Woman's Christian Temperance Union
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is an active international temperance organization, among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." It was influential in the temperance movement, supported the 18th Amendment. It was influential in social reform issues that came to prominence in the progressive era; the WCTU was organized on December 23, 1873, in Hillsboro and declared at a national convention in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1874. It operated at an international level and in the context of religion and reform, including missionary work and woman's suffrage. Two years after its founding, the American WCTU sponsored an international conference at which the International Women's Christian Temperance Union was formed; the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1883 and became the international arm of the organization, which has now affiliates in Australia, Germany, India, New Zealand, South Korea, United Kingdom, the United States, among others.
At its founding in 1874, the stated purpose of the WCTU was to create a "sober and pure world" by abstinence and evangelical Christianity. Annie Wittenmyer was its first president; the constitution of the WCTU called for "the entire prohibition of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage."Frances Willard, a noted feminist, was elected the WCTU's second president in 1879 and Willard grew the organization to be the largest organization of women in the world by 1890. She remained president until her death in 1898, its members were inspired by the Greek writer Xenophon, who defined temperance as "moderation in all things healthful. In other words, should something be good, it should not be indulged in to excess; the WCTU perceived alcohol as a cause and consequence of larger social problems rather than as a personal weakness or failing. The WCTU agitated against tobacco; the American WCTU formed a "Department for the Overthrow of the Tobacco Habit" as early as 1885 and published anti-tobacco articles in the 1880s.
Agitation against tobacco continued through to the 1950s. As a consequence of its stated purposes, the WCTU was very interested in a number of social reform issues, including labor, public health and international peace; as the movement grew in numbers and strength, members of the WCTU focused on suffrage. The WCTU was instrumental in organizing woman's suffrage leaders and in helping more women become involved in American politics. Local chapters, known as "unions", were autonomous, though linked to state and national headquarters. Willard pushed for the "Home Protection" ballot, arguing that women, being the morally superior sex, needed the vote in order to act as "citizen-mothers" and protect their homes and cure society's ills. At a time when suffragists were viewed as radicals and alienated most American women, the WCTU offered a more traditionally feminine and "appropriate" organization for women to join. Although the WCTU had chapters throughout North America with hundreds of thousands of members, the "Christian" in its title was limited to those with an evangelical Protestant conviction and the importance of their role has been noted.
The goal of evangelizing the world, according to this model, meant that few Catholics, Muslims, Buddhists or Hindus were attracted to it, "even though the last three had a pronounced cultural and religious preference for abstinence". As the WCTU grew internationally, it developed various approaches that helped with the inclusion of women of religions other than Christianity. But, it was always and still is, a Christian women's organization; the WCTU's work extended across a range of efforts to bring about social moral reform. In the 1880s it worked on creating legislation to protect working girls from the exploitation of men, including raising Age of Consent laws, it focused on keeping Sundays as Sabbath days and restrict frivolous activities. In 1901 the WCTU said; the WCTU wanted to aid immigrants coming into the United States through "Americanization" activities. Between 1900 and 1920, much of their budget was given to their center on Ellis Island, which helped to start the Americanization process.
The WCTU promoted the idea that immigrants were more prone to alcoholism than Native Americans, focusing on Irish and German immigrant communities as the source of the problem. The WCTU was concerned about trying to alleviate poverty, through abstinence from alcohol. Through journal articles, the WCTU tried to prove. A fictional story in one of their journal articles illustrates this fact: Ned has applied for a job, but he is not chosen, he finds. Jack is a kindly man but he spends his money on drink and cigarettes. Ned has been seen drinking and smoking; the employer thinks that Ned Fisher lacks the necessary traits of industriousness which he associates with abstinence and self-control. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union grew rapidly; the WCTU adopted Willard's "Do Everything" philosophy, which meant that the "W. C. T. U. Campaigned for local and national prohibition, woman suffrage, protective purity legislation, scientific temperance instruction in the schools, better working conditions for labor, anti-polygamy
The Blaine Act, formally titled Joint Resolution Proposing the Twenty-First Amendment to the United States Constitution, is a joint resolution adopted by the United States Congress on February 20, 1933, initiating repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which established Prohibition in the United States. Repeal was finalized when the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was ratified by the required minimum number of states on December 5, 1933; the Volstead Act implemented the 18th Amendment. The act defined "intoxicating beverage" as one with 0.5 percent alcohol by weight. Numerous problems with enforcement and a desire to create jobs and raise tax revenue by legalizing beer and liquor led a majority of voters and members of Congress to turn against Prohibition by late 1932; when the first legislative session of the 72nd United States Congress opened on December 7, 1931, more than two dozen bills were offered amending the Volstead Act or repealing the 18th Amendment altogether.
Republicans, who controlled both houses in the previous Congress, had been united in their support for Prohibition and, with the support of "dry" Democrats garnered more than the two-thirds majority needed to block any vote on the slightest easing of the Volstead Act. Now, however, 64 "wet" Republicans formed a caucus in the House of Representatives to work with Democrats to seek modification or repeal; the Democrats changed the rules of the House, adopting a discharge petition procedure which would force a bill to the floor for a vote if 145 members requested it. Legislative activity focused on the Senate. Among the bills filed at the start of the session was one by Senator Hiram Bingham III, which amended the Volstead Act to permit the manufacture of beer, 4 percent alcohol by weight, his bill would not have modified the 18th Amendment. Republican "wets" were able to win a minor victory on December 23, 1931, when they secured an agreement establishing a subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee which would hold hearings regarding modification of the Volstead Act and repeal of the 18th Amendment.
Senator John J. Blaine, a leader of the Senate's Republican "wets", was named subcommittee chair. Although the five-member subcommittee had a three-member "dry" majority, "wets" only wanted to use the subcommittee to lay the groundwork for a vote on a Prohibition bill. "Wets" won another victory a few days when the Senate Committee on Manufactures agreed to hold hearings on Bingham's 4 percent beer bill. These small victories emboldened "wet" forces. On December 26, Senator Bingham submitted legislation to repeal the 18th Amendment. Three-fourths of the state legislatures were required to approve any amendment, Bingham believed that too many legislatures still supported Prohibition. Bingham's bill therefore proposed submitting the amendment to the public via a national referendum or ratification by conventions specially elected by voters in each state. In the House, where "wet" forces were in somewhat disarray, Majority Leader Henry T. Rainey tried to block legislation by telling "wets" that they would have a single opportunity for a vote.
It didn't matter if the bill was modification or repeal, he said. In response, a bipartisan caucus of "wets" decided to submit a plan to modify the 18th Amendment according to the recommendations issued in 1931 by the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, a panel established by President Herbert Hoover to study law enforcement problems under Prohibition. In the first direct vote on the issue since Prohibition began, the Senate rejected the Bingham repeal resolution, 55 to 15, on January 21, 1932. "Drys" hailed the vote as symbolic of the weakness of the repeal forces. "Wets" in Congress perceived. A week after the defeat of the Bingham repeal proposal, House "wets" began drafting legislation to amend the Volstead Act to permit the manufacture of beer once more, their goal was to force a vote before the session of Congress ended in July 1932. With only 34 "wet" votes in the Senate and 190 in the House, repeal lobbyists believed no action could be taken until after the November 1932 elections.
Congressional "wets" received a major boost on February 20 when a leading Democratic candidate for president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, announced he supported repeal of the 18th Amendment as a means of generating tax revenues for the federal government and states. Roosevelt's support for repeal boosted "wet" support in the House. On February 16, the House Judiciary Committee had voted 14-to-9 against the Beck-Linthicum resolution, which would have asked state legislatures to reaffirm or repeal the 18th Amendment. House "wets" shocked political leaders in both sides on February 25 by obtaining 110 signatures on a discharge petition for the Beck-Linthicum resolution; the "wets" secured the required 145 signatures for discharge on March 1. The Beck-Linthicum resolution received 187 votes, resulting in the smallest majority "drys" had managed to muster since the start of Prohibition. House "wets", who considered the vote on Beck-Linthicum only a test of their growing strength, were thrilled by the vote.
The House test vote was encouraging to Senate "wets" as well. On March 19, Blaine's Judiciary subcommittee favorably reported a bill by Senator Bingham proposing the legalization of 4 percent beer; the subcommittee report called modification of the 18th Amendment useless. Three days a bipartisan group of 38 Senators surprised the Senate by signing a letter demanding a vote to modify or repeal the 18th A
Moonshine was a slang term for high-proof distilled spirits that were produced illicitly, without government authorization. In recent years, moonshine has been legalized in various countries and has become a commercial product. Legal in the United States since 2010, moonshine is defined as "clear, unaged whiskey" made with corn mash as its main ingredient. Liquor control laws in the United States always applied to moonshine, with efforts accelerated during the total ban on alcohol production mandated under the Eighteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Since the amendment's repeal and moonshine's recent legalization, the laws focus on evasion of taxation on spirits or intoxicating liquors. Applicable laws are enforced by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives of the US Department of Justice. Enforcement agents were once known colloquially as "revenooers". Moonshine is known by many nicknames in English, including white liquor, white lightning, mountain dew, hooch, shiney, white whiskey, mash liquor.
Other languages and countries have their own terms for moonshine. The word "moonshine" is believed to be derived from the term "moonrakers" used for early English smugglers and illegal Appalachian distillers who produced and distributed whiskey; when it was illegal in the United States, moonshine distillation was done at night to avoid discovery. It was prominent in the Appalachian area. White whiskey most entered the Appalachian region in the late 18th century to early 1800s. Scots-Irish immigrants from the province of Ulster in the north of Ireland brought their recipe for uisce beatha, Gaelic for "water of life"; the settlers made their whiskey without aging it, and, the recipe that became traditional in the Appalachian area. By the early 20th century, moonshine became a key source of income for many Appalachian residents because the limited road network made it difficult and expensive to transport corn crops; as a study of farmers in Cocke County, observes: "One could transport much more value in corn if it was first converted to whiskey.
One horse could haul ten times more value on its back in whiskey than in corn." Moonshiners in Harlan County, like Maggie Bailey, made the whiskey to sell in order to provide for their families. Others, like Amos Owens, from Rutherford County, North Carolina, Marvin "Popcorn" Sutton from Maggie Valley, North Carolina, sold moonshine to nearby areas. Sutton's life was covered in a documentary on the Discovery Channel called "Moonshiners"; the bootlegger once said. In modern usage, the term "moonshine" still implies the liquor is produced illegally, the term is sometimes used on the labels of legal products to market them as providing a forbidden drinking experience. Once distilled, drivers called bootleggers smuggled the moonshine across the region in specially-adapted cars, which were ordinary on the outside but modified with souped-up engines, extra interior room and heavy-duty shocks to coddle the jars of illicit alcohol. After Prohibition ended, the out-of-work drivers kept their skills sharp through organized races, which led to the formation of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing.
Poorly produced moonshine can be contaminated from materials used in the construction of the still. Stills employing automotive radiators as condensers are dangerous. Radiators used as condensers could contain lead at the connections to the plumbing. Using these methods resulted in blindness or lead poisoning in those who consumed tainted liquor; this was an issue during Prohibition. Consumption of lead-tainted moonshine is a serious risk factor for saturnine gout, a painful but treatable medical condition that damages the kidneys and joints. Although methanol is not produced in toxic amounts by fermentation of sugars from grain starches, contamination is still possible by unscrupulous distillers using cheap methanol to increase the apparent strength of the product. Moonshine can be made both more palatable and less dangerous by discarding the "foreshot" – the first few ounces of alcohol that drip from the condenser; because methanol vaporizes at a lower temperature than ethanol it is believed that the foreshot contains most of the methanol, if any, from the mash.
However, research shows this is not the case, methanol is present until the end of the distillation run. Despite this, distillers will collect the foreshots until the temperature of the still reaches 80 degrees celsius. Additionally, the head that comes after the foreshot contains small amounts of other undesirable compounds, such as acetone and various aldehydes. Alcohol concentrations at higher strengths are therefore dangerous to handle; this is true during the distilling process when vaporized alcohol may accumulate in the air to dangerous concentrations if adequate ventilation is not provided. A quick estimate of the alcoholic strength, or proof, of the distillate is achieved by shaking a clear container of the distillate. Large bubbles with a short duration indicate a higher alcohol content, while smaller bubbles that disappear more indicate lower alcohol content. A more reliable method is to use an hydrometer. A hydrometer is used during and after the fermentation process to determine the potential alcohol percent of the moonshine, whereas an alcoholmeter is used after the product has
The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence, with leaders emphasizing alcohol's negative effects on health and family life; the movement promotes alcohol education as well as demands new laws against the selling of alcohols, or those regulating the availability of alcohol, or those prohibiting it. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the temperance movement became prominent in many countries English-speaking and Scandinavian ones, it led to Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933. In the late-seventeenth century, alcohol was a vital part of colonial life as a beverage and commodity for men and children. Drinking was accepted and integrated into society. Despite that, drunkenness was common and not seen as a social problem; the attitudes towards alcohol began to change in the late eighteenth century. One of the reasons for the shifting attitudes was the necessity for sober laborers to operate heavy machinery, developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in 1775. As early as the 1790s, physician Benjamin Rush researched the danger that drinking alcohol could lead to disease that leads to a lack of self-control and he cited abstinence as the only treatment option. Rush condemned the use of distilled spirits; as well as addiction, Rush noticed the correlation that drunkenness had with disease, death and crime. According to, “Pompili, Maurizio et al,” there is increasing evidence that, aside from the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of the drinking is relevant for health outcomes. Overall, there is a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of diseases and injuries. Alcohol is estimated to cause about 20–30% of cases of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, homicide and motor vehicle accidents. After the American Revolution, Rush called upon ministers of various churches to act in preaching the messages of temperance. However, abstinence messages were ignored by Americans until the 1820s.
In the eighteenth century, there was a "Gin Craze" in the Kingdom of Great Britain. The bourgeoisie became critical of the widespread drunkenness among the lower classes. Motivated by the bourgeoisie's desire for order, amplified by the population growth in the cities, the drinking of gin became the subject of critical national debate. In the early nineteenth-century United States, alcohol was still regarded as a necessary part of the American diet for both practical and social reasons. On one hand, water supplies were polluted, milk was not always available, coffee and tea was expensive. On the other hand, social construct of the time made. Drunkenness was not a problem, because people would only drink small amounts of alcohol throughout the day, but at the turn of the nineteenth-century and subsequent intoxication became an issue that led to the disintegration of the family. Early temperance societies associated with churches were located in upstate New York and New England, but only lasted a few years.
These early temperance societies called for moderate drinking, but had little influence outside of their geographical areas. In 1743, John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Churches, proclaimed "that buying and drinking of liquor, unless necessary, were evils to be avoided". In 1810, Calvinist ministers met with a seminary in Massachusetts to write articles about abstinence from alcohol to use in preaching to their congregations; the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance was formed in 1813. The organization only accepted men of high social standing and encouraged moderation in alcohol consumption, its peak of influence was in 1818, but the MSSI ended in 1820 and made no significant mark on the future of the temperance movement. Other small temperance societies appear in the 1810s, but had little impact outside their immediate regions and they disbanded soon after, their methods had little effect in implementing temperance, drinking increased until after 1830. The temperance movement began at a national level in the 1820s, having been popularized by evangelical temperance reformers and among the middle classes.
There was a concentration on advice against hard spirits rather than on abstinence from all alcohol and on moral reform rather than legal measures against alcohol. An early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in Connecticut and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling; the movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence and taking positions on religious issues such as observance of the Sabbath. After the American Revolution there was a new emphasis on good citizenship for the new republic. With the Evangelical Protestant religious revival of the 1820s and'30s, called the Second Great Awakening, social movements began aiming for a perfect society; this included temperance. The Awakening brought with it an optimism about moral reform, achieved through volunteer organizations. Although the temperance movement was nonsectarian in principle, the movement consisted of church-goers; the temperance movement promoted temperance and emphasized th
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, focused on academic publishing. It is a member of the Association of American University Presses. After the retirement of William P. Sisler in 2017, the university appointed as Director George Andreou; the press maintains offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts near Harvard Square, in London, England. The press co-founded the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Yale University Press. TriLiteral was sold to LSC Communications in 2018. Notable authors published by HUP include Eudora Welty, Walter Benjamin, E. O. Wilson, John Rawls, Emily Dickinson, Stephen Jay Gould, Helen Vendler, Carol Gilligan, Amartya Sen, David Blight, Martha Nussbaum, Thomas Piketty; the Display Room in Harvard Square, dedicated to selling HUP publications, closed on June 17, 2009. HUP owns the Belknap Press imprint, which it inaugurated in May 1954 with the publication of the Harvard Guide to American History; the John Harvard Library book series is published under the Belknap imprint.
Harvard University Press distributes the Loeb Classical Library and is the publisher of the I Tatti Renaissance Library, the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library, the Murty Classical Library of India. It is distinct from Harvard Business Press, part of Harvard Business Publishing, the independent Harvard Common Press, its 2011 publication Listed: Dispatches from America's Endangered Species Act by Joe Roman received the 2012 Rachel Carson Environment Book Award from the Society of Environmental Journalists. Hall, Max. Harvard University Press: A History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-38080-6. Official website Blog of Harvard University Press
Lyman Beecher was a Presbyterian minister, American Temperance Society co-founder and leader, the father of 13 children, many of whom became noted figures, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher and Thomas K. Beecher. Beecher was born in New Haven, Connecticut, to David Beecher, a blacksmith, Esther Hawley Lyman, his mother died shortly after his birth, he was committed to the care of his uncle Lot Benton, by whom he was adopted as a son, with whom his early life was spent between blacksmithing and farming. But it was soon found, he was fitted for college by the Rev. Thomas W. Bray, at the age of eighteen entered Yale, graduating in 1797, he spent 1798 in Yale Divinity School under the tutelage of his mentor Timothy Dwight. In September 1798, he was licensed to preach by the New Haven West Association, entered upon his clerical duties by supplying the pulpit in the Presbyterian church at East Hampton, Long Island, was ordained in 1799.
Here he married Roxana Foote. His salary was $300 a year, after five years increased with a dilapidated parsonage. To eke out his scanty income, his wife opened a private school. Beecher gained popular recognition in 1806, after giving a sermon concerning the duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. Finding his salary wholly inadequate to support his increasing family, he resigned the charge at East Hampton, in 1810 moved to Litchfield, where he was minister to the town's Congregational Church, where he remained 16 years. There he started to preach Calvinism, he purchased the home reared a large family. The excessive use of alcohol, known as "intemperance," was a source of concern in New England as in the rest of the United States. Heavy drinking occurred at some formal meetings of clergy, Beecher resolved to take a stand against it. In 1826 he published six sermons on intemperance, they were sent throughout the United States, ran through many editions in England, were translated into several languages on the European continent, had a large sale after the lapse of 50 years.
During Beecher's residence in Litchfield the Unitarian controversy arose, he took a prominent part. Litchfield was at this time the seat of a famous law school and several other institutions of learning, Beecher and his wife undertook to supervise the training of several young women, who were received into their family, but here too he found his salary inadequate. The rapid and extensive defection of the Congregational churches in Boston and vicinity, under the lead of William Ellery Channing and others in sympathy with him, had excited much anxiety throughout New England; the religious public had become impressed with the growing importance of the great west. His mission there was to train ministers to win the West for Protestantism. Along with his presidency, he was professor of sacred theology, pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati He served as a pastor for the first ten years of his Lane presidency. Beecher was notorious for his anti-Catholicism and soon after his arrival in Cincinnati authored the nativist tract "A Plea for the West."
His sermon on this subject at Boston in 1834 was followed shortly by the burning of the Catholic Ursuline sisters' convent there. Beecher's term at Lane came at a time when a number of intense issues slavery, threatened to divide the Presbyterian Church, the state of Ohio, the nation; the French Revolution of 1830, the agitation in England for reform and against colonial slavery, the punishment by American courts of citizens who had dared to attack the slave trade carried on under the American flag, had begun to direct the attention of American philanthropists to the evils of American slavery, an abolition convention met in Philadelphia in 1833. Its president, Arthur Tappan, through whose liberal donations Beecher had been secured to Lane Seminary, forwarded to the students a copy of the address issued by the convention, the whole subject was soon under discussion. In 1834, students at Lane debated the slavery issue for 18 consecutive nights and many of them chose to adopt the cause of abolitionism.
Many of the students were from the south, an effort was made to stop the discussions and the meetings. Slaveholders from Kentucky came in and incited mob violence, for several weeks Beecher lived in a turmoil, not knowing how soon the rabble might destroy the seminary and the houses of the professors; the board of trustees interfered during the absence of Beecher, allayed the excitement of the mob by forbidding all further discussion of slavery in the Seminary, whereupon the students withdrew en masse. Beecher opposed the "radical" position of abolition and refused to offer classes to African-Americans; the group of about 50 students who left the Seminary went to Oberlin College. The events sparked a growing national discussion of abolition that contributed to the beginning of the Civil War. Although earlier in his career he had opposed them, Beecher stoked controversy by adv
1922 Swedish prohibition referendum
A non-binding referendum on prohibition of alcohol was held in Sweden on 27 August 1922. The proposal failed, with 51% voting against the change on a turnout of 55.1%. Voting patterns were divided between men and women, with 63% of women voting for the proposal and 63% of men voting against. There was plenty of campaigning from both sides, the best remembered poster being one designed by artist Albert Engström, with the famous quote Kräftor kräva dessa drycker. Referendums in Sweden Alcohol in Sweden Swedish temperance movements