The Audi R8 is a mid-engine, 2-seater sports car, which uses Audi's trademark quattro permanent all-wheel drive system. It was introduced by the German car manufacturer Audi AG in 2006; the car is designed and manufactured by Audi AG's private subsidiary company manufacturing high performance automotive parts, Audi Sport GmbH, is based on the Lamborghini Gallardo and presently the Huracán platform. The fundamental construction of the R8 is based on the Audi Space Frame, uses an aluminium monocoque, built using space frame principles; the car is built by Audi Sport GmbH in a newly renovated factory at Audi's'aluminium site' at Neckarsulm in Germany. It is the first production car with full-LED headlamps; the Audi R8, based on the Audi Le Mans quattro concept car first appeared at the 2003 International Geneva Motor Show and the 2003 Frankfurt International Motor Show. The R8 road car was launched at the Paris Auto Show on 30 September 2006. There was some confusion with the name, which the car shares with the 24 Hours of Le Mans winning R8 Le Mans Prototype.
Initial models included the R8 4.2 FSI coupé and R8 5.2 FSI coupé. Convertible models, called the Spyder by the manufacturer, were introduced in 2008. Followed by the high-performance GT model introduced in 2011; the Motorsport variants of the R8 were subsequently introduced from 2008 onwards. An all-electric version called the e-Tron started development but would only reach production stage when the second generation model would be introduced. 6-time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner Jacky Ickx described the R8 as "the best handling road car today". The car received a facelift in a new model called the V10 Plus was now added to the range. Production of the Type 42 ended in August 2015; the second generation of the R8 having the model code was unveiled at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show and is based on the Modular Sports System platform shared with the Lamborghini Huracan. The development of the Type 4S commenced in late 2013 and was completed in late-2014. Initial models included the V10 5.2 FSI along with the V10 plus.
Unlike its predecessor, there was no manual transmission available and the entry-level V8 trim was dropped. In 2016, the convertible variant was added to the line up, available in the base V10 trim. In mid-2017, the high performance V10 plus Spyder was added to the range. A rear-wheel-drive drive model called the R8 RWS was introduced in 2017. In 2018, the R8 received a mid-cycle facelift with changes being exterior only; the newer and more aggressive design language has some elements carried over from famous Audi models of the past. Some of the aerodynamic features such as the front aeroblades are shared with the Lamborghini Huracàn; the facelift model has substantial performance improvements over the outgoing model. To produce the R8 at Audi Sport GmbH, 70 workers fit 5,000 different parts by hand; the factory at Neckarsulm, redeveloped at a cost of €28 million produces between eight and fifteen cars a day, up to a maximum daily output of 29 cars. Ninety-five lasers inspect the entire car in five seconds to ensure that over 220 measurements are within 0.1 millimetres of the programmed plans.
In Asia, the R8 is available in Bahrain, Pakistan, Israel, Taiwan, South Korea, Thailand, Hong Kong and Vietnam, has been available in China, United Arab Emirates, Singapore and Indonesia since 2008. European statistics include sales from the following countries: Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland. Lamborghini Huracán Audi Le Mans quattro Audi S and RS models Lamborghini Gallardo Official Audi R8 website
Pune called Poona, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its Industrial Estate Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region. According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index; the city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.
It is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. Pune is an important centre for civil services training; the earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news". By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune; the plates indicate. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.
Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order; the Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal, his mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city.
From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, Pune, from the Mughals. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu, he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River; the construction was completed in 1730. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city; the aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vishnu, Rama and Ganesh temples.
The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed; the Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805; the Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817; the Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city.
The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A rai
The Audi Q5 is a series of compact luxury crossover SUVs produced by the German luxury car manufacturer Audi from 2008. The original first-generation model was the third member of the B8 family to be released after the Audi A5 and fourth-generation A4, all being based on the Audi MLB platform; the second generation Q5 debuted in 2016 and shares the Audi MLBevo platform with the corresponding B9 versions of the A4 and A5. A concept vehicle for the upcoming Q5, this was a 2-door convertible with a 3.0 TDI engine rated at 240 PS and 500 N⋅m torque, quattro permanent four wheel drive, 8-speed automatic transmission, Copper Sunset body, LED headlights, 21-inch wheels with 265/35R21 tyres, seats with White Stone leather upholstery, MMI, 505W Bang & Olufsen sound system and internet radio, CDC shock absorbers, electric ride height adjustment, 380/356 mm front/rear ceramic brake discs with 6-piston monobloc aluminium front, floating rear callipers, Audi Drive Select. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2007 Los Angeles Auto Show.
The vehicle was unveiled at the 2008 Beijing Auto Show, at the 2008 Los Angeles Auto show. Early models include 2.0 TDI quattro, 3.0 TDI quattro. Initial vehicle models for US, Canada & Brazil include the 3.2 FSI. The Q5 commenced shipments in October 2008 for Europe, in the first quarter of 2009 for North America; the US model went on sale in March 2009 as a 2009 model year vehicle. Early models include 3.2 FSI quattro. 2.0 TFSI quattro was added in 2011 model year. Indian models went on sale in June 2009, were built by Audi's Ingolstadt facility, but are now being built at its Aurangabad, India plant. Launch models include 3.0 TDI, 2.0 TFSI. Middle East models went on sale in 2009 Q2. Launch models include 2.0 TFSI, 3.2 FSI. Japanese models include 3.2 FSI quattro. It is a concept vehicle that includes an enhanced engine, 7-speed S tronic transmission, quattro all-wheel drive; the 3.0 TFSI V6 engine was rated 408 PS at 6,000–7,000 rpm and 500 N⋅m at 3,000–5,500 rpm. Other features include ceramic brakes, active sound exhaust system, 90 millimetre wider track, 60 millimetre lower ride height, 21-inch Daytona Gray colour wheels of 7 twin-spoke design, modified air intake, cooling water strut brace in engine compartment, stainless steel-plated pedals, S line sport seats, panorama roof system, "Wörthersee 09" adhesive film, textile floor mats with "Wörthersee 09" print application, Audi drive select vehicle dynamics system, parking aid with rearview camera, voice control, Audi lane assist, headlight range control with cornering lights.
The vehicle was unveiled at the Wörthersee Tour 2009. The Audi Q5 FCEV is a fuel cell based concept car, demonstrated on 19 October 2009 at CEP Berlin, it sports a 22 Kw lithium-ion battery and a 230 Nm asynchronous motor. Audi has reported that it would offer the Q5 hybrid as launch model, but it was reported that Audi suspended the plan because of unsatisfying crash test results for the nickel metal hydride batteries. In 2009, Audi announced, it included a 1.3 kWh, battery pack. The Q5 has maximum all-electric speed of 100 km/h; the production version would be on sale in 2012 for the Japanese market. The release in the U. S. market was scheduled for late 2011. 180 PS 2.0 TFSI and 143 PS 2.0 TDI engines were introduced in Europe beginning in 2009. German models include standard 7-speed S tronic transmission for all V6 models. 8-speed Tiptronic is an option for Q5 2.0 TFSI quattro. US and Canadian Q5 3.2 FSI models include 6-speed Tiptronic as standard transmission. US and Canadian Q5 2.0 TFSI models include 8-speed Tiptronic as standard transmission.
Japanese models include standard 7-speed S tronic transmission for all models. Harman/Becker Automotive Systems produced Audi's new updated Multi Media Interface technology for Q5; the new system includes navigation and wide-screen entertainment. A three-dimensional orientation view with true-to-scale terrain and photo realistic depictions of key landmarks will be generated. Included features in this new system are USB storage media, satellite radio, an integral four-band GSM mobile/cell phone with Bluetooth connectivity. S line package includes 20-inch S line wheels, headlight washers, sport steering wheels with shift paddles, brushed aluminium inlays, S line aluminium door sills, a black headliner; the Offroad exterior package includes front and rear underbody protection panels, along with flared fender and door sill protection. A sensor informs the ESP system if a roof rack has been mounted, which will cause the Audi Q5's centre of gravity to be shifted higher in keeping with the roof load of up to 100 kg.
If a roof rack is present, the ESP engages earlier in the handling limit. Without a roof load, the driver is free to tap the full dynamic potential of the Audi Q5; the Audi Q5 is capable of towing up to 2.0 tonnes. The Q5 is fitted with an advanced Trailer Stability Program designed to combat any unwanted snaking when towing a large trailer or caravan; the new vehicle was expected to be built in Audi's home town of Ingolstadt. An investment of €300 million in production tooling and expansion was expected. Audi assembles its Q5 model in India to avoid import taxes and compete with BMW AG, Daimler AG and Porsche AG in the
Aurangabad is a city in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state in India. The city is a tourism hub, surrounded by many historical monuments, including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as well as Bibi Ka Maqbara and Panchakki. Khadki was the original name of the village, made a capital city by Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam, Shah of Ahmadnagar. Within a decade, Khadki grew into a imposing city. Malik Ambar died in 1626, he was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan. With the capture of Daulatabad by the imperial troops in 1633, the Nizam Shahi dominions, including Fatehnagar, came under the possession of the Moghals. In 1653 when Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed the viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad. Aurangabad is sometimes referred to as Khujista Bunyad by the Chroniclers of Aurangzeb's reign. In 1724, Asif Jah, a Turkic general and Nizam al-Mulk of the Mughals in the Deccan region, decided to secede from the crumbling Mughal Empire, with the intention of founding his own dynasty in the Deccan and decided to make Aurangabad his capital.
His son and successor, Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II transferred his capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad in 1763. In 1795, the city came under the Maratha rule, following the Maratha victory in the Battle of Kharda, along with an indemnity of 30 million rupees paid by Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, Nizam of Hyderabad to the Marathas. However, Maratha rule lasted only eight years before the city came under the rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad, under the protection of the British East India Company, following the British victory in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. During the period of the British Raj, the city was known as Aurungábád. After independence there have been demands to rename the city to Sambhaji Nagar; this demand further raised due to recent renaming of Faizabad to Allahabad to Prayagraj. Aurangabad was a part of the Princely State of Hyderabad during the British Raj, until its annexation into the Indian Union after the Indian Independence in 1947, thereafter a part of Hyderabad state of India until 1956.
In 1956 it became a part of newly formed bilingual Bombay state and in 1960 it became a part of Maharashtra state. The co-ordinates for Aurangabad are N 19° 53' 47" – E 75° 23' 54"; the city is surrounded by hills on all directions. Climate Classification: Aurangabad features a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification. Temperature: Annual mean temperatures in Aurangabad range from 17 to 33 °C, with the most comfortable time to visit in the winter – October to February; the highest maximum temperature recorded was 46 °C on 25 May 1905. The lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C on 2 February 1911. In the cold season, the district is sometimes affected by cold waves in association with the eastward passage of western disturbances across north India, when the minimum temperature may drop down to about 2 °C to 4 °C. Rainfall: Most of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season from June to September. Thunderstorms occur between November to April. Average annual rainfall is 710 mm; the city is cloudy during the monsoon season and the cloud cover may remain together for days.
The daily maximum temperature in the city drops to around 22 °C due to the cloud cover and heavy rains. The entire area is covered by the Deccan Traps lava flows of Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene age; the lava flows are overlain by thin alluvial deposits along the Sukhana river. The basaltic lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap is the only major geological formation occurring in Aurangabad; the lava flows are horizontal and each flow has two distinct units. The upper layers consist of vesiculara and amygdaloidal zeolitic basalt while the bottom layer consists of massive basalt; the lava flows are individually different in their ability to receive as well as hold water in storage and to transmit it. The difference in the productivity of groundwater in various flows arises as a result of their inherent physical properties such as porosity and permeability; the groundwater occurs under water table conditions and is controlled by the extent of its secondary porosity i.e. thickness of weathered rocks and spacing of joints and fractures.
The weathered vesicular trap and underlying weathered jointed and fractured massive trap constitutes the main water yielding zones. The soil is formed from igneous rocks and are black, medium black and calcareous types having different depths and profiles. Hinduism is the majority religion in Aurangabad city at 51.07% with 600,183 followers. Islam is the second most popular religion in the city with 361,817 people following it. Buddhism is followed by 178,307 people, Christianity is followed by 10,060 people, Jainism by 19,073, Sikhism by 3,427. Around 0.04% stated'other Religion', about 0.15% stated'No Particular Religion'. As one of the largest cities in India, as a result of its many colleges and universities, Aurangabad is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing. In 2010, Aurangabad was in news for placing single largest order for Mercedes Benz cars in a single transaction in India — 150 Mercedes Benz cars worth ₹65 crore. Without a local Mercedes-Benz showroom and encountering an indifferent Mercedes-Benz dealer in the nearest city, a group of successful citizens pooled their orders and negotiated a record agreement with the firm.
Soon after that, bulk purchase order of 101 BMW cars was placed. Electronics giant Videocon has its manufacturing facility in Aurangabad where it manufactures a range of home appliances; the city was a major silk and cotton te
The Volkswagen Touareg is a mid-size luxury SUV produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 2002 at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant. The vehicle was named after the nomadic Tuareg people, inhabitants of the Saharan interior in North Africa; the Touareg was a joint venture project developed by Volkswagen Group and Porsche. The goal was to create an off-road vehicle; the team, with over 300 people, was based in Weissach, Germany. The result of the joint project is the Volkswagen Group PL71 platform, shared by the Touareg, the Audi Q7 and the Porsche Cayenne, although there are styling and technical differences between those vehicles; the Touareg and Porsche both seat five, while the Q7's stretched wheelbase accommodates a third row for seven passengers. The Volkswagen Touareg is built at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant in Bratislava, alongside the Audi Q7 and Porsche Cayenne. Due to the demand, the exchange rates of euros against the US dollar, as well as different pricing and environmental policies in the US, the V6 and V8 engine variants make up most of Volkswagen's American Touareg offering.
Compared to other Volkswagen-branded vehicles sold in the US which are aimed at the mass market, Touaregs came in the more upscale trims and placed in competition with other luxury crossover SUVs from BMW and Mercedes-Benz. However, a limited number of the V10 TDI Turbocharged Direct Injection diesel engines was available in the 2004 model year, they were brought back to the United States for the 2006 as a "Tier I emissions concept". The Touareg comes as standard with a four-wheel drive system, it has an automatic progressively locking centre differential, a "low range" setting that can be activated with in-cabin controls. Options to make the vehicles more capable off-road include an available 4-wheel Adaptive Air Suspension which can raise the car's ride height on command, an interior switch allowing the rear differential to be manually locked. A rare but available option was a front locking differential, its load level ground clearance is at 6.3 in, Off Road Level is at 9.6 in, Xtra clearance of 11.8 in.
A 2007 Volkswagen Touareg 2 V10 TDI towed a Boeing 747 airliner in 2006. The 6.0-litre double overhead camshaft, 48-valve W12 engined version was intended to be a limited-edition model, with just 500 units planned to be produced. Some of those W12 Touaregs were sold in China. No sales in the United States were made; the W12 model became an ordinary model without any production restrictions. It is estimated to reach 100 kilometres per hour in 5.9 seconds. The V10 TDI was offered in the United States for a limited time in 2004, but emissions regulations forced it off the market for a temporary period; the V10 TDI returned to the U. S. market as 2006 model year vehicle in five states. US models went on sale in 2006, compliant with 50 states emission with Ultra-low sulfur diesel and particulate filter. Stricter California Air Resources Board emissions standards resulted in the V10 TDI being cancelled again in the United States; the V10 engine has since been replaced by a V6 TDI engine that meets the CARB minimum emission requirements for the 2009 model year.
However, in 2015 it was discovered that these V6 engines were not meeting the CARB emissions requirements and were part of the Volkswagen emissions scandal. Fifth Gear used this version for testing to tow a Boeing 747; the Touareg's first facelift was unveiled at the 2006 Paris Motor Show, with its North American debut at the 2007 New York Auto Show as a 2008 model. It now features the shield grille from others in the Volkswagen Passenger Cars range; the updated Touareg has more than 2300 redesigned parts and boasts some new technological features: ABS Plus, which works in conjunction with the traction control system, shortens the braking distance by up to 25% on loose surfaces. If the driver indicates to move out, the LEDs flash at an accelerated rate to warn the driver until the other vehicle moves out of the Touareg's field of vision; the 2007 Touareg, alongside an lengthy options list, could be equipped with a driving dynamics package, a rollover sensor, a 620 watt Dynaudio sound system, redesigned comfort seats.
All diesel versions now have the diesel particulate filter standard. In the US and Canada, the facelifted Touareg was marketed as the Touareg 2 for the 2008–2010 model year, reverting to Touareg in 2011; the Touareg R50 is the third Volkswagen after the Golf and Passat to be given the'R' treatment by Volkswagen Individual GmbH. The R50 global launch was at the 2007 Australian International Motor Show; the "R50" naming comes from the engine displacement: 5.0 L. The R50 was offered with a 5.0-litre V10 diesel engine that produces 257 kW and 850 N⋅m of torque, pushing the car from 0 to 100 km/h in 6.7 seconds. The R50 came standard with 21-inch Omanyt wheels, sport-tuned air suspension, decorative'engine spin' finish interior trim inlays, an optional four-zone Climatronic climate control system, it is a version of the V6 TDI with improved performanc
The Volkswagen Jetta is a compact car/small family car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen since 1979. Positioned to fill a sedan niche above the firm's Golf hatchback, it has been marketed over seven generations, variously as the Atlantic, Vento, City Jetta, Jetta City, GLI, Clasico and Sagitar; the Jetta has been offered in two- and four-door saloon / sedan, five-door wagon / estate versions – all as four- or five-seaters. Since the original version in 1980, the car has grown in power with each generation. By mid-2011 10 million Jettas have been produced and sold all over the world; as of April 2014, Volkswagen marketed over 14 million. Numerous sources note that the Jetta nameplate derives from the Atlantic'jet stream' during a period when Volkswagen named its vehicles after prominent winds and currents (e.g. the Volkswagen Passat, Volkswagen Bora, Volkswagen Scirocco. A 2013 report by former VW advertising copywriter Bertel Schmitt, said that — after consulting VW sources including Dr. Carl Hahn, former Volkswagen of America Chief and W.
P. Schmidt, former sales chief at Volkswagen — no evidence suggested Volkswagen employed a naming theme for its front-drive, water-cooled vehicles. Although the Golf reached considerable success in the North American markets, Volkswagen observed the hatchback body style lacked some of the appeal to those who preferred the traditional three-box configuration; the styling of the 1970 AMC Gremlin was controversial for truncating the Hornet sedan, but Volkswagen stylists reversed the process by grafting a new trunk onto the tail of the Golf to produce a larger Jetta saloon. The Jetta became the best-selling European car in the United States and Mexico; the car was popular in Europe, including the United Kingdom and Turkey. The Jetta was introduced to the world at the 1979 Frankfurt Auto Show. Production of the first generation began in August 1979 at the Wolfsburg plant. In Mexico, the Mark 1 was known as the "Volkswagen Atlantic"; the car was available as a two-door sedan and four-door sedan body styles, both of which shared a traditional three-box design.
Like the Volkswagen Golf Mk1, its angular styling was penned by Giorgetto Giugiaro. Styling differences could be found depending on the market. In most of the world, the car was available with composite headlamps, while in the US, it was only available with rectangular sealed beam lamps due to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108; the suspension setup was identical to the Golf and consisted of a MacPherson strut setup in front and a twist-beam rear suspension. It shared its 2,400 mm wheelbase with its hatchback counterpart, although overall length was up by 380 millimetres; the capacity of the luggage compartment was 377 litres. To distinguish the car from the Golf, interiors were made more upscale in all markets; this included velour color coordinated sill to sill carpeting. Engine choices varied depending on the local market. Most were based on 827 engines of the era. Choices in petrol engines ranged from a 1.1 litre four-cylinder engine producing 37 kW, to a 1.8-litre I4 which made 82 kW and 150 newton metres of torque.
Some cars were equipped with carburetors, while others were fuel-injected using K or KE Jetronic supplied by Robert Bosch GmbH. Diesel engine choices included a 1.6-litre making 37 kilowatts and a turbocharged version of the same engine which produced 51 kilowatts and 130 newton metres of torque. Volkswagen considered producing the Jetta in a plant located in Sterling Heights, Michigan in the US. However, due to declining sales in North America, the decision was postponed and abandoned in 1982; the site was subsequently sold to Chrysler in 1983 and was in operation as of 2009. This generation was produced in SFR Yugoslavia and Herzegovina, under the joint venture Tvornica Automobila Sarajevo for the Balkan area. In North America, the Jetta was introduced for the 1980 model year. Volkswagen was standardizing their engine lineup and the Jetta received the same 1588 cc four-cylinder with 76 hp at 5500 rpm as used in the Scirocco, the Audi 4000, fuel injected Rabbits. Specs were nearly identical for 49-state and Californian cars, although at 83 lb⋅ft torque was one pound-foot lower in 49-state cars.
Those received a two-way catalytic converter and exhaust gas recirculation, while the Californian Jettas received a three-way catalyst and lambda sensor. The three-way catalyst electronics system required extra space and replaced the glovebox in early Californian cars. For 1981, the engine was switched to the new, North America-only 1715 cc unit with 74 hp at 5000 rpm; the dashboard was upgraded as were the seats and ventilation system. Volkswagen was an early adopter of passive restraint systems; the first generation cars could be equipped with an "automatic" shoulder belt mounted to the door. The idea was to always have the belt buckled thereby doing away with the requirement that the driver and passenger remember to buckle up. Instead of a lap belt, the dashboard was designed with an integrated knee bar to prevent submarining underneath the shoulder belt. One quirk was that cars
The Audi A8 is a four-door, full-size, luxury sedan manufactured and marketed by the German automaker Audi since 1994. Succeeding the Audi V8, now in its fourth generation, the A8 has been offered with both front- or permanent all-wheel drive—and in short- and long-wheelbase variants; the first two generations employed the Volkswagen Group D platform, with the current generation deriving from the MLB platform. After the original model's 1994 release, Audi released the second generation in late 2002, the third in late 2009, the fourth and current iteration in 2017. Notable for being the first mass-market car with an aluminium chassis, all A8 models have used this construction method co-developed with Alcoa and marketed as the Audi Space Frame. A mechanically-upgraded, high-performance version of the A8 debuted in 1996 as the Audi S8. Produced at Audi's Neckarsulm plant, unlike the donor A8 model, the S8 has been available only in short-wheelbase form and is fitted standard with Audi's quattro all-wheel drive system.
In 1982, Ferdinand Piëch signed an agreement with Aluminum Company of America. The objective was to design and develop a car that would be lighter than any other vehicles in its class. In the late 1980s, it was decided that the target vehicle would be a successor to the V8 flagship introduced in 1988. By 1990, a final design by Chris Bird and Dirk van Braeckel was chosen and frozen for series production in mid-1991. In September 1993, the Audi Space Frame Concept was unveiled at the 1993 Frankfurt Motor Show as a D2 Typ 4D prototype in polished aluminum. Pilot production began in December 1993 and development ended in early 1994, at a total cost of $700 million; the Audi A8 was presented in February 1994 and debuted at the 1994 Geneva Auto Show in March, with full-scale factory production commencing in June 1994, although it was not until October 1996, for the 1997 model year that it became available in North America. Unlike its predecessor, the Audi V8 model, built on an existing steel platform, the A8 debuted on the then-new Volkswagen Group D2 platform, an all aluminium monocoque, marketed as the "Audi Space Frame", which helped to reduce weight and preserve structural rigidity.
The saloon/sedan was offered in both the A8, the A8 L extended or long-wheelbase version. The A8 L adds 5 inches of rear legroom. Updates to the car in 1997 included the addition of six interior airbags; the A8 was designed as a competitor to fellow German rivals Mercedes Benz S Class and the BMW 7 Series. In 1997, Audi introduced the first series production electronic stability control for all-wheel drive vehicles – the world's first production cars with both front and rear side airbags. For 1997, the new A8 was available with either front-wheel drive, or the Torsen-based quattro permanent four-wheel drive; the FWD models are powered by a 2.8-litre V6 engine, producing 142 kW, a 3.7-litre V8 engine producing 171.5 kW, while the quattro received a 4.2-litre V8 producing 220 kW. The A8 is available with standard luxury amenities, including dual-zone climate control and leather interior trim, 14-way power and heated seats, an enhanced Bose audio system. In 1999, Audi's flagship received side curtain airbags, new colours, restructuring of option packages.
The North American "warm weather package" added a solar sunroof which allows the interior ventilation fans to run, keeping the interior cool while the car is parked with the engine turned off. Changes to all models included a larger passenger-side mirror, a first aid kit located in the rear centre armrest. In 1999 for the 2000 model year came a minor front-end restyle, with new, clear headlights, a revised grille, lower front valance with standard projection fog lamps. On the interior, the seats received a horizontal stitch pattern; the 3.7-litre V8 FWD model was dropped, leaving the 2.8 V6 model and the long-wheelbase and short-wheelbase 4.2-litre quattro. These restyled cars featured revised external door handles and an integrated radio antenna. For 2000, the North American A8 line-up was expanded to include the A8 L. In 2001, Audi introduced its new W12 engine, a compact 6.0-litre unit developed by mating two VR6 engines together at the crankshaft. The engine became available in the A8, though only to European and Asian customers.
From its introduction through its discontinuation in 2003, only 750 of the D2 "W12" models were produced. 2001 marked the debut of the high-performance S8 variant in North American markets. In 2002, the A8 L received standard xenon high-intensity discharge lamp headlights, a heated steering wheel. A tyre pressure monitoring system, an updated Symphony II stereo, new exterior colours were added. For 2002, all A8 variants received a trunk/boot interior release lever to facilitate escape in the event an individual became trapped within. Factory production of this generation ceased at Number 105,092 on August 4, 2002. In 1997, IVM Automotive of Munich, Germany built a two-door Audi A8 Coupé; the car was unveiled at the 1997 Geneva Motor Show. Audi contracted IVM to build the prototype, was considering production of the vehicle; the coupé had shorter than the production A8 saloon. Like the Mercedes-Benz CL-Class, there was no central "B" pillar, giving the car a seamless design with a sloping roofline.
The car included custom leather seats. Audi decided not to put the A8 Coupé into production, citing low