Four-wheel drive called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, is linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive". However, "four-wheel drive" refers to a set of specific components and functions, intended off-road application, which complies with modern use of the terminology. 4WD systems were used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions; the terms used by various manufacturers reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. SAE International's standard J1952 recommends only the term All-Wheel-Drive with additional sub classifications which cover all types of AWD/4WD/4x4 systems found on production vehicles.
Four-by-four or 4x4 is used to refer to a class of vehicles in general. Syntactically, the first figure indicates the total number of wheels, the second indicates the number that are powered. So 4x2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. A 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which provide torque to two axle ends each. If this vehicle were a truck with dual rear wheels on two rear axles, so having ten wheels, its configuration would still be formulated as 6x4. During World War II, the U. S. military would use spaces and a capital'X' – like "4 X 2" or "6 X 4". Four-wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market the term refers to a system, optimized for off-road driving conditions; the term "4WD" is designated for vehicles equipped with a transfer case which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically.
All-wheel drive was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, six-wheel drive on 6×6s, so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s. Today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles; when referring to heavy vehicles the term is applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8 drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. This is coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems are not intended for more extreme off-road use; when used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles, it refers to a system that applies torque to all four wheels and/or is targeted at improving on-road traction and performance, rather than for off-road applications. Some all-wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles.
An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors. Individual-wheel drive is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor; this system has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and SLS AMG Electric; this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Per the SAE International standard J1952, AWD is the preferred term for all the systems described above; the standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories. Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential.
The definition notes. Full-Time AWD systems drive both rear axles at all times via a center differential; the torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed; the definition does not address exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system"; the standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may provide the primary vehicle propulsion. An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by an internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor; when the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle. At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle.
In addition to the above primary classifications the J1952 standard notes seconda
Vacuum forming is a simplified version of thermoforming, where a sheet of plastic is heated to a forming temperature, stretched onto a single-surface mold, forced against the mold by a vacuum. This process can be used to form plastic into permanent objects such as turnpike signs and protective covers. Draft angles are present in the design of the mold to ease removal of the formed plastic part from the mold. Deep parts can be formed if the formable sheet is mechanically or pneumatically stretched prior to bringing it into contact with the mold surface and applying vacuum. Suitable materials for use in vacuum forming are conventionally thermoplastics; the most common and easiest to use thermoplastic is high impact polystyrene sheeting. This is molded around a wood, structural foam or cast or machined aluminium mold, can form to any shape; this high impact material is hygienic and capable of retaining heat and its shape when warm water is applied and is used to package taste and odor sensitive products.
Vacuum forming is appropriate for transparent materials such as acrylic, which are used in applications for aerospace such as passenger cabin window canopies for military fixed wing aircraft and compartments for rotary wing aircraft. Vacuum forming is used in low-level technology classes for an easy way to mold. Original equipment manufacturers utilize heavy gauge vacuum formed components for production quantities in the range of 250–3000 units per year. Vacuum-formed components can be used in place of complex fabricated sheet metal, fiberglass, or plastic injection molding. Typical industry examples besides product packaging include: fascias for outdoor kiosks and automated teller machines, enclosures for medical imaging and diagnostic equipment, engine covers in a truck cab or for construction equipment, railcar interior trim and seat components. Vacuum formers are often used by hobbyists, for applications such as masks and remote control cars. There are some problems encountered in the vacuum forming process.
Absorbed moisture can expand. This weakens the plastic. However, this can be solved by drying the plastic for an extended period at high but sub-melting temperature. Webs can form around the mold, due to overheating the plastic and so must be monitored. Webbing can occur when a mold is too large or parts of the mold are too close together. Objects that are formed stick to the mold, remedied by using a draft angle of three degrees or more in the mold. There are numerous patterns; the most inventive way to use vacuum forming is to take any small item, replicate it many times and vacuum for the new pattern to create a more cohesive form. The vacuum forming helps tie the individual pieces together and make one mold out of many pieces that can be replicated. From there, you can cast plaster, etc. into the plastic form. Wood patterns are a common material to vacuum form as it is inexpensive and allows the customer to make changes to the design easily; the number of samples that one is able to get from any pattern depends on the size of the part and the thickness of the material.
Once the specifications of the part have been met, the pattern is used to create a ceramic composite mold, or cast aluminum mold for regular production. There are ways to create holes in plaster with a vacuum form if the replicated forms you make the vacuum form from are deep enough and you leave gaps between them for the plastic to form into. Once the plastic is used to cast a plaster mold, the deep plastic areas will leave holes if the mold is not filled. Cast aluminium molds are cast at a foundry and have temperature control lines running through them; this helps to set the heat of the plastic being formed as well as speed up the fabrication process. Aluminium molds can be male or female in nature, can be used in pressure forming applications; the main drawback with this type of mold is the cost. Machined aluminium molds are like cast aluminium, but are cut out of a solid block of aluminium using a CNC machine and a CAD program. Machined aluminium is used for shallow draw parts out of thin gauge material.
Applications may include packaging and trays. Cost is a significant factor with this type of tooling. Composite molds are a lower cost alternative to cast or machined aluminium molds. Composite molds are made from filled resins that start as a liquid and harden with time. Depending on the application, composite molds can last a long time and produce high quality parts. Once a vacuum forming has been created out of a sheet of plastic, a finishing operation will be needed in most cases to turn it into a usable product. Common vacuum forming finishing methods include: Guillotining: The product is cut out of the sheet by pressing a blade through the product into a die underneath; this is a clean way of removing vacuum formed parts from the material sheet. It doesn't require a special cutting tool to be made for an individual product and is therefore suitable for low volumes of parts where straight lines are no problem. Cutting only straight lines and being a slow approach compared to other finishing methods, guillotining can be expensive for projects with larger, more complex quantities.
Drilling: If simple round holes are the required finish, manually drilling them is a good solution for small quantities. Drilling guides can be used to ensure holes can be drilled in the right place; as this is a labour-intensive method, it is only suitable for small production quantities. Roller cutting: Process whereby the vacuum formed product is
2014 Paris Motor Show
The 2014 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile or 2014 Paris Motor Show took place from 4 October to 19 October 2014 on'Automobile and Fashion' theme. The 2014 Paris Motor Show will be based on Fashion' theme. Around 40 cars will be the part of exhibition in partnership with INA at Pavilion 8. All these cars will be from the year before 1900 to the current year and that includes pre-war, post-war, art years and environment-friendly customization of the contemporary era as well; the 2014 Paris Motor Show will host an event for the testing of electric and hybrid vehicle testing at the pavilion 2/1. This will be the first time that the live testing for the visitor will be done at an automobile event; the car manufacturers like BMW, Eon, Nissan, Mercedes and other will be participating in the testing. Paris Motor Show 2014 Official web site
Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. This designation was used regardless of whether the entire engine was behind the front axle line. In recent times, the manufacturers of some cars have added to the designation with the term front-mid which describes a car where the engine is in front of the passenger compartment but behind the front axle. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation, or on the front axle; this layout is the most traditional form, remains a popular, practical design. The engine which takes up a great deal of space is packaged in a location passengers and luggage would not use; the main deficit is weight distribution — the heaviest component is at one end of the vehicle. Car handling is not ideal, but predictable. In contrast with the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the FWD layout eliminates the need for a central tunnel or a higher chassis clearance to accommodate a driveshaft providing power to the rear wheels.
Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are the driven wheels, FWD cars are considered superior to RWD cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, gravel or wet tarmac; when hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two-wheel-drive layout due to the shift of weight to the rear wheels when climbing. The cornering ability of a FWD vehicle is better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the driven wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates less grip is available for cornering, which can result in understeer. High-performance vehicles use the FWD layout because weight is transferred to the rear wheels under acceleration, while unloading the front wheels and reducing their grip putting a cap on the amount of power which could realistically be utilized.
Electronic traction control can avoid wheel-spin but negates the benefit of extra power. This was a reason for the adoption of the four-wheel-drive quattro system in the high performance Jensen FF and Audi Quattro road cars. Early cars using the FWD layout include the 1929 Cord L-29, 1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV, 1949 Saab 92 and the 1959 Mini. In the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicle makers to adopt it in the US. Most European and Japanese manufacturers switched to front wheel drive for the majority of their cars in the 1960s and 1970s, the last to change being VW, Ford of Europe, General Motors. Toyota was the last Japanese company to switch in the early 1980s. BMW, focused on luxury vehicles, however retained the rear-wheel-drive layout in their smaller cars, though their MINI marque are FWD. There are four different arrangements for this basic layout, depending on the location of the engine, the heaviest component of the drivetrain.
The earliest such arrangement was not technically FWD, but rather mid-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. The engine was mounted longitudinally behind the wheels, with the transmission ahead of the engine and differential at the front of the car. With the engine so far back, the weight distribution of such cars as the Cord L-29 was not ideal; the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant solved the weight distribution issue by placing the transmission at the front of the car with the differential between it and the engine. Combined with the car's low slung unibody design, this resulted in handling, remarkable for the era. Renault is the most recent user of this format - having used it on the Renault 4, the first generation Renault 5, but it has since fallen out of favor since it encroaches into the interior space; the 1946 Panhard Dyna X, designed by Jean-Albert Grégoire, had the engine longitudinally in front of the front wheels, with the transmission behind the engine and the differential at the rear of the assembly.
This arrangement, used by Panhard until 1967 had a weight distribution problem analogous to that of the Cord L29 mentioned above. However, the Panhard's air-cooled flat twin engine was light, mounted low down with a low centre of gravity reducing the effect; the air-cooled flat twin engine of the Citroën 2CV was mounted low, in front of the front wheels, with the transmission behind the axle line and the differential between the two. This became quite popular; this is the standard configuration of Subaru front-wheel-drive vehicles. In 1979, Toyota introduced and launched their first front-wheel-drive car, the Tercel, it had its engine longitudinally mounted, unlike most other front-wheel-drive cars on the market at that time; this arrangement continued on the second-generation Tercel, until 1987, the third generation received a new, transversely mounted engine. Other front-wheel-drive Toyota models, such as Camry, Corolla, had transversely mounted engines from the beginning on; the 1966 Oldsmobile Toronado used a novel arrangement which had the engine and transmission in a'side-by-side' arrangem
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital, is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, it is situated on the River Havel 24 kilometres southwest of Berlin's city centre. Potsdam was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser until 1918, its planning embodied ideas of the Age of Enlightenment: through a careful balance of architecture and landscape, Potsdam was intended as "a picturesque, pastoral dream" which would remind its residents of their relationship with nature and reason. Around the city there are a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks, in particular the parks and palaces of Sanssouci, the largest World Heritage Site in Germany; the Potsdam Conference in 1945 was held at the palace Cecilienhof. Babelsberg, in the south-eastern part of Potsdam, was a major film production studio before the 1930s and has enjoyed success as a major center of European film production since the fall of the Berlin Wall.
The Filmstudio Babelsberg is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world. Potsdam developed into a centre of science in Germany in the 19th century. Today, there are three public colleges, the University of Potsdam, more than 30 research institutes in the city; the area was formed from a series of large moraines left after the last glacial period. Today, the city is three-quarters green space, with just a quarter as urban area. There are about 20 lakes and rivers in and around Potsdam, such as the Havel, the Griebnitzsee, Templiner See, Tiefer See, Teltowkanal, Heiliger See and the Sacrower See; the highest point is the 114-metre high Kleiner Ravensberg. Potsdam is divided into seven historic city Bezirke and nine new Stadtteile, which joined the city in 2003; the appearance of the city quarters is quite different. Those in the north and in the centre consist of historical buildings, the south of the city is dominated by larger areas of newer buildings; the city of Potsdam is divided into 34 Stadtteile, which are divided further into 84 statistical Bezirke.
Today one distinguishes between the older parts of the city - these are the city center, the western and northern suburbs, Bornstedt, Potsdam South, Drewitz and Kirchsteigfeld - and those communities incorporated after 1990 which have since 2003 become Stadtteile - these are Eiche, Golm, Groß Glienicke, Marquardt, Neu Fahrland and Uetz-Paaren. The new Stadtteile are located in the north of the city. For the history of all incorporations, see the relevant section on incorporation and spin-offs. Structure with statistical numbering: Officially the climate is oceanic - more degraded by being far from the coast and to the east, but using the 1961-1990 normal and the 0 °C isotherm the city has a humid continental climate, which shows a slight influence of the continent different from the climates predominantly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Low averages below freezing for all winter causing snows that are frequent and winters are cold, but not as stringent as inland locations or with greater influence from the same.
Summer is relatively warm with temperatures between 23 to 24 ° C, the heat waves being influenced by the UHI of Potsdam. The average winter high temperature is 3.5 °C, with a low of −1.7 °C. Snow is common in the winter. Spring and autumn are short. Summers are mild, with a high of 23.6 °C and a low of 12.7 °C. The name "Potsdam" seems to have been Poztupimi. A common theory is that it derives from an old West Slavonic term meaning "beneath the oaks", i.e. the corrupted pod dubmi/dubimi. However some question this explanation; the area around Potsdam shows signs of occupancy since the Bronze Age and was part of Magna Germania as described by Tacitus. After the great migrations of the Germanic peoples, Slavs moved in and Potsdam was founded after the 7th century as a settlement of the Hevelli tribe centred on a castle, it was first mentioned in a document in 993 as Poztupimi, when Emperor Otto III gifted the territory to the Quedlinburg Abbey led by his aunt Matilda. By 1317, it was mentioned as a small town.
It gained its town charter in 1345. In 1573, it was still a small market town of 2,000 inhabitants. Potsdam lost nearly half of its population due to the Thirty Years' War. A continuous Hohenzollern possession since 1415, Potsdam became prominent, when it was chosen in 1660 as the hunting residence of Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg, the core of the powerful state that became the Kingdom of Prussia, it housed Prussian barracks. After the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Potsdam became a centre of European immigration, its religious freedom attracted people from France, the Netherlands and Bohemia. The edict accelerated economic recovery; the city became a full residence of the Prussian royal family. The buildings of the royal residences were built during the reign of Frederick the Great. One of these is the Sanssouci Palace, famed for Rococo interiors. Other royal residences include the Orangery. In 1815, at the formation of the Province of Brandenburg, Potsdam became the provincial capital until 1918, except for a period between 1827 and 1843 when Berlin was the provincial capital.
The province comprised two governorates named after their capitals Potsdam and Frankfurt (O
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province. Lying in the center of the Songliao Plain, Changchun is administered as a sub-provincial city, comprising 7 districts, 1 county and 2 county-level cities. According to the 2010 census of China, Changchun had a total population of 7,674,439 under its jurisdiction; the city's urbanized area, comprising 5 districts and 4 development areas, had a population of 3,815,270 in 2010 as the Shuangyang and Jiutai districts are not urbanized yet. It is the biggest city in Northeast China, as well as the 9th biggest city in China; the name of the city means "long spring" in Chinese. Between 1932 and 1945, Changchun was renamed Hsinking by the Japanese as it became the capital of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, occupying modern Northeast China. After the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Changchun was established as the provincial capital of Jilin in 1954. Known locally as China's "City of Automobiles", Changchun is an important industrial base with a particular focus on the automotive sector.
Because of its key role in the domestic automobile industry, Changchun was sometimes referred to as the "Detroit of China." Apart from this industrial aspect, Changchun is one of four "National Garden Cities" awarded by the Ministry of Construction of P. R. China in 2001 due to its high urban greening rate. Changchun was established on imperial decree as a small trading post and frontier village during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor in the Qing dynasty. Trading activities involved furs and other natural products during this period. In 1800, the Jiaqing Emperor selected a small village on the east bank of the Yitong River and named it "Changchun Ting". At the end of 18th century peasants from overpopulated provinces such as Shandong and Hebei began to settle in the region. In 1889, the village was promoted into a city known as "Changchun Fu". In May 1898, Changchun got its first railway station, located in Kuancheng, part of the railway from Harbin to Lüshun, constructed by the Russian Empire.
After Russia's loss of the southernmost section of this branch as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, the Kuancheng station became the last Russian station on this branch. The next station just a short distance to the south—the new "Japanese" Changchun station—became the first station of the South Manchuria Railway, which now owned all the tracks running farther south, to Lüshun, which they re-gauged to the standard gauge. A special Russo-Japanese agreement of 1907 provided that Russian gauge tracks would continue from the "Russian" Kuancheng Station to the "Japanese" Changchun Station, vice versa, tracks on the "gauge adapted by the South Manchuria Railway" would continue from Changchun Station to Kuancheng Station. An epidemic of pneumonic plague occurred in surrounding Manchuria from 1910 to 1911, it was the worst-ever recorded outbreak of pneumonic plague, spread through the Trans-Manchurian railway from the border trade port of Manzhouli. This turned out to be the beginning of the large pneumonic plague pandemic of Manchuria and Mongolia which claimed 60,000 victims.
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 and saw the transfer and assignment to Japan in 1906 the railway between Changchun and Port Arthur, all the branches. Having realized the strategic importance of Changchun's location with respect to Japan and Russia, the Japanese Government sent a group of planners and engineers to Changchun to determine the best site for a new railway station. Without the consent of the Chinese Government, Japan purchased and seized land from local farmers on which the Changchun Railway Station was to be constructed as the centre of the South Manchuria Railway Affiliated Areas. In order to turn Changchun into the centre for extracting the agricultural and mineral resources of Manchuria, Japan developed a blueprint for Changchun and invested in the construction of the city; as the prelude and preparation of invasion and long-lasting occupation of China, Japan initiated at the beginning of 1907 the planning programme of the SMRAA which embodied distinctive colonial characteristics.
The guiding ideology of the overall design was to build a high standard colonial city with sophisticated facilities, multiple functions and large scale. The comprehensive plan was to meet the needs of: Comfort demand of Japanese employees at Manchurian Railways Assurances of Changchun to be a base for Japanese control of the whole Manchuria Effective counterweight of Russia in this part of China. Accordingly, nearly 7 million Yen on average was allocated on a year-to-year basis for urban planning and construction during the period of 1907–31. Railway nexus status was underlined in the planning and construction, the main design concepts of which read as follows: under conventional grid pattern terms, two geoplagiotropic boulevards were newly carved eastward and westward from the grand square of the new railway station; the two helped forming two intersections with the gridded prototypes, which led to two circles of South and West. The two sub-civic centres served as axis on which eight radial roads were blazed that took the shape of a sectoral structure.
These kind of radial circles and the design concept of urban roads were at that time quite advanced and scientific. It activated to great extend the serious urban landscapes as well as a identification of the traditional gridded pattern. With the new Chang
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun