7, Honley Junior School for ages 7–11 and Honley High School which after abolishing its sixth form college is now for ages 11–16. Honley railway station opened on 1 July 1850, on the Penistone Line, it connects the village to Sheffield with an hourly service. There are regular bus services to Huddersfield and Meltham. Most bus services are operated by the First West Yorkshire and Tiger Blue who are based in the railway station's former goods yard; the parish church is St Mary's, a Grade II listed Victorian church, constructed in 1843 by Robert Dennis Chantrell, with additions in 1888 and 1909.
The church was built on the remains of an earlier church, known as'Old Peg' built in 1759. It is surrounded by a burial ground containing inscribed tombstones with remnants of a set of village stocks. Though an earlier building was constructed in 1503. Honley F. C. fields junior teams at under-6 level to under-17 levels. The teams play in the Huddersfield Junior Football League, play competitive seven-a-side matches from under-7s to under-10s and eleven-a-side matches from under-11s to under-17s. An adult side with three teams plays in District Association Football League. The'A' team is in the second division, the'B' team in reserve division one, the'C' team in reserve division three. On 6 July 2014, Stage 2 of the 2014 Tour de France from York to Sheffield, passed through the village. General, Sir Clement Armitage, General Officer Commanding 1st Infantry Division Biff Byford, singer with heavy metal band Saxon. France Littlewood, was a socialist activist. Captain Sydney Liversedge, First World War flying ace, was born in Honley.
Dora Thewlis, was born in Honley. David Bintley Director of the Birmingham Royal Ballet and Artistic Director of the National Ballet of Japan. Born in Honley and former head of Maths at Honley High School. Jon Stead, Professional Footballer playing for Notts County. Media related to Honley at Wikimedia Commons Honley Cemetery Honley Football Club Honley Male Voice Choir Honley Ladies Choir Honley Library Honley Agricultural Show Honley Village Community Trust Trinity Church - Methodist/URC St Mary's Church Reins Mill, Honley Reins Mill, Honley