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Volksraad

The Volksraad was the parliament of the former South African Republic, which existed from 1857 to 1902 in part of what is now South Africa. The body ceased to exist after the British Empire victory in the Second Anglo-Boer War; the Volksraad sat in session in Ou Raadsaal in Pretoria. A unicameral body, the Volksraad was divided into two chambers in 1890 in order to keep Boer control over state matters while still giving Uitlanders — many of whom were temporarily employed in the mining industry — a say in local affairs, in order to fend off British complaints; the legislature consisted of a "Second Volksraad", with suffrage for all white males above 16 years, which had limited legislative powers in the fields of mining, road construction and certain commercial affairs, all subject to ratification by the "First Volksraad". This was the highest authority in charge of state policy, with preference being given to franchised burghers for appointment to government posts. Volksraad was the Afrikaans name for the House of Assembly, the principal or sole chamber of the Parliament of South Africa from 1910 to 1994

Samaria (Mitcham) Bailey

Samaria Bailey is an instrumental figure in the civil rights movement. An African-American woman, Bailey began desegregation at A. L. Miller Senior High School, an all-white female school located in Macon and was one of the first American women of African descent accepted to Mercer University, she became an accomplished pianist, her story was adapted into a bestselling novel and a stage play. The second of ten children, Samaria Mitcham was born in Macon on June 29, 1947 to a proud, hardworking family, her father, Wilbur Mitcham, was the family breadwinner, working as a cook at a fashionable restaurant in Macon. After the children in Samaria's family were grown, Samaria's mother returned to school and graduated from Wesleyan College. In 1964, Samaria was a junior at Appling High School, a traditionally black — and therefore coed — institution. White students in Macon had attended separate, gender-segregated schools. High schools for black students, on the other hand, were coeducational; as the school desegregation movement began to pick up steam, black students in the twelfth grade were placed in the traditionally white schools: Miller High School for girls and Lanier High School for boys.

At Appling, the school administration considered Samaria an "academic gemstone," earning "straight-As" despite extensive extracurricular studies in chorus and drama. But Samaria did not feel challenged enough, when students were asked to apply to enter Miller or Lanier, Samaria was among the first to volunteer. Samaria was one of the only nonwhite students at Miller High. Still, Samaria was regarded as a good and intelligent young woman, graduated with honors. Samaria helped to develop one of the first anti-discrimination programs for her fellow students. Black students who were attempting to transfer to the white schools were required to be "academically prepared". Nonetheless, eleven years of underperforming education would not be erased with a single summer of tutoring and a year of improved schooling. Black students applying to college still displayed much lower scores on standardized tests. In order to combat these disadvantages, Joseph Hendricks Dean of Men at Mercer University, created a secret tutoring program for black high school students, to help prepare them to succeed in the newly-desegregated schools.

Although the tutoring took place at Mercer, the program was not sponsored by the university itself. Hendricks selected the first seventeen students, one of whom was the young student Samaria Mitcham. Samaria was tutored in the summer with the rest of the group and academically flourished the following school year. Nonetheless, when testing came, Samaria did poorly. Samaria's situation provided a convincing argument that the standardized test scores did not reflect students' academic abilities. Samaria's star performance at each high school demonstrated her intelligence. Based on Samaria's experiences, Hendricks improved the tutoring program, recruiting students from as far as UCLA to help teach; the following summer, the tutorial program attracted close to 100 students. Samaria was admitted to Mercer University, the first such African American woman. At Mercer, Samaria continued to endure racist remarks from her peers on a daily basis. Most students ignored her, avoiding eye contact, some professors treated her like a nonentity.

In her chemistry class, she was the only female pupil, the professor had to force another student to be her lab partner. The mistreatment, did not stop Samaria from pursuing her education, she notes, "I've never been a quitter."During her time at Mercer, Samaria continued to perform as a pianist. She was offered recording contracts with several music labels, but rejected them to continue pursuing her education. After graduation, Bailey started a medical technologies company. Med-Tech Service employs forty to fifty people, providing nurses and other health- care providers throughout the Macon area. Samaria has described her ideology. I was never a black militant. I just always wanted to get the job done." Indeed, ninety percent of her employees are white. As of 2014, Samaria Bailey resided with her husband in Georgia. Tribute to Girls of Courage Remembering The Civil Rights Movement "Bibb school integration ‘like invading somebody’s home,' trailblazer recalls" from The Telegraph Stem of Jesse: The Costs of Community at a 1960s Southern School on Google Books Combustible/Burn on Google Books

Bound for the Floor

"Bound for the Floor" is a song by American alternative rock duo Local H, released as the first single from their 1996 album, As Good as Dead. It is considered to be the band's most popular single, reaching No. 5 on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart and No. 10 on the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. The song's angst-driven lyrics deal with a lack of confidence and frustration, reflected in the overall performance. Like many of Local H's songs, the guitar tuning is a half step down from standard; the song is noteworthy for the usage of the word "copacetic" in the chorus. A music video was produced for "Bound for the Floor," which features a performance by the band strung with shots of a school building; the video features children playing and following the band a representation of groupies, where they follow them to a "merry go round" to a bar, to a private concert. While the video is playing it cuts to the children writing the lyric to the song as it's sung, or the video cuts to the band playing in an abandoned building.

Clear Channel included the song on its 2001 Clear Channel memorandum due to the song's lyric. "Bound for the Floor" was featured in the 2006 film Big Nothing, starring Simon Pegg and David Schwimmer, as well as being featured in the video game Saints Row for the Xbox 360 console. The song was used in the 1998 film No Looking Back, starring Jon Bon Jovi and Edward Burns and in the 1997 film Blackrock; the song was featured in at least one episode of America's Funniest Home Videos, set to a collection of motorcycle mishap videos. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics