Leicestershire is a landlocked county in the English Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to the north-east, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, Derbyshire to the north-west; the border with most of Warwickshire is Watling Street. Leicestershire takes its name from the city of Leicester located at its centre and administered separately from the rest of the county; the ceremonial county has a total population of just over 1 million, more than half of which lives in'Greater Leicester'. Leicestershire was recorded in the Domesday Book in four wapentakes: Guthlaxton, Framland and Gartree; these became hundreds, with the division of Goscote into West Goscote and East Goscote, the addition of Sparkenhoe hundred. In 1087, the first recorded use of the name was as Laegrecastrescir. Leicestershire's external boundaries have changed little since the Domesday Survey; the Measham-Donisthorpe exclave of Derbyshire has been exchanged for the Netherseal area, the urban expansion of Market Harborough has caused Little Bowden in Northamptonshire to be annexed.
In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 abolished the county borough status of Leicester city and the county status of neighbouring Rutland, converting both to administrative districts of Leicestershire. These actions were reversed on 1 April 1997, when Rutland and the City of Leicester became unitary authorities. Rutland became a distinct Ceremonial County once again, although it continues to be policed by Leicestershire Constabulary; the symbol of the county council, Leicestershire County Cricket Club and Leicester City FC, is the fox. Leicestershire is considered to be the birthplace of fox hunting. Hugo Meynell, who lived in Quorn, is known as the father of fox hunting. Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough have associations with fox hunting, as has neighbouring Rutland. Leicestershire and Herefordshire are the only three English counties lacking a registered flag. A design was proposed for Leicestershire in 2017 based on symbols associated with the county – a fox and a cinquefoil; the River Soar together with its tributaries and canalisations constitutes the principal river basin of the county, although the River Avon and River Welland through Harborough and along the county's southern boundaries are significant.
The Soar rises between Hinckley and Lutterworth, towards the south of the county near the Warwickshire border, flows northwards, bisecting the county along its north/south axis, through'Greater' Leicester and to the east of Loughborough where its course within the county comes to an end. It continues north marking the boundary with Nottinghamshire for some 10 kilometres before joining the River Trent at the point where Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire meet; the geographical centre of England is in Leicestershire, near Fenny Drayton in the southwest of the county. In 2013, the Ordnance Survey calculated. A large part of the north-west of the county, around Coalville, forms part of the new National Forest area extending into Derbyshire and Staffordshire; the highest point of the county is Bardon Hill at 278 metres, a Marilyn. 150–200 metres and above in nearby Charnwood Forest and to the east of the county around Launde Abbey. The lowest point, at an altitude of about 20 metres, is located at the county's northernmost tip close to Bottesford where the River Devon flowing through the Vale of Belvoir leaves Leicestershire and enters Nottinghamshire.
This results in an altitude differential of around 257.5 metres and a mean altitude of 148.75 metres. The population of Leicestershire is 609,578 people; the county covers an area of 2,084 km2. Its largest population centre is the city of Leicester, followed by the town of Loughborough. Other large towns include Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Hinckley, Market Harborough, Melton Mowbray, Oadby and Lutterworth; some of the larger of villages are:Burbage Birstall, Broughton Astley, Castle Donington, Kibworth Beauchamp, Great Glen, Ibstock and Kegworth. One of the most expanding villages is Anstey, which has seen a large number of development schemes; the United Kingdom Census 2001 showed a total resident population for Leicester of 279,921, a 0.5% decrease from the 1991 census. 62,000 were aged under 16, 199,000 were aged 16–74, 19,000 aged 75 and over. 76.9% of Leicester's population claim they have been born in the UK, according to the 2001 UK Census. Mid-year estimates for 2006 indicate that the population of the City of Leicester stood at 289,700 making Leicester the most populous city in East Midlands.
The population density is 3,814/km2 and for every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Leicester, 38.5% had no academic qualifications higher than 28.9% in all of England. 23.0% of Leicester's residents were born outside of the United Kingdom, more than double than the English average of 9.2%. Engineering has long been an important part of the economy of Leicestershire. John Taylor Bellfounders co
National Lottery (United Kingdom)
The National Lottery is the state-franchised national lottery in the United Kingdom. It is operated by Camelot Group, to whom the licence was granted in 1994, 2001 and again in 2007; the lottery was regulated by the National Lottery Commission, which has since been abolished and its responsibilities transferred to the Gambling Commission, was established by the government of John Major in 1994. All prizes are tax-free. Of all money spent on National Lottery games, around 53% goes to the prize fund and 25% to "good causes" as set out by Parliament. 12% goes to the UK Government as lottery duty, 4% to retailers as commission, a total of 5% to operator Camelot, with 4% to cover operating costs and 1% as profit. Lottery tickets and scratch cards may be bought only by people of at least 16 years of age. A statute of 1698 provided that in England lotteries were by default illegal unless authorised by statute. Early English state lotteries included the Malt Lottery; these Lotteries were part of a series of financial experiments by the English government including recoinage and the foundation of the Bank of England to raise the capital available to the state.
A 1934 Act, further liberalised in 1956 and 1976, legalised small lotteries. A National Health Service Lottery was piloted in 1988 but cancelled for legal reasons before the first draw; the UK's state-franchised lottery was set up under government licence by the government of John Major in 1993. The National Lottery is franchised to a private operator; the first draw took place on 19 November 1994 with a television programme presented by Noel Edmonds. The first numbers drawn were 30, 3, 5, 44, 14 and 22, the bonus was 10, seven jackpot winners shared a prize of £5,874,778. Tickets became available on the Isle of Man on 2 December 1999 at the request of Tynwald. A second lottery draw, was introduced by Camelot on 12 June 1999; the National Lottery undertook a major rebranding programme in October 2002, designed to combat falling sales. The main game was renamed Lotto, the National Lottery Extra became Lotto Extra, though Camelot would retire Lotto Extra on 8 July 2006 due to low sales; the stylised crossed-fingers logo was modified.
However, the games as a collective are still known as the National Lottery. It is one of the most popular forms of gambling in the United Kingdom; the draw machines for Lotto and Lotto Extra were the Criterion model, manufactured by Smartplay International Inc. but on the 25th October 2003, Camelot replaced them with Smartplay's Magnum I model. On the 21st November 2009 Camelot replaced its older Lotto draw machines again; the new machines are named Arthur, Guinevere and Merlin, reusing the names of older machines. Shortly after the new Lotto draw machines were introduced, new machines for the Thunderball game were introduced, replacing Smartplay's older Halogen I model, in use since 1999; the current Lotto machines are the Smartplay Magnum II model, the current Thunderball and Set For Life machines are the Smartplay Halogen II model. On 16 March 2018, Camelot advised more than 10 million players with online accounts to change their passwords because of a "low-level" cyber attack that affected 150 customer accounts.
They claim. Camelot claimed the hackers used a method called credential stuffing and said the attack appeared to have begun on 7 March; as of December 2016, the eligibility requirements include: Players must be at least 16 years old to buy scratchcards or to play Lotto, Thunderball or Euromillions Tickets may be bought in person at approved premises in the UK, or online over the Internet Online purchase of tickets from the National Lottery website is restricted to people who have a UK bank account, are resident in the UK or Isle of Man, are physically present in the UK or Isle of Man when making the ticket purchase. The ticket purchaser for a syndicate its manager, must meet the eligibility criteria for ticket purchase. Syndicate members must be aged 16 or over Lottery tickets are not transferable, so commercial syndicates are not permitted Several games operate under the National Lottery brand: As of March 2019, the current games include: Players buy tickets with their choice of six different numbers between 1 and 59.
The entry fee to the Lotto draw was set at £1 per board from its introduction, increased to £2 in October 2013. The draw is conducted twice a week on Wednesdays and Saturdays, except that a draw on Christmas Day is moved to Christmas Eve. Saturday draws started on 19 November 1994, under the name'National Lottery'. All of the draws are shown live on the official website at 20:30. Lotto was called The National Lottery, but was renamed Lotto in an update in 2002 after ticket sales decreased. Lotto is by far the most popular draw, with around 15 to 45 million tickets sold each draw; the most winners for a single jackpot was 133 in January 1995, each player winning £122,510. In the draw, six numbered balls are drawn without replacement from a set of 59 balls numbered from 1 to 59. A further Bonus Ball is drawn, which affects only players who match five numbers. There a
England Boxing, known until 2013 as the Amateur Boxing Association of England, is the governing body of amateur boxing clubs in England. There are separate organisations for Scotland and Wales with boxing in Northern Ireland being organised on an All-Ireland basis; the Association was founded in 1880. In 1881 it organised the first ABA Championships the following year. ABA Light-Middleweight Champions ABA Middleweight Champions ABA Light-Heavyweight Champions ABA Cruiserweight Champions ABA Heavyweight Champions ABA Super Heavyweight Champions Official website
Loughborough University is a public research university in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England. It has been a university since 1966, but the institution dates back to 1909, when the Loughborough Technical Institute began with a focus on skills and knowledge which would be directly applicable in the wider world. In March 2013, the university announced it had acquired the former broadcast centre at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park which opened as a second campus in 2015, it was a member of the 1994 Group of smaller research intensive universities until the group was dissolved in November 2013. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £300.8 million of which £41.9 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £295.5 million. Loughborough is ranked within the top 10 of all three national league tables and is internationally renowned for its sports-related courses and achievements. In 2013, the university won its seventh Queen's Anniversary Prize, awarded in recognition of its impact through research and skills development in High Value Manufacturing to create economic growth.
The university is rated five star for excellence by Quacquarelli Symonds through QS Star Scheme. The university traces its roots back to 1909 when a Technical Institute was founded in the town centre. There followed a period of rapid expansion during which the institute was renamed Loughborough College and the development of the present campus began. In the early years, efforts were made to mimic the environment of an Oxbridge college whilst maintaining a strong practical counterbalance to academic learning. During World War I, the institute served as an'instructional factory', training workers for the munitions industry. Following the war, the institute fragmented into four separate colleges: Loughborough Training College Loughborough College of Art Loughborough College of Further Education Loughborough College of Technology The last was to become the nucleus of the present university, its rapid expansion from a small provincial college to the first British technical university was due to the efforts of its principals, Herbert Schofield who led it from 1915 to 1950 and Herbert Haslegrave who oversaw its further expansion from 1953 to 1967, steered its progress first to a College of Advanced Technology and a university.
In 1966, the College of Advanced Technology as it had become, received university status. In 1977, the university broadened its range of studies by amalgamating with Loughborough College of Education. More in August 1998, the university merged with Loughborough College of Art and Design. Loughborough College is still a college of further education. Schofield became principal in 1915 and continued to lead the College of Technology until 1950. Over his years as principal, the College changed beyond recognition, he purchased the estate of Burleigh Hall on the western outskirts of the town, which became the nucleus of the present 438-acre campus. He oversaw the building of the original Hazlerigg and Rutland halls of residence, which are now home to the university's administration and the Vice-Chancellor's offices. An experienced educationist, Herbert Haslegrave took over as college principal in 1953, by both increasing the breadths and raising standards, gained it the status of Colleges of Advanced Technology in 1958.
He further began a building programme. In 1963, the Robbins Report on higher education recommended that all colleges of advanced technology should be given the status of universities. Loughborough College of Technology was granted a Royal Charter on 19 April 1966 and became Loughborough University of Technology, with Haslegrave as its first vice-chancellor, it remodelled itself in the image of the plate glass universities of the period, created under Robbins. In 1977, Loughborough Training College was absorbed into the university; the Arts College was amalgamated with the university in 1998. These additions have diluted the technological flavour of the institution, causing it to resemble more a traditional university with its mix of humanities and sciences. In 1996, the university dropped the'of Technology' from its title, becoming'Loughborough University'; the shortened name'Lufbra' is used by the students' union, the alumni association and others. The university's main campus is in the Leicestershire town of Loughborough.
The Loughborough campus covers an area of 438 acres, includes academic departments, halls of residence, the Students' Union, two gyms and playing fields. Of particular interest are the walled garden, the'garden of remembrance', the Hazlerigg-Rutland Hall fountain-courtyard and the Bastard Gates. In the central quadrangle of the campus stands a famous cedar, which has appeared as a symbol for the university. A heavy snowfall in December 1990 led to the collapse of the upper canopy which gave the tree its distinctive shape; the Pilkington Library opened in 1980. It covers 9,161 square metres over four floors with 1375 study places; the Library has a history of undertaking research in the field of information work. There is an open access area where students are allowed to take in cold food and drinks as well as to engage in group discussions. Loughborough University L
Loughborough is a town in the Charnwood borough of Leicestershire, seat of Charnwood Borough Council, home to Loughborough University. The town had a population of 57,600 in 2004, making it the second largest settlement in Leicestershire, it is close to the Nottinghamshire border and within short distances of Nottingham, East Midlands Airport and Derby. The town has the world's largest bell foundry – John Taylor Bellfounders – which made bells for the Carillon war memorial, a landmark in the Queens Park in the town, of Great Paul for St Paul's Cathedral, for York Minster; the first mention of Loughborough is in the 1086 Domesday Book. Loughborough's earliest historical reference was to "Lucteburne" in the 1086 Domesday Book, it appeared in a charter from the reign of Henry II as Lucteburga, in the Pipe Rolls of 1186 as Luchteburc. The name means "Luhhede's burgh or fortified place"; the first sign of industrialisation in the Loughborough district came in the early years of the 19th century, when John Heathcoat, an inventor from Derbyshire patented in 1809 an improvement to the warp loom, known as the twisted lace machine, which allowed mitts with a lace-like appearance to be made.
Heathcoat, in partnership with the Nottingham manufacturer Charles Lacy, moved his business from there to the village of Hathern, outside Loughborough. The product of this "Loughborough machine" came to be known as English bobbinet. However, the factory was attacked in 1816 by Luddites thought to be in the pay of Nottingham competitors and 55 frames were destroyed; this prompted Heathcoat to move his business to a disused woollen mill in Devon. In 1888 a charter of incorporation was obtained, allowing a corporation to be elected; the population increased from 11,000 to 25,000 in the following ten years. Among the factories established were Robert Taylor's bell foundry John Taylor & Co and the Falcon works, which produced steam locomotives motor cars, before it was taken over by Brush Electrical Machines. In 1897, Herbert Morris set up a factory in the Empress Works in Moor Lane which become one of the foremost crane manufacturers by the mid-20th century. There was strong municipal investment: a new sewage works in 1895 a waterworks in Blackbrook and a power station in Bridge Street in 1899.
The corporation took over Loughborough Gas Company in 1900. In 1841, Loughborough was the destination for the first package tour, organised by Thomas Cook for a temperance group from Leicester; as Loughborough grew larger throughout the 20th century, it began to acquire new suburbs. Thorpe Acre is located in the north-west of Loughborough; until the mid-20th century, it was a hamlet of about twenty houses or cottages, several of which survive. There is a 19th-century church and an old hostelry, The Plough Inn; the population is included in Loughborough–Garendon Ward of Charnwood Council. Many of the roads are named after famous poets. After the Second World War, part of Thorpe Acre was developed further in the 1950s for employees of Brush Engineering Works, 100 dwellings being built of no-fines concrete. In the 1960s and early 1970s, Thorpe Acre was chosen for a new estate. Two of Loughborough's secondary schools, Charnwood College and De Lisle College, are located on the edge of the estate; the suburb bounds Garendon Park, a large deer park from the 18th century.
Stonebow, at the upper end of Maxwell Drive, was built in the 1980s. Further development started in 2004, to link Maxwell Drive to Mitchell Drive, where Stonebow Primary School is located; the original Dishley, off Derby Road, was developed, with Thorpe Acre, in the 1970s. Dishley Church is now a ruin in Derby Road; the agriculturalist Robert Bakewell is buried there. Shelthorpe and surrounding area are new suburbs in the south of Loughborough. Work on the original Shelthorpe started in 1929, but was halted by World War II and resumed in 1946, it now has two rows of shops. A magnificent but overlooked piece of architecture is a group of twelve houses surrounding the crossroads at Castledine Street Extension, Woodthorpe Road, Shelthorpe Road. Fairmeadows Way and the surrounding area to the west of Shelthorpe and the south of the university date from the 1970s; the area stretches from Holywell Drive to Hazel Road. Rainbows, a children's hospice, Woodbrook Vale secondary school are on the edge of the suburb.
Grange Park is to the south of these. Construction began in 2006 after the completion of Terry Yardley Way to One Ash Roundabout. By 2018 the developers William Davis had built 1000 houses. Other developers are building to the west of Shelthorpe and the south of the university. William Davis came under fire in 2018 from residents saying they had been promised public amenities like shops and a place of worship, but were living on "a construction site" after William Davis submitted a planning application for 30 more houses on a site that could have been used for public purposes. Loughborough station is a mainline station serving the town. In 2012, Network Rail redeveloped the station increasing the length of the platforms and improving access. East Midlands Trains is the primary operator providing services on the Midland Main Line south to Leicester, Bedford and London St Pancras stations and north to Lincoln, Sheffield and York stations; the link to London provides a link to Europe via Eurostar.
Leicester and Derby stations allow transfers to CrossCountry trains running between the north-east of Scotland and the south-west of England. There were at one time three railway routes to the town: the s
The Football Association
The Football Association is the governing body of association football in England, the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory; the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of, the FA Cup, it is responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, youth national football teams. The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board, responsible for the Laws of the Game; as the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at London; the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.
All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules; the English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions. For centuries before the first meeting of the Football Association in The Freemasons' Tavern on Great Queen Street, London on 26 October 1863, there were no universally accepted rules for playing football. Six meetings near London's Covent Garden, at 81-82 Long Acre, ended in a split between the Football Association and what would have become the future rugby ten years later. Both of them had their own uniforms, rituals and formalised rules. In each public school the game was formalised according to local conditions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s.
Eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Forest of Leytonstone, N. N. Club, the original Crystal Palace, Kensington School, Perceval House and Blackheath Proprietary School. F. declined the offer to join. Many of these clubs play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the only one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence and playing Association Football. Although Forest School has been a member since the fifth meeting in December 1863. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley, he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bell's Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport that led to the first meeting at The Freemasons' Tavern that created the FA, he was the FA's first secretary and its second president and drafted the Laws of the Game called the "London Rules" at his home in Barnes, London.
As a player, he played in the first-ever match in 1863. The first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons' Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School and Forest School. At the final meeting, F. M. Campbell, the first FA treasurer and the Blackheath representative, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting, the first which allowed for the running with the ball in hand and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking and holding. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA but instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union; the term "soccer" dates back to this split to refer to football played under the "association" rules. After six clubs had withdrawn as they supported the opposing Rugby Rules, the Football Association had just nine members in January 1864: Barnes, Crystal Palace, War Office, Forest Club, Forest School, Sheffield and Royal Engineers.
An inaugural game using the new FA rules was scheduled for Battersea Park on 2 January 1864, but enthusiastic members of the FA could not wait for the new year and an experimental game was played at Mortlake on 19 December 1863 between Morley's Barnes team and their neighbours Richmond, ending in a goalless draw. The Richmond side were unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they subsequently helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871; the Battersea Park game was the first exhibition game using FA rules, was played there on Saturday 2 January 1864. The members of the opposing teams for this game were chosen by the President of the FA and the Secretary and included many well-known footballers of the day. After the first match according to the new FA rules a toast was given "Success to football, irrespective of class or creed". Another notable match was London v Sheffield, in which a r
Basketball England is the governing body of the sport of basketball for England. The organisation operates the English Basketball League for both Men and Women, as well as the England national team; the organisation was involved in the establishment of the Great Britain team in December 2005, along with its compatriots – Basketball Scotland and Basketball Wales. Whilst the organisation governs the British Basketball League, the country's elite and only professional basketball league, they are not involved in the day-to-day running of the league, they offer the opportunity to play basketball. The organisation was founded in 1936, it is a non-profit organisation, an association of member clubs and players who elect an Executive Board to administer their affairs. The Executive Board employ a number of professional staff to enable it to undertake its duties and achieve its aims; the headquarters of the organisation is in Manchester. The logo changed in 2014. English Basketball League Official website