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Voluntary Service Overseas

Voluntary Service Overseas is a not-for-profit international development organization charity with a vision for a "world without poverty" and a mission to "bring people together to fight poverty and marginalisation". VSO delivers development impact through a blend volunteer model consisting of international and community volunteers working together to develop the systems and conditions for positive social change As of 2018, VSO worked in 24 countries in Africa and AsiaVSO works in the following core programme areas: Inclusive Education Health LivelihoodsAnd through three core approaches that are relevant to all the areas: Social Inclusion and Gender Social Accountability ResilienceIn addition, VSO has a youth focus in which young people are both the beneficiaries of social change outcomes as well as the primary actors in creating the change. Voluntary Service Overseas is a company limited by guarantee. VSO operates internationally through branch offices. Exceptions to this are: Voluntary Service Overseas Limited Company Limited by Guarantee, a subsidiary of VSO and incorporated as a charitable entity in Ireland.

VSO India, which has agreements in place with the independent Indian charitable organisation, VSO India Trust. These agreements permit the Trust to carry out VSO’s work using the VSO trademark. Stichting VSO Netherland, a Dutch independent charitable organisation that has agreements with VSO, including a trademark license, whose accounts were integrated with VSO’s as of April 2018. In March 2018, Voluntary Service Overseas USA, Inc. was incorporated, an application has been made to register this entity as a US 501 organisation. VSO's governing body is the International Board comprising 9 trustees, it has two youth advisors to the Board. The day-to-day management of VSO is carried out by the Executive Board; the Executive Board has operational oversight of VSO's global work. Each Executive Board member is responsible for a function of VSO: People, Business Development, Finance. VSO was founded in 1958 by Alec and Mora Dickson through a bishop's letter to the London paper, The Sunday Times, as an educational experience overseas for school-leavers only male, before starting university.

Volunteers offered unskilled help in return for basic pocket money. In 1962, the practice changed to using university graduate volunteers. By 1980, the unskilled volunteers had been phased out and the length of service had been extended to two years. Active volunteer numbers dropped to about 750, but by 2003 had returned to about 1,400. Since December 2004, applications to volunteer have been accepted from those between ages 20 and 75, who must have at least two years' experience in their field. In the early 1990s, in order to meet growing demand for specialised and skilled volunteers from its partners in developing countries, VSO established partner agencies in Canada, the Netherlands, Kenya/Uganda, the Philippines. In 2004, VSO launched a partnership called iVolunteer Overseas in India with iVolunteer, an existing volunteering program of MITRA, an Indian NGO. VSO's structure evolved to become an international federation which now includes Ireland and India as well as the above named countries.

International volunteers are recruited through all of these bases, they can be placed in any one of VSO's programmes. From 2011, VSO led a consortium to deliver the UK government's International Citizen Service programme that provides international volunteer placements for 18- to 25-year-olds; the programme, funded by the Department for International Development, now includes Raleigh International and Restless Development. In 2016/17, 3,090 young people volunteered through the International Citizen Service programme. In 2017, VSO was awarded a grant of £50 million from the UK's Department of International Development for a program called "Volunteering for Development." The three-year initiative aims to improve quality and access to health and education services as well as livelihood opportunities for the most poor and vulnerable, targets more than 2 million of the poorest and most marginalised people across the globe. The grant supports VSO's vision to enhance effectiveness across a number of vital areas - including in VSO's "core approaches" of social inclusion & gender, social accountability, resilience.

During its first year the project placed 606 international volunteers and 920 national volunteers across VSO's four areas of focus. Highlights of VSO today include: VSO supports the delivery of integrated, large-scale education and livelihoods programmes in a range of countries, its programmes reached 1.4m people in 2017/18 VSO now works in post-crisis situations and has responded to disasters in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Sierra Leone. Most it has supported the establishment of a home-based early childhood care and education in emergencies to support refugee Rohingya communities in Bangladesh It supports communities and governments to inform and influence policy diaglogues, it supported the development of the Africa Union Gender Strategy and the Kenya Special Education Needs Policy. In Nepal, VSO has been awarded nearly £10 million for inclusive education work through the UK's Girls' Education Challenge, the world's largest education challenge fund, which targets support for adolescent girls.

In its first phase the project Sisters for Sisters' Education introduced to Nepal the first peer-based mentoring programme for marginalised girls. Citizen Led Monitoring is now a key element of VSOs work

Geological history of Earth

The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's past based on the geological time scale, a system of chronological measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers. Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago by accretion from the solar nebula, a disk-shaped mass of dust and gas left over from the formation of the Sun, which created the rest of the Solar System. Earth was molten due to extreme volcanism and frequent collisions with other bodies; the outer layer of the planet cooled to form a solid crust when water began accumulating in the atmosphere. The Moon formed soon afterwards as a result of the impact of a planetoid with the Earth. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, augmented by ice delivered from comets, produced the oceans; as the surface continually reshaped itself over hundreds of millions of years, continents formed and broke apart. They migrated across the surface combining to form a supercontinent.

750 million years ago, the earliest-known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents recombined to form Pannotia, 600 to 540 million years ago finally Pangaea, which broke apart 200 million years ago; the present pattern of ice ages began about 40 million years ago intensified at the end of the Pliocene. The polar regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw, repeating every 40,000–100,000 years; the last glacial period of the current ice age ended about 10,000 years ago. The Precambrian includes 90% of geologic time, it extends from 4.6 billion years ago to the beginning of the Cambrian Period. It includes three eons, the Hadean and Proterozoic. Major volcanic events altering the Earth's environment and causing extinctions may have occurred 10 times in the past 3 billion years. During Hadean time, the Solar System was forming within a large cloud of gas and dust around the sun, called an accretion disc from which Earth formed 4,500 million years ago; the Hadean Eon is not formally recognized, but it marks the era before we have adequate record of significant solid rocks.

The oldest dated zircons date from about 4,400 million years ago. Earth was molten due to extreme volcanism and frequent collisions with other bodies; the outer layer of the planet cooled to form a solid crust when water began accumulating in the atmosphere. The Moon formed soon afterwards as a result of the impact of a large planetoid with the Earth; some of this object's mass merged with the Earth altering its internal composition, a portion was ejected into space. Some of the material survived to form an orbiting moon. More recent potassium isotopic studies suggest that the Moon was formed by a smaller, high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact cleaving off a significant portion of the Earth. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, augmented by ice delivered from comets, produced the oceans. During the Hadean the Late Heavy Bombardment occurred during which a large number of impact craters are believed to have formed on the Moon, by inference on Earth, Mercury and Mars as well.

The Earth of the early Archean may have had a different tectonic style. During this time, the Earth's crust cooled enough that continental plates began to form; some scientists think because the Earth was hotter, that plate tectonic activity was more vigorous than it is today, resulting in a much greater rate of recycling of crustal material. This may have prevented cratonisation and continent formation until the mantle cooled and convection slowed down. Others argue that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle is too buoyant to subduct and that the lack of Archean rocks is a function of erosion and subsequent tectonic events. In contrast to the Proterozoic, Archean rocks are heavily metamorphized deep-water sediments, such as graywackes, volcanic sediments and banded iron formations. Greenstone belts are typical Archean formations, consisting of alternating high- and low-grade metamorphic rocks; the high-grade rocks were derived from volcanic island arcs, while the low-grade metamorphic rocks represent deep-sea sediments eroded from the neighboring island rocks and deposited in a forearc basin.

In short, greenstone belts represent sutured protocontinents. The Earth's magnetic field was established 3.5 billion years ago. The solar wind flux was about 100 times the value of the modern Sun, so the presence of the magnetic field helped prevent the planet's atmosphere from being stripped away, what happened to the atmosphere of Mars. However, the field strength was lower than at present and the magnetosphere was about half the modern radius; the geologic record of the Proterozoic is more complete than that for the preceding Archean. In contrast to the deep-water deposits of the Archean, the Proterozoic features many strata that were laid down in extensive shallow epicontinental seas. Study of these rocks show that the eon featured massive, rapid continental accretion, supercontinent cycles, wholly modern orogenic activity. 750 million years ago, the earliest-known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents recombined to form Pannotia, 600–540 Ma; the first-known glaciations occurred during the Proterozoic, one began shortly after the beginning of the eon, while there were at least four during the Neoproterozoic, cl

Sadr (name)

Sadr is a family name originating in Lebanon and a branch of Musawi family tracing to Musa Ibn Jaafar the seventh Shia Imam. Sadr is a branch of Sharafeddine family from Jabal Amel in Lebanon; the Sharafeddine family itself is a branch of the Nour eddine family, which traces its lineage to Musa al-Kazim and through him to the first Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammad. The as-Sadr family has produced numerous Islamic scholars in Iran and Iraq, including Ismail as-Sadr and his grandsons Musa Sadr and Mohammad Baqir as-Sadr. Sayyid Muhammad as-Sadr, Prime Minister of Iraq in 1948 Sadr al-Din bin Saleh, 19th century Islamic scholar Ismail as-Sadr, son of Sadr-ed-Deen bin Saleh Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq es-Sadr Muqtada al-Sadr, son of Sadr Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq es-Sadr, heads a large militia in Iraq Sadr al-Din al-Sadr son of Ismail as-Sadr Imam Musa as-Sadr, son of Sadr al-Din al-Sadr, Lebanese religious leader Haydar al-Sadr, son of Ismail as-Sadr Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, son of Haydar al-Sadr and a major Islamic thinker.

Chikara Akutsu

Chikara Akutsu is a Japanese professional shogi player ranked 8-dan. The promotion history for Akutsu is as follows: 1994: 6-kyū 1997: 1-dan 1999, October 1: 4-dan 2004, July 2: 5-dan 2007, August 3: 6-dan 2009, April 1: 7-dan 2014, February 13: 8-dan Although Akutsu has yet to appear in a major title match, he has won two non-major-title championships during his career: the 2nd Asahi Cup Open and the 17th Ginga-sen. Akutsu received the Japan Shogi Association Annual Shogi Awards for "Best New Player" in 2004, "Best Winning Percentage" in 2006, "Most Consecutive Games Won" award in 2009. Akutsu has finished in the "Top 10" of the JSA's year-end prize money and game fee rankings only once during his career, he earned a total of JPY 25,700,000 to rank ninth in 2009. ShogiHub: Professional Player Info · Akutsu, Chikara Chikara Akutsu on Twitter

Roberto Cassá

Roberto Cassá Bernaldo de Quirós is a Dominican historian and educator. He is the president of the Dominican Academy of History and member of the Academy of Sciences of the Dominican Republic and the Association of Historians of Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassá is Director of the General Archive of the Nation. Roberto Cassá was born on 12 September 1948, the son of the Dominican lawyer José Cassá Logroño and his wife María Bernaldo de Quirós Villanueva, a Spaniard who migrated with her family in 1940 after the end of the Spanish Civil War to the Dominican Republic and whose parents and siblings, dissatisfied with Trujillo’s regime, moved to Mexico in 1947, he studied at the Colegio Santa Teresita. In the year 1974 obtained his BA in History at the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, he was Professor of Social History and Social History Dominican Universal Tegnologico Institute in Santo Domingo from 1975 to 1985. From 1987 he was employed as a professor of the Center for Economic Research and Teaching in Mexico, where he taught Economic History.

He was a professor of history at the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences from 1986 to 1989. Was a professor at the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo for over two decades, he has participated in numerous projects of historical and economic research sponsored by private and academic institutions, he is president of the Academy of the Dominican History and member of the Academy of Sciences of the Dominican Republic and the Association of Historians of American America and the Caribbean

Nkem Ojougboh

Nkem-Nkechukwu Ojougboh is Nigerian professional basketball player. He was drafted in the second round at the 2010 NBA Development League Draft by the Utah Flash, an affiliate of the Utah Jazz and Atlanta Hawks. Collegiately, Ojougboh played for the Northeastern University Huskies men's basketball team from 2007-2010 and for the University of Texas San Antonio in 2005, he played for the NBA Development League team Utah Flash in the 2010/11 NBA D-League season, for the Tulsa 66ers in 2011/12. Ojougboh was named to the CAA All-Academic First Team from 2005-2008. Ojougboh is the son of Grace Ojougboh, he has Orieka Ojougboh and a sister Rimma Ojougboh. Out of high school, Ojougboh committed to the University of Texas at San Antonio, after being recruited by Boise State, Cornell University, Harvard University, Arizona State University and Washington State, he transferred to Northeastern after his Freshman campaign at University of Texas San Antonio. Http://