The German term Volksschule refers to compulsory education, denoting an educational institution every person is required to attend. In Germany and Switzerland it is equivalent to a combined primary and lower secondary education comprising a mandatory attendance over a period of nine years. In Austria, Volksschule is used for primary school from Year One to Year Four. In the Nordic countries they are referred to as Folkskolen and in Finnish, in a direct translation, as Kansakoulu. In medieval times, church schools were established in the Holy Roman Empire to educate the future members of the clergy, as stipulated by the 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran adopted by the sunday schools of the Protestant Reformation. First secular schools followed during the pietism movement from the late 17th century onwards and were further promoted by the advocates of the Enlightenment. In 1717 King Frederick William I of Prussia decreed the compulsory education of children from the age of five to twelve, they were obliged to memorise the Protestant catechism.
In 1763 King Frederick the Great enacted a first Prussian general school law, elaborated by the theologian Johann Julius Hecker. Similar Volksschulen were established in the Electorate of Saxony and in the German-speaking parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, backed by Johann Ignaz von Felbiger, through a system of state-supported primary one-room schools. Attendance was compulsory, but a 1781 census reveals that only one fourth of school-age children attended. At the time, this was one of the few examples of state-supported schooling. Sending one's children to school was binding by law only from 1840 in the Austrian Empire. Spielvogel, Jackson J. 1999-2000, Western Civilization: Comprehensive Volume, ISBN 0-534-56835-1
Vincent Riolo is a Maltese philosopher interested and specialised in logic and the philosophy of language. Riolo was born at Mosta, Malta, in 1947, he studied philosophy at the University of Malta and the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Bavaria, where he was a student of Paul Lorenzen, founder of the Erlangen School. Riolo teaches logic at various faculties of the University of Malta. At the Department of Philosophy he teaches philosophy of science; the late Rev. Prof. Peter Serracino Inglott wrote the following regarding Riolo and his work: " what I am most proud of is the textbook on logic written by Vincent Riolo. "Riolo's contribution to the development of what might be called dialogic logic is the most powerful building brick supplied by a fellow countryman of ours to the edifice of philosophy. Of course it is impossible for students familiar with neither classic Aristotelian nor modern Fregean logic to appreciate the finesse of the material they are privileged to study, in contrast with the rubbish that my generation were taught."Riolo's publications include: 1995 – Introduction to Logic..
1997 – Logical Dialogue. 2013 – Scenario Tableaux. Philosophy in Malta Mark Montebello, Il-Ktieb tal-Filosofija f’Malta, PIN Publications, Malta, 2001. Peter Serracino Inglott,'Want a Job? Try Philosophy', in The Sunday Times of Malta, August 31, 2008
ThreeASFOUR is an avant garde group who run a fashion label, established in 1998 as ASFOUR. Since 2005 the New York City based label consists of three designers, Gabi Asfour, Angela Donhauser, Adi Gil, who were a part of the designer group ASFOUR, Featuring the three designers, as well as designer Kai Khune. Khune left the group to pursue his own label; the experimental designs produced by threeASFOUR have been purchased and displayed by several museums. Adi and Gabi won the Ecco Domani Fashion Grant -given to innovative designers in the fashion industry- in 2001, their work has been acquired by numerous prominent museums throughout the world. Because of their avant garde designs, unique approach to presenting their work, the Victoria and Albert Museum in London acquired pieces for the exhibit "New York Fashion Now". ThreeASFOUR has been featured multiple times in special exhibits at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In 2005 works were displayed in the exhibit "Wild: Fashion Untamed" that presented " an extensive exploration of man's ongoing obsession with animalism as expressed through clothing."
Most in 2008, the Metropolitan Museum of Art displayed works in the exhibit "Superheroes: Fashion and Body", stating threeASFOUR " gained reputation for challenging the "beautiful people" aesthetic. The Costume Institute at Metropolitan Museum of Art has acquired a several pieces for their permanent collection, their works have been featured in the Cooper-Hewitt Museum located in New York, Musee de la Mode et du Costume Galliera in Paris. ThreeASFOUR were finalists in the Council of Fashion Designers of America and Vogue Magazine fashion fund award, given to next generation of American fashion designers. Notably, artist Björk claims to be their number 1 fan. ThreeASFOUR collaborated with Kate Spade in 2005 on a collection of clothing and accessories, fusing two different approaches to design. In 2007 threeASFOUR collaborated with Gap on a limited edition of white poplin shirts. Ultimate New York Design