Chthonic means "subterranean", but the word in English describes deities or spirits of the underworld in Ancient Greek religion. The Greek word khthon is one of several for "earth". Chthonic, a form of khthonie and khthonios, has a precise meaning in Greek; these include, but are not limited to, Persephone and Hades in classical mythology. Nocturnal ritual sacrifice was a common practice in many chthonic cults; when the sacrifice was a living creature, the animal was placed in megaron. In some Greek chthonic cults, the animal was sacrificed on a raised bomos. Offerings were burned whole or buried rather than being cooked and shared among the worshippers. In his book The Mycenaean World and classicist John Chadwick argues that many chthonic deities may be remnants of the native Pre-Hellenic religion and that many of the Olympian deities may come from the Proto-Greeks who overran the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula in the late third millennium BC, he does, note that this may be somewhat of an overgeneralization and that the origins of chthonic and Olympian deities are much more complex.
The German classicist Walter Burkert explicitly rejects the notion of chthonic deities as pre-Greek and the Olympian deities as Indo-European in his book Greek Religion. He comments, "It is the chthonic chaoi which are related to Indo-European, whereas the Olympian sacrifice has connections with Semitic tradition." The myths associating the underworld chthonic deities and fertility were not exclusive. Myths about the Olympian deities described an association with the fertility and prosperity of Earth, such as Demeter and her daughter, who both watched over aspects of the fertility of the land, but Demeter had a Olympian cult while Persephone had a chthonic one due to her association with Hades, by whom she had been captured; the categories Olympian and chthonic were not, however separate. Some Olympian deities, such as Hermes and Zeus received chthonic sacrifices and tithes in certain locations; the deified heroes Heracles and Asclepius might be worshipped as gods or chthonic heroes, depending on the site and the time of origin of the myth.
Moreover, a few deities are not classifiable under these terms. Hecate, for instance, was offered puppies at crossroads – a practice neither typical of an Olympian sacrifice nor of a chthonic sacrifice to Persephone or the heroes – but because of her underworld roles, Hecate is classed as chthonic. In analytical psychology, the term chthonic has been used to describe the spirit of nature within, the unconscious earthly impulses of the Self, one's material depths, not with negative connotations. See anima and animus or shadow; the term chthonic has connotations with regard to gender in cultural anthropology. This was by no means universal. Greek mythology has female deities associated with the sky, such as Dike, goddess of justice, who sits on the right side of Zeus as his advisor, Eos, goddess of dawn – and Hades as god of the underworld; the term allochthon in structural geology is used to describe a large block of rock, moved from its original site of formation by low angle thrust faulting.
From the Greek "allo", meaning other, "chthon", designating the process of the land mass being moved under the earth and connecting two horizontally stacked décollements and thus "under the earth". Burkert, Greek Religion, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-36281-0 Chadwick, John; the Mycenaean World. New York: Cambridge University Press. P. 85. ISBN 978-0-521-29037-1. Dillon, Matthew. Girls and Women in Classical Greek Religion. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415202728. Media related to Chthonic beings at Wikimedia Commons
Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro was an ancient Roman scholar and writer. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus. Varro was born in or near Reate to a family thought to be of equestrian rank, always remained close to his roots in the area, owning a large farm in the Reatine plain, reported as near Lago di Ripa Sottile, until his old age, he supported Pompey, reaching the office of praetor, after having been tribune of the people and curule aedile. He was one of the commission of twenty that carried out the great agrarian scheme of Caesar for the resettlement of Capua and Campania. During the civil war he commanded one of Pompey's armies in the Ilerda campaign, he escaped the penalties of being on the losing side in the civil war through two pardons granted by Julius Caesar and after the Battle of Pharsalus. Caesar appointed him to oversee the public library of Rome in 47 BC, but following Caesar's death Mark Antony proscribed him, resulting in the loss of much of his property, including his library.
As the Republic gave way to Empire, Varro gained the favour of Augustus, under whose protection he found the security and quiet to devote himself to study and writing. Varro studied under the Roman philologist Lucius Aelius Stilo, at Athens under the Academic philosopher Antiochus of Ascalon. Varro proved to be a productive writer and turned out more than 74 Latin works on a variety of topics. Among his many works, two stand out for historians, his Nine Books of Disciplines became a model for encyclopedists Pliny the Elder. The most noteworthy portion of the Nine Books of Disciplines is its use of the liberal arts as organizing principles. Varro decided to focus on identifying nine of these arts: grammar, logic, geometry, musical theory and architecture. Using Varro's list, subsequent writers defined the seven classical "liberal arts of the medieval schools"; the compilation of the Varronian chronology was an attempt to determine an exact year-by-year timeline of Roman history up to his time. It is based on the traditional sequence of the consuls of the Roman Republic — supplemented, where necessary, by inserting "dictatorial" and "anarchic" years.
It has been demonstrated to be somewhat erroneous but has become the accepted standard chronology, in large part because it was inscribed on the arch of Augustus in Rome. Varro's literary output was prolific. Called "the most learned of the Romans" by Quintilian, Varro was recognized as an important source by many other ancient authors, among them Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Virgil in the Georgics, Aulus Gellius, Macrobius and Vitruvius, who credits him with a book on architecture, his only complete work extant, Rerum rusticarum libri tres, has been described as "the well digested system of an experienced and successful farmer who has seen and practised all that he records."One noteworthy aspect of the work is his anticipation of microbiology and epidemiology. Varro warned his contemporaries to avoid swamps and marshland, since in such areas there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, but which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and cause serious diseases.
De lingua latina libri XXV Rerum rusticarum libri III Saturarum Menippearum libri CL or Menippean Satires in 150 books Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum libri XLI Logistoricon libri LXXVI Hebdomades vel de imaginibus Disciplinarum libri IX De rebus urbanis libri III De gente populi Romani libri IIII De sua vita libri III De familiis troianis De Antiquitate Litterarum libri II De Origine Linguae Latinae libri III Περί Χαρακτήρων Quaestiones Plautinae libri V De Similitudine Verborum libri III De Utilitate Sermonis libri IIII De Sermone Latino libri V De philosophia Most of the extant fragments of these works can be found in the Goetz–Schoell edition of De Lingua Latina, pp. 199–242. Cardauns, B. Marcus Terentius Varro: Einführung in sein Werk. Heidelberger Studienhefte zur Altertumswissenschaft. Heidelberg, Germany: C. Winter, 2001. D’Alessandro, P. Varrone e la tradizione metrica antica. Spudasmata, Bd. 143. Hildesheim. Dahlmann, H. M. Terentius Varro. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
Supplement 6, Abretten bis Thunudromon. Edited by Wilhelm Kroll, 1172–1277. Stut
Bolsena is a town and comune of Italy, in the province of Viterbo in northern Lazio on the eastern shore of Lake Bolsena. It is 36 km north-west of Viterbo; the ancient Via Cassia, today's highway SR143, follows the lake shore for some distance, passing through Bolsena. While it is certain that the city is the successor to the ancient Roman town of Volsinii, scholarly opinion is divided as to whether Volsinii was the same as the ancient Etruscan city of Velzna or Velsuna, the other candidate being Orvieto, 20 km NE. George Dennis pointed out; the Roman historian Pliny the Elder said that a bolt from Mars fell on Bolsena, "the richest town in Tuscany" and that the city was burned up by this bolt. The population moved to another site, which Dennis thought was Bolsena; the new city was named after the old, hence Roman Bolsena has an Etruscan name. Dennis suggests a number of crags in the area including Orvieto but does not favor Orvieto on the grounds that it is too far away. A number of Etruscan tombs have been found in the vicinity of Bolsena.
Funerary objects from these tombs are now located in Italy and abroad, including a fine collection in the British Museum. Bolsena is known for a miracle said to have occurred in the Basilica of Santa Cristina in 1263, when a Bohemian priest, in doubt about the doctrine of Transubstantiation, reported bleeding from the host he had consecrated at Mass; the Orvieto Cathedral was built to commemorate the miracle and house the Corporal of Bolsena in a reliquary made by Sienese goldsmith Ugolino di Vieri in 1337-1338. A famed fresco by Raphael and his school in the Vatican Stanze depicts the event; the United States Navy established a naval air station on 21 February 1918 to operate seaplanes during World War I. The base closed shortly after the First Armistice at Compiègne. Volsinii Bell and Alexandra A. Carpino, eds. 2016. A Companion to the Etruscans. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Haynes, Sybille. 2000. Etruscan civilization: A cultural history. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.
Pallottino, Massimo. 1978. The Etruscans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Sprenger and Gilda Bartoloni. 1983. The Etruscans: Their history and architecture. Translated by Robert E. Wolf. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Turfa, Jean MacIntosh, ed. 2013. The Etruscan World. Routledge Worlds. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. "Via Francigena - Bolsena". Romeartlover.it. Retrieved 4 April 2009
Etruscan religion comprises a set of stories and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture influenced by the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology and religion. As the Etruscan civilization was assimilated into the Roman Republic in the 4th century BC, the Etruscan religion and mythology were incorporated into classical Roman culture, following the Roman tendency to absorb some of the local gods and customs of conquered lands; the Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism. Long after the assimilation of the Etruscans, Seneca the Younger said that the difference between the Romans and the Etruscans was thatWhereas we believe lightning to be released as a result of the collision of clouds, they believe that the clouds collide so as to release lightning: for as they attribute all to deity, they are led to believe not that things have a meaning insofar as they occur, but rather that they occur because they must have a meaning.
Around the mun or muni, or tombs, were the man or mani, the souls of the ancestors. In iconography after the 5th century BC, the deceased are shown traveling to the underworld. In several instances of Etruscan art, such as in the François Tomb in Vulci, a spirit of the dead is identified by the term hinthial " underneath". A god was called an ais; the abode of a god was a sacred place, such as a favi, a grave or temple. There, one would need to make a fler, or "offering". Three layers of deities are portrayed in Etruscan art. One appears to be lesser divinities of an indigenous origin: the sun. Ruling over them were higher deities that seem to reflect the Indo-European system: Tin or Tinia, the sky, Uni his wife, Cel, the earth goddess; as a third layer, the Greek gods were adopted by the Etruscan system during the Etruscan Orientalizing Period of 750/700-600 BC. Examples are Aritimi and Pacha, over time the primary trinity became Tinia and Menrva; the Etruscans believed their religion had been revealed to them by seers, the two main ones being Tages, a childlike figure born from tilled land, gifted with prescience, Vegoia, a female figure.
The Etruscans believed in intimate contact with divinity. They did nothing without proper consultation with the signs from them; these practices were taken over in total by the Romans. The Etruscan scriptures were a corpus of texts termed the Etrusca Disciplina; this name appears in Valerius Maximus, Marcus Tullius Cicero refers to a disciplina in his writings on the subject. Massimo Pallottino summarizes the known scriptures as the Libri Haruspicini, containing the theory and rules of divination from animal entrails; the last was composed of the Libri Fatales, detailing the religiously correct methods of founding cities and shrines, draining fields, formulating laws and ordinances, measuring space and dividing time. The revelations of the prophet Tages were given in the Libri Tagetici, which included the Libri Haruspicini and the Acherontici, those of the prophetess Vegoia in the Libri Vegoici, which included the Libri Fulgurales and part of the Libri Rituales; these works did not present prophecies or scriptures in the ordinary sense: the Etrusca Disciplina foretold nothing itself.
The Etruscans appear to have had religion and no great visions. Instead they concentrated on the problem of the will of the gods: questioning why, if the gods created the universe and humanity and have a will and a plan for everyone and everything in it, they did not devise a system for communicating that will in a clear manner; the Etruscans accepted the inscrutability of their gods' wills. They did not attempt to rationalize or explain divine actions or formulate any doctrines of the gods' intentions; as answer to the problem of ascertaining the divine will, they developed an elaborate system of divination. These revelations may not be otherwise understandable and may not be pleasant or easy, but are perilous to doubt; the Etrusca Disciplina therefore was a set of rules for the conduct of all sorts of divination. Cicero saidFor a hasty acceptance of an erroneous opinion is discreditable in any case, so in an inquiry as to how much weight should be given to auspices, to sacred rites, to religious observances.
He quipped, regarding d
Orvieto is a city and comune in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. The city rises above the almost-vertical faces of tuff cliffs that are completed by defensive walls built of the same stone called Tufa; the ancient city, populated since Etruscan times, has been associated with Etruscan Velzna, but some modern scholars differ. Orvieto was a major centre of Etruscan civilization. An interesting artefact that might show the complexity of ethnic relations in ancient Italy and how such relations could be peaceful is the inscription on a tomb in the Orvieto Cannicella necropolis: mi aviles katacinas, "I am of Avile Katacina", with an Etruscan-Latin first name and a family name, believed to be of Celtic origin. Orvieto was annexed by Rome in the third century BC; because of its site on a high, steep bluff of tuff, a volcanic rock, the city was impregnable. After the collapse of the Roman Empire its defensible site gained new importance: the episcopal seat was transferred from Bolsena, the city was held by Goths and by Lombards before its self-governing commune was established in the tenth century, in which consuls governed under a feudal oath of fealty to the bishop.
Orvieto's relationship to the papacy has been a close one. By the thirteenth century, three papal palaces had been built. Orvieto, sitting on its impregnable rock controlling the road between Florence and Rome where it crossed the Chiana, was a large town: its population numbered about 30,000 at the end of the 13th century, its municipal institutions recognized in a papal bull of 1157, from 1201 Orvieto governed itself through a podestà, as as not the bishop, acting in concert with a military governor, the "captain of the people". In the 13th century bitter feuds divided the city, at the apogée of its wealth but found itself at odds with the papacy under interdict. Pope Urban IV stayed at Orvieto from 1262-64; the city became one of the major cultural centers of its time when Thomas Aquinas taught at the studium there. A small university, had its origins in a studium generale, granted to the city by Pope Gregory IX in 1236. After teaching in Orvieto Aquinas was called to Rome in 1265 to serve as papal theologian to the newly elected Pope Clement IV, as Regent master of the Santa Sabina studium provinciale, the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
The territory of Orvieto was under papal control long before it was added to the Papal States. On 15 November 1290, Pope Nicholas IV laid the cornerstone for the present building and dedicated it to the Assumption of the Virgin, a feast for which the city had a long history of special devotion; the design has been attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio, but the prevailing modern opinion is that the master mason was an obscure monk named Fra' Bevignate from Perugia. The church is striped in white travertine and greenish-black basalt in narrow bands, similar in many ways to the cathedral of Siena and other central Italian cathedrals of that era. In the following decade, cathedral authorities called Sienese architect and sculptor Lorenzo Maitani to stabilize the building and design a façade, he enlarged the choir and planned a transept with two chapels, spaces that were not finished until long after his death. The Cathedral has five bells, tuned in E flat; the façade is striking and includes some remarkable sculpture by Lorenzo Maitani.
Inside the cathedral, the Chapel of San Brizio is frescoed by Fra Angelico and with Luca Signorelli's masterpiece, his Last Judgment. The Corporal of Bolsena, on view in the Duomo, dates from a eucharistic miracle in Bolsena in 1263, when a consecrated host began to bleed onto a corporal, the small cloth upon which the host and chalice rest during the canon of the Mass. From the 11th century onward, the popes maintained an aggressive political presence in the papal territory which occupied central Italy. Together with his court, the pope moved from palace to palace in the manner of his European secular counterparts. Several central Italian cities hosted the pope and his retinue during the years of wandering, housing them in the bishop's palace. Outside Rome, only Orvieto and Viterbo had papal palaces. Pope Adrian IV was the first pope to spend significant time in Orvieto, his successor, Pope Innocent III, was a militant opponent of the Cathar heresy, which had infiltrated the city, took measures to eradicate that heresy.
In 1227, Pope Gregory IX confirmed the Dominican studium generale in Orvieto, a school of theology, one of the first in Europe. Pope Urban IV, a Frenchman, crowned in the Dominican church in Viterbo and who spent most of his papacy in Orvieto left important legacies in the city. In 1263, he began a papal palace the first outside Rome, consecrated the new Dominican church in Orvieto. Pope Nicholas IV chose Orvieto over his hometown of Rome as seat of the Curia in 1291-92, establishing the meeting of the Curia in Orvieto as a tradition, he was rewarded
Tinia was the god of the sky and the highest god in Etruscan mythology, equivalent to the Roman Jupiter and the Greek Zeus. He was the father of Hercle; the Etruscans believed in Nine Great Gods. Of thunderbolts there were eleven sorts. Tinia was part of the powerful "trinity" that included Menrva and Uni, had temples in every city of Etruria. Tinia was sometimes represented with a beard or sometimes standing and beardless. In terms of symbolism, Tinia has the thunderbolt and the rod of power, is accompanied by the eagle and sometimes has a wreath of ivy round his head, in addition to the other insignia of Jove; some of Tinia's possible epithets are detailed on the Piacenza Liver, a bronze model of a liver used for haruspicy. These inscriptions have been transcribed as Tin Θuf and Tinś Θne. There have been a number of suggestions as to their meaning, but the Etruscan language is poorly understood and there is no scholarly consensus for the translation. Tinia appears in several inscriptions, including: Kylix painted by Oltos:Itun turuce venel atelinas Tinas cliniiaras.
This has given Venel Atelinas for the sons of Tin On the bronze Chimera of Arezzo:Tinscvil A gift to Tinia
In Roman mythology, Vertumnus is the god of seasons and plant growth, as well as gardens and fruit trees. He could change his form at will; the tale of Vertumnus and Pomona has been called the only purely Latin tale in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Vertumnus' festival was held 13 August; the name Vortumnus most derives from Etruscan Voltumna. Its formation in Latin was influenced by the Latin verb vertēre meaning "to change", hence the alternative form Vertumnus. Ancient etymologies were based on superficial similarities of sound rather than the principles of modern scientific linguistics, but reflect ancient interpretations of a deity's function. In writing about the Festival of Vesta in his poem on the Roman calendar, Ovid recalls a time when the forum was still a reedy swamp and "that god, whose name fits many forms, / Wasn’t yet so-called from damming back the river". Varro was convinced that Vortumnus was Etruscan, a major god. Vertumnus' cult arrived in Rome around 300 BC, a temple to him was constructed on the Aventine Hill by 264 BC, the date when Volsinii fell to the Romans.
Propertius, the major literary source for the god asserts that the god was Etruscan, came from Volsinii. Propertius refers to a bronze statue of Vortumnus made by the legendary Mamurius Veturius, credited with the twelve ritual shields of Mars' priests the Salii; the bronze statue replaced an ancient maple statue supposed to have been brought to Rome in the time of Romulus. The statue of Vortumnus stood in a simple shrine located at the Vicus Tuscus near the Forum Romanum, was decorated according to the changing seasons. In his poem about the god, Propertius has the statue of Vortumnus speak in first-person as if to a passer-by; the base of the statue was discovered in 1549 still in situ, but has since been lost. An inscription commemorated a restoration to the statue under Diocletian and Maximian in the early 4th century AD; the subject of Vertumnus and Pomona appealed to European sculptors and painters of the 16th through the 18th centuries, providing a disguised erotic subtext in a scenario that contrasted youthful female beauty with an aged crone.
In narrating the tale in the Metamorphoses, Ovid had observed that the kind of kisses given by Vertumnus were never given by an old woman: "so Circe's smile conceals a wicked intention, Vertumnus' hot kisses ill suit an old woman's disguise". The subject was woven into tapestry in series with the generic theme Loves of the Gods, of which the mid-16th-century Brussels tapestry at Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, woven to cartoons attributed to Jan Vermeyen, must be among the earliest. François Boucher provided designs for the tapestry-weaver Maurice Jacques at the Gobelins tapestry manufactory for a series that included Vertumnus and Pomona. A similar theme of erotic disguise is found with Jupiter wooing Callisto in the guise of Diana, an example of, at the J. Paul Getty Museum. Mme de Pompadour, who sang well and danced gracefully, played the role of Pomone in a pastoral presented to a small audience at Versailles. Camille Claudel sculpted a sensual marble version of "Vertumnus and Pomona" in 1905.
Joseph Brodsky wrote a poem about Vertumnus. David Littlefield finds in the episode a movement from rape to mutual desire, effected against an orderly, "civilised" Latian landscape. Conversely, Roxanne Gentilcore reads in its diction and narrative strategies images of deception, veiled threat and seduction, in which Pomona, the tamed hamadryad now embodying the orchard, does not have a voice. Statue of Vertumnus in the Lowe Museum Museu Gulbenkian tapestry Getty Museum tapestry