ŠKODA AUTO, more known as Škoda, is a Czech automobile manufacturer founded in 1895 as Laurin & Klement. Its headquarters are in Czech Republic. In 1925 Laurin & Klement was acquired by the industrial conglomerate Škoda Works, which itself became state owned in 1948. After 1991 it was privatized and in 2000 Škoda became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group.Škoda automobiles are sold in over 100 countries and in 2018, total global sales reached 1.25 million units, an increase of 4.4% from the previous year. The operating profit was €1.6 billion in 2017, an increase of 34.6% over the previous year. As of 2017, Škoda's profit margin was the second highest of all VW Group brands after Porsche; the Škoda Works were established as an arms manufacturer in 1859. ŠKODA AUTO is one of the five oldest companies producing cars and has an unbroken history alongside Daimler, Opel and Tatra. As with many long-established car manufacturers, the company which would become Škoda Auto started in the early 1890s by manufacturing bicycles.
Škoda factories were founded in 1896 as a velocipede manufacturer. In 1894, 26-year-old Václav Klement, a bookseller in Mladá Boleslav, Kingdom of Bohemia, was unable to obtain spare parts to repair his German bicycle. Klement returned his bicycle to the manufacturers and Naumann, with a letter, in Czech, asking them to carry out repairs, only to receive a reply, in German, stating: "If you want an answer from us, we ask for your messages in a language we understand." Not satisfied with the reply and realising the business potential, despite having no technical experience, decided to start a bicycle repair shop, which he and Václav Laurin opened in 1896 in Mladá Boleslav. Before going into partnership with Klement, Laurin was an established bicycle manufacturer in the nearby town of Turnov. In 1898, after moving to their newly built factory, the pair bought a Werner "Motocyclette". Laurin & Klement's first motorcyclette, powered by an engine mounted on the handlebars driving the front wheels, proved dangerous and unreliable — an early accident on it cost Laurin a front tooth.
To design a safer machine with its structure around the engine, the pair wrote to German ignition specialist Robert Bosch for advice on a different electromagnetic system. Their new Slavia motorcycle made its debut in 1899 and the company became the first motorcycle factory in Central Europe. In 1900, with a company workforce of 32, Slavia exports began and 150 machines were shipped to London for the Hewtson firm. Shortly afterwards, the press credited them as makers of the first motorcycle. By 1905, the firm was manufacturing automobiles, making it the second-oldest car manufacturer in the Czech lands after Tatra; the company, with an area of 7,800 square metres, had a workforce of 320 and used 170 special machine-tools, power-driven by 100 horsepower of steam power. The first model, Voiturette A, was a success and the company was established both within Austria-Hungary and internationally. After World War I the Laurin & Klement company began producing trucks, but in 1924, after running into problems and being affected by a fire on their premises, the company sought a new partner.
Meanwhile, "Akciová společnost, dříve Škodovy závody", an arms manufacturer and multi-sector concern in Pilsen which had become one of the largest industrial enterprises in Europe and the largest in Czechoslovakia, sought to enlarge its non-arms manufacturing base and acquired Laurin & Klement in 1925. It started manufacturing cars in cooperation with Hispano-Suiza. Most of the production took place under Škoda's name. An assembly line was used for production from 1930 onwards. In the same year a formal spin-off of the car manufacture into a new company, Akciová společnost pro automobilový průmysl or abbreviated ASAP, took place. ASAP remained a wholly owned subsidiary of the Škoda Works and continued to sell cars under the Škoda marque. Apart from the factory in Mladá Boleslav it included the firm's representation, sales offices and services, as well as a central workshop in Prague. At the time, the car factory in Mladá Boleslav covered an area of 215,000 square metres and employed 3,750 blue-collar and 500 white-collar workers.
After a decline caused by the economic depression, Škoda introduced a new line of cars in the 1930s which differed from its previous products. A new design of chassis with backbone tube and all-around independent suspension was developed under the leadership of chief engineer Vladimír Matouš and modelled on the one first introduced by Hans Ledwinka in Tatra. First used on model Škoda 420 Standard in 1933, it aimed at solving insufficient torsional stiffness of the ladder frame; the new design of chassis became the basis for models Popular, Rapid and the Superb. While in 1933 Škoda had a 14% share of the Czechoslovak car market and occupied third place behind Praga and Tatra, the new line made it a market leader by 1936, with a 39% share in 1938. During the occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II the Škoda Works were turned into part of the Reichswerke Hermann Göring serving the German war effort by producing components for military terrain vehicles, military planes, other weapon components and cartridge cases.
Vehicle output decreased from 7,052 in 1939 to 683 in 1944. A total of 316 trucks were produced between January and May 1945; the UK and US air forces bombed the Škoda works between 1940 and 1945. The final massive air raid took place on 25 April 1945 a
Audi Sport GmbH
Audi Sport GmbH known as quattro GmbH, is a wholly owned private subsidiary of Audi, a division of the Volkswagen Group. Founded in October 1983 as quattro GmbH, it specialises in producing high performance Audi cars and components, along with purchaser specified customisations; the company's former name was an homage to Audi's original four-wheel drive rally-inspired road car—the Audi Quattro. In 2016, the company was renamed Audi Sport GmbH, it is located in a 3,500 square metres site at Neckarsulm, near Stuttgart, in the German State of Baden-Württemberg. With over twenty years experience, their own development and manufacturing factories are based within the larger 10,700 square metres site of the now defunct German automotive maker NSU Motorenwerke AG, on what is now known as Audi's "aluminium plant", or aluminium site. Although "quattro GmbH" as a company may be unknown, compared to its parent, its core products include the Audi RS4, the Audi RS6 and the Audi R8. Furthermore, it is a'closed company', in that it does not sell its automobiles directly to the public via franchised outlets under its own brand name.
However, it does now sell'quattro GmbH' branded lifestyle products and accessories via Audi franchised outlets and Audi Forum such as that located in the Allianz Arena on the northern outskirts of Munich, Germany. Audi Sport GmbH specialises in four'key' areas, including the design and production of specialist and high performance Audi automobiles, such as the Audi RS3, Audi RS4, Audi RS5, Audi RS6, Audi RS7, Audi RS Q3, Audi TTRS and the Audi R8, they design and specify roadwheels, design and produce sports suspension, the specialist car body parts which are used on the Audi "S line" trim specification available on most of the model range. The Audi RS cars have technology and performance comparable with high performance sports cars such as the Porsche 911. Being based on conventional saloon or estate cars, RS models retain the everyday comfort and practicality of regular mainstream models, they are some of the most powerful vehicles offered by Audi. quattro GmbH create, design and produce all RS models in conjunction with parent, AUDI AG.
The "RS" initials are taken from the German: RennSport - translated as "racing sport". RS is Audi's highest trim level, positioned above the "S" specification level of Audi's regular model range. RS cars are produced in limited numbers over a limited time scale, pioneer some of Audi's latest and most advanced technology and engineering prowess. Whilst RS cars command a much higher purchase price, compared to their'lesser' brethren, they retain high residual values too. S line is a trim specification, offered on many Audi models. Whilst the individual S line parts and components are designed and manufactured by quattro GmbH, Audi "S line" cars are still manufactured in the same AUDI AG factories, on the same production lines as their related models with differing trim levels. Cars with "S line" trim should not be confused with "RS" models. Audi cars with S line trim bear identical performance figures to their counterparts with SE or base trim levels, with the exception of the Audi Q7 S line with the 3.0 V6 TFSI petrol engines.
Quattro GmbH offers potential purchasers of new Audi cars the possibility of customising their new car beyond the scope of "conventional" options, to their own personal desires during the initial manufacturing process. This facility is called Audi exclusive, extends to all areas of the car; the customer may choose unique exterior paint, in any colour, as well as alloy wheels developed by quattro GmbH. For the interior, the upholstery can be finished in various grades and grains of leathers, in a choice of colours; these coloured leathers may be applied to interior door coverings and rear parcel shelves. Headlining fabrics can be customised in colour, along with seat belt webbing; the interior can be finished with a wide selection of wooden trims, sourced from around the world, along with colour coordinated piping on the edges of tailored floor carpet mats. A range of in-car office equipment is available. Quattro GmbH first offered this service at the 1995 Frankfurt International Motor Show. From 1985, quattro GmbH have developed a range of Audi lifestyle products, known as Audi Accessories.
These include mountain bikes and personal leather goods, such as briefcases, handbags and wallets. Quattro GmbH has only been able to produce one specific model at a time at its sole plant at Neckarsulm. Chronologically, the first quattro GmbH model produced was the Audi RS2 Avant, a joint venture between Porsche and quattro GmbH, from 1994-1996. After this initial joint venture, all subsequent cars have been produced at Neckarsulm by quattro GmbH; the second car was the C4 S6 Plus, produced from April 1996 to July 1997. Third was the 2000-2001 B5 RS4 Avant quattro. Sixth out of quattro GmbH was the 2006 B7 RS4 quattro, seventh out of quattro GmbH was t
The Volkswagen Jetta is a compact car/small family car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen since 1979. Positioned to fill a sedan niche above the firm's Golf hatchback, it has been marketed over seven generations, variously as the Atlantic, Vento, City Jetta, Jetta City, GLI, Clasico and Sagitar; the Jetta has been offered in two- and four-door saloon / sedan, five-door wagon / estate versions – all as four- or five-seaters. Since the original version in 1980, the car has grown in power with each generation. By mid-2011 10 million Jettas have been produced and sold all over the world; as of April 2014, Volkswagen marketed over 14 million. Numerous sources note that the Jetta nameplate derives from the Atlantic'jet stream' during a period when Volkswagen named its vehicles after prominent winds and currents (e.g. the Volkswagen Passat, Volkswagen Bora, Volkswagen Scirocco. A 2013 report by former VW advertising copywriter Bertel Schmitt, said that — after consulting VW sources including Dr. Carl Hahn, former Volkswagen of America Chief and W.
P. Schmidt, former sales chief at Volkswagen — no evidence suggested Volkswagen employed a naming theme for its front-drive, water-cooled vehicles. Although the Golf reached considerable success in the North American markets, Volkswagen observed the hatchback body style lacked some of the appeal to those who preferred the traditional three-box configuration; the styling of the 1970 AMC Gremlin was controversial for truncating the Hornet sedan, but Volkswagen stylists reversed the process by grafting a new trunk onto the tail of the Golf to produce a larger Jetta saloon. The Jetta became the best-selling European car in the United States and Mexico; the car was popular in Europe, including the United Kingdom and Turkey. The Jetta was introduced to the world at the 1979 Frankfurt Auto Show. Production of the first generation began in August 1979 at the Wolfsburg plant. In Mexico, the Mark 1 was known as the "Volkswagen Atlantic"; the car was available as a two-door sedan and four-door sedan body styles, both of which shared a traditional three-box design.
Like the Volkswagen Golf Mk1, its angular styling was penned by Giorgetto Giugiaro. Styling differences could be found depending on the market. In most of the world, the car was available with composite headlamps, while in the US, it was only available with rectangular sealed beam lamps due to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108; the suspension setup was identical to the Golf and consisted of a MacPherson strut setup in front and a twist-beam rear suspension. It shared its 2,400 mm wheelbase with its hatchback counterpart, although overall length was up by 380 millimetres; the capacity of the luggage compartment was 377 litres. To distinguish the car from the Golf, interiors were made more upscale in all markets; this included velour color coordinated sill to sill carpeting. Engine choices varied depending on the local market. Most were based on 827 engines of the era. Choices in petrol engines ranged from a 1.1 litre four-cylinder engine producing 37 kW, to a 1.8-litre I4 which made 82 kW and 150 newton metres of torque.
Some cars were equipped with carburetors, while others were fuel-injected using K or KE Jetronic supplied by Robert Bosch GmbH. Diesel engine choices included a 1.6-litre making 37 kilowatts and a turbocharged version of the same engine which produced 51 kilowatts and 130 newton metres of torque. Volkswagen considered producing the Jetta in a plant located in Sterling Heights, Michigan in the US. However, due to declining sales in North America, the decision was postponed and abandoned in 1982; the site was subsequently sold to Chrysler in 1983 and was in operation as of 2009. This generation was produced in SFR Yugoslavia and Herzegovina, under the joint venture Tvornica Automobila Sarajevo for the Balkan area. In North America, the Jetta was introduced for the 1980 model year. Volkswagen was standardizing their engine lineup and the Jetta received the same 1588 cc four-cylinder with 76 hp at 5500 rpm as used in the Scirocco, the Audi 4000, fuel injected Rabbits. Specs were nearly identical for 49-state and Californian cars, although at 83 lb⋅ft torque was one pound-foot lower in 49-state cars.
Those received a two-way catalytic converter and exhaust gas recirculation, while the Californian Jettas received a three-way catalyst and lambda sensor. The three-way catalyst electronics system required extra space and replaced the glovebox in early Californian cars. For 1981, the engine was switched to the new, North America-only 1715 cc unit with 74 hp at 5000 rpm; the dashboard was upgraded as were the seats and ventilation system. Volkswagen was an early adopter of passive restraint systems; the first generation cars could be equipped with an "automatic" shoulder belt mounted to the door. The idea was to always have the belt buckled thereby doing away with the requirement that the driver and passenger remember to buckle up. Instead of a lap belt, the dashboard was designed with an integrated knee bar to prevent submarining underneath the shoulder belt. One quirk was that cars
Capital Group Companies
Capital Group is an American financial services company. It ranks among the world's oldest and largest investment management organizations, with $1.87 trillion in assets under management. Founded in Los Angeles, California in 1931, it is held and has offices around the globe in the Americas, Asia and Europe. Capital offers a range of products, including more than 40 mutual funds through its subsidiary, American Funds, as well as separately managed accounts, private equity, investment services for high net worth investors in the U. S. and a range of other offerings for institutional clients and individual investors globally. In 1931, Jonathan Bell Lovelace founded the investment firm, Dennis & Renfrew, which would become Capital Group. Lovelace had been a partner in the stock brokerage firm E. E. MacCrone, where he explored the concept of developing an open-end mutual fund, he sold his stake in that company, just prior to the Wall Street Crash of 1929. In 1933, Lovelace's firm took over management of The Investment Company of America, which he had launched at E.
E. MacCrone in 1927. For the next 20 years, his firm enjoyed modest success; as mutual funds gained in popularity in the 1950s, Capital's roster of mutual funds grew. The International Resources Fund, established in 1954, was Capital's first foray into international investing. A year earlier, Lovelace had established an international investment staff at the urging of his son, Jon Lovelace, Jr; the establishment of the firm's first overseas research office in Geneva followed in 1962. In 1958, Jon Lovelace, Jr. accounts. Rather than assign a portfolio to a single manager, he divided each portfolio among several managers; each manager have total discretion over a section of the portfolio. Known today as The Capital System, it avoids the phenomenon of creating single-manager “stars,” who can impact a fund's results should they leave. In the mid-1960s, Capital began to include research analysts in the management of the portfolios, reserving a portion of each to allow analysts to pursue their highest conviction investment ideas.
Capital Group's long-term approach has helped it avoid some of the pitfalls that have plagued other firms. In the late 1990s, the firm was criticized for not offering then-popular tech funds, but when the tech bubble burst, Capital was praised for not jumping on the bandwagon. Capital Group employs more than 7,500 associates worldwide. North American locations include Atlanta, Los Angeles, San Antonio, New York, San Francisco and Washington, D. C; as part of expansion plans in Europe, Capital Group established a presence in Frankfurt, Madrid and Zurich, adding to its offices in Geneva and Luxembourg. Its Asia offices include Beijing, Hong Kong, Mumbai and Tokyo. Capital Group has a growing presence in Sydney and a private equity office in São Paulo; the Capital Group website
Scania AB is a major Swedish manufacturer of commercial vehicles – heavy trucks and buses. It manufactures diesel engines for heavy vehicles as well as marine and general industrial applications. Scania AB was formed in 1911 through the merger of Södertälje-based Vabis and Malmö-based Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania; the company's head office has been in Södertälje since 1912. Today, Scania has production facilities in Sweden, Netherlands, Argentina, Brazil and Russia. In addition, there are assembly plants in ten countries in Africa and Europe. Scania's sales and service organisation and finance companies are worldwide. In 2012, the company employed 42,100 people around the world. Scania was listed on the NASDAQ OMX Stockholm stock exchange from 1996 to 2014. Scania's logo shows a griffin, from the coat of arms of the province of Scania. AB Scania-Vabis was established in 1911 as the result of a merger between Södertälje-based Vabis and Malmö-based Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania. Vagnfabriks Aktiebolaget i Södertelge was established as a railway car manufacturer in 1891, while Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania was established as a bicycle manufacturer in 1900.
Both companies had tried their luck at building automobiles and engines, but with varied success. In 1910, Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania had succeeded in constructing reliable vehicles, while Vabis was at the brink of closing down. An offer from Per Alfred Nordeman, managing director of Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania, to steel manufacturer Surahammars Bruk, owner of Vabis, led to an agreement in November 1910, in 1911 the merger was a reality. Development and production of engines and light vehicles were set to Södertälje, while trucks were manufactured in Malmö; the company's logo was redesigned from Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania's original logo with the head of a griffin, the coat of arms of the Swedish region Scania, centered on a three-spoke bicycle chainset. The headquarters were located in Malmö, but in 1912 they were moved to Södertälje; because there were many inexpensive, imported cars in Sweden at the time, Scania-Vabis decided to build high-class, luxury cars, for instance the type III limousine from 1920 that had a top hat holder in the roof.
Prince Carl of Sweden owned a 1913 Scania-Vabis 3S, a type, fitted with in-car buttons so the passenger could communicate with the driver. Scania-Vabis built two-seat sports cars. For the next few years the company's profits stagnated, with around a third of their orders coming from abroad; the outbreak of the First World War, changed the company, with all output being diverted to the Swedish Army. By 1916, Scania-Vabis was making enough profit to invest in redeveloping both of their production facilities. Following the war, in 1919, Scania decided to focus on building trucks, abandoning other outputs including cars and buses. However, they were hurt by the swamping of the market with decommissioned military vehicles from the war, by 1921 the company was bankrupt. After some economic difficulties in 1921, new capital came from Stockholms Enskilda Bank owned by the Wallenberg family, Scania-Vabis became a solid and technically, high standing, company. DenmarkTowards the end of 1913, the company established a subsidiary in Denmark.
The following year the first Danish-built car, a four-seater Phaeton, was built at the company's Frederiksberg factory in Copenhagen. In 1914, the factory produced Denmark's first Scania-Vabis truck, following this developed a V8 engine, one of the first in the world. In 1921, having sold around 175 trucks, 75 cars, the Danish operation was closed down. NorwayIn 1917 an agreement was established with the newly formed Norwegian company Norsk Automobilfabrik A/S about production under license of Scania-Vabis cars and lorries. Production began in 1919, but was ended in 1921 after production of only 77 lorries built from Swedish produced parts. During the Second World War Scania produced a variety of military vehicles for the Swedish Army, including Stridsvagn m/41 light tanks produced under licence. During the 1950s, the company expanded its operations into new customer segments, becoming agents for the Willys Jeep and the Volkswagen Beetle, the latter being profitable for Scania-Vabis, it started to become a genuine competitor to Volvo with their new L71 Regent truck, introduced in 1954.
During this period, Scania-Vabis expanded its dealer network and country-wide specialist workshop facilities. By the end of the 1950s, their market-share in Sweden was between 40 and 50%, was achieving 70% in the heaviest truck sector – helped by the entrepreneurial efforts of their dealers into the haulier market, their largest impact was in export markets. Before 1950, exports accounted for only 10 percent of production output, but a decade exports were now at 50% of output. Beers in the Netherlands became a important partner. Beers became official importers for Scania-Vabis in the Netherlands, established a dealer network, along with training programmes for both mechanics and drivers. Beers offered free twice-yearly overhauls of their customers vehicles, offered a mobile service throughout the Netherlands with their custom-equipped service trucks. Due to Beers concerted efforts, Scania-Vabis market share in the country remained at a consistent 20% throughout this period. Scania-Vabis were to adopt the business model of Beers in their own overseas sales operations.
The 1960s saw Scania-Vabis expanding its production operations into overseas locations. Until now, all Scania-Vabis production had been carried out at Södertälje, but the 1960s saw the need to expand production overseas. Brazil wa
The Volkswagen Volksbus is a range of step-floor city bus chassis assembled in Germany and produced by the Brazilian manufacturer Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus from 1993 to present. Today Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus produce bus chassis in the 5 to 18 tonne category as microbuses, minibuses and coaches, the majority of them are powered by MWM engines. Note: E = Electronic versions, D = Front engine, T = Rear engine 8.140 CO 8.150 OD 8.150 EOD 9.150 OD 9.150 EOD 9.160 OD 15.180 EOD 16.180 CO 16.210 CO Euro II 17.210 OD 17.210 EOD 17.240 OT 17.260 EOT 18.310 OT 18.310 OT Titan 18.320 EOT Microbus5.140 EOD 8.120 OD Euro III 8.150 OD 8.150 EODMinibus9.150 OD 9.150 EOD 9.160 ODMedium15.180 EOD 15.190 EOD 17.210 EOD 17.230 EOD 17.260 EOTCoach18.320 EOT All bodies are assembled by private coachbuilders. The coachbuilders manufacture them to desired configuration e.g. school bus, shuttle bus, tour bus & coaches etc. Main users of Volksbus chassis' are: South American manufacturersIrizar Marcopolo Neobus Caio Induscar Rosmo Comil AGA Mascarello Modasa Inrecar MetalparMexican MaunfacturersAYCO NovacapreSouth African manufacturersBusmark 2000 Busaf Irizar MarcopoloKenyan ManufacturersBanbros Microbus Minibus Midibus Coach Volkswagen Volksbus International portal VW South Africa Volksbus site South African Constellation & Volksbus specifications VW de México truck site Autobuses AGA de Colombia