Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
Public transport bus service
Public transport bus services are based on regular operation of transit buses along a route calling at agreed bus stops according to a published public transport timetable. While there are indications of experiments with public transport in Paris as early as 1662, there is evidence of a scheduled "bus route" from Market Street in Manchester to Pendleton in Salford UK, started by John Greenwood in 1824. Another claim for the first public transport system for general use originated in Nantes, France, in 1826. Stanislas Baudry, a retired army officer who had built public baths using the surplus heat from his flour mill on the city's edge, set up a short route between the center of town and his baths; the service started on the Place du Commerce, outside the hat shop of a M. Omnès, who displayed the motto Omnès Omnibus on his shopfront; when Baudry discovered that passengers were just as interested in getting off at intermediate points as in patronizing his baths, he changed the route's focus. His new voiture omnibus combined the functions of the hired hackney carriage with a stagecoach that travelled a predetermined route from inn to inn, carrying passengers and mail.
His omnibus had wooden benches. In 1828, Baudry went to Paris, where he founded a company under the name Entreprise générale des omnibus de Paris, while his son Edmond Baudry founded two similar companies in Bordeaux and in Lyon. A London newspaper reported on July 4, 1829, that "the new vehicle, called the omnibus, commenced running this morning from Paddington to the City", operated by George Shillibeer; the first omnibus service in New York began in 1829, when Abraham Brower, an entrepreneur who had organized volunteer fire companies, established a route along Broadway starting at Bowling Green. Other American cities soon followed suit: Philadelphia in 1831, Boston in 1835 and Baltimore in 1844. In most cases, the city governments granted a private company—generally a small stableman in the livery or freight-hauling business—an exclusive franchise to operate public coaches along a specified route. In return, the company agreed to maintain certain minimum levels of service. In 1832 the New York omnibus had a rival when the first trams, or streetcars started operation along Bowery, which offered the excellent improvement in amenity of riding on smooth iron rails rather than clattering over granite setts, called "Belgian blocks".
The streetcars were financed by John Mason, a wealthy banker, built by an Irish-American contractor, John Stephenson. The Fifth Avenue Coach Company introduced electric buses to Fifth Avenue in New York in 1898. In 1831, New Yorker Washington Irving remarked of Britain's Reform Act: "The great reform omnibus moves but slowly." Steam buses emerged in the 1830s as competition to the horse-drawn buses. The omnibus extended the reach of the emerging cities; the walk from the former village of Paddington to the business heart of London in the City was a long one for a young man in good condition. The omnibus thus offered the suburbs more access to the inner city; the omnibus encouraged urbanization. The omnibus put city-dwellers if for only half an hour, into previously-unheard-of physical intimacy with strangers, squeezing them together knee-to-knee. Only the poor remained excluded. A new division in urban society now came to the fore, dividing those who kept carriages from those who did not; the idea of the "carriage trade", the folk who never set foot in the streets, who had goods brought out from the shops for their appraisal, has its origins in the omnibus crush.
John D. Hertz founded the Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company in 1923 and sold a majority of shares to General Motors in 1925. From the 1920s General Motors and others started buying up streetcar systems across the United States with a view to replacing them with buses in what became known as the Great American Streetcar Scandal; this was accompanied by a continuing series of technical improvements: pneumatic "balloon" tires during the early 1920s, monocoque body construction in 1931, automatic transmission in 1936, diesel engines in 1936, 50+ passengers in 1948, air suspension in 1953. The arrest of Rosa Parks in 1955 for not giving up her seat to a white man on a public bus is considered one of the catalysts of the Civil Rights Movement within the United States; the names of different types of bus services vary according to local tradition or marketing, although services can be classified into basic types based on route length, the purpose of use and type of bus used. Urban or suburban services is the most common type of public transport bus service and is used to transport large numbers of people in urban areas, or to and from the suburbs to population centres.
Express bus services are services that are intended to run faster than normal bus services, by either operating as a "limited stop" service missing out less busy stops and/or travelling on faster roads such as freeways rather than slower moving local roads. Park and ride bus services are designed to provide an onward passenger journey from a parking lot; these may express services, or part of the standard bus network. Feeder bus services are designed to pick up passengers in a certain locality and take them to a transfer point where they make an onward journey on a trunk service; this can be a rail-based service such as a tram, rapid transit or train. Feeder buses may act as part of a regional coach network. Bus rapid transit is the application of a range of infrastructure and marketing measures to produce public transport bus services that approach the operating characteris
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
First Greater Manchester
First Greater Manchester is a bus operator in Greater Manchester. It is a subsidiary of FirstGroup. A timeline overview of public transport in Manchester, prior to 1993, is given here. Before deregulation in 1986, buses in the Greater Manchester area were publicly funded and went under the name of Greater Manchester Transport. In 1986 Greater Manchester Transport became known as GM Buses, owned by the metropolitan borough and city councils of Greater Manchester, but were at arms' length from the local town halls. In December 1993 GM Buses was split in GM Buses North and GM Buses South, it was planned that the two companies would compete against one another, but in reality they stuck to the sides of Manchester as indicated by their names. In April 1994 GM Buses North was sold to a management buyout. By this stage many competitors were operating GM Buses routes following deregulation. In March 1996 GM Buses North was rebranded First Manchester. After a period of experimentation with the livery, an orange livery was adopted.
First Manchester soon ended up managing two other FirstBus subsidiaries, First Potteries and First Pennine. That included many GM Standard Leyland Atlanteans making their way to those two fleets; the First Pennine and Manchester subsidiaries were merged, adding a number of routes in the Tameside area to First Manchester. A new management team was put in place and First Manchester was relieved of its responsibility for the Potteries subsidiary. Various depots have been closed over the past 12 years including Atherton, Bolton Crook Street, Knowsley and Trafford Park sites at Lowton and Manchester Piccadilly have been used temporarily for either acquired fleet in 1998 or for the Commonwealth Games in 2002; as of September 2010 First Manchester has taken over the management of the Cheshire and Merseyside depots of First Potteries with the Staffordshire depots transferring to the management of the new First Midlands division. The Cheshire and Merseyside depots fell to a First Manchester licence. In February 2012, the company came under fire from Department for Transport North West's traffic commissioner after a performance survey found an average of 26% of First Manchester services were not running on time.
The company were fined £285,000 in March 2012 for their poor reliability. In Spring 2012 First Manchester was rebranded as First Greater Manchester. In June 2012, it was announced that FirstGroup were looking at selling off some of its operations, which included First Manchester's Wigan depot. On 2 December 2012, Stagecoach Manchester purchased the Wigan operation; the transaction saw 300 employees, 120 vehicles and the Wigan depot purchased by the former A Mayne & Son legal entity. On 1 August 2013, FirstGroup announced that subject to regulatory approval by the Office of Fair Trading, it had agreed to purchase the bus operations of south Manchester based company Finglands Coachways; the purchase included the lease of Finglands's depot in Rusholme, South Manchester routes and 100 members of staff, but no buses. The deal was approved on 27 January 2014 with First taking over Finglands services on 9 February 2014. On 19 February 2019, First Group announced that they had sold the Queens Road depot, Cheetham Hill, to Go Ahead group for £11.2 million, this included all assets at the depot and routes it operates, including around 163 buses.
Go Ahead Group will operate the depot as Go North West. The date of the transition across is not yet known. Bolton Queens Road, Manchester OldhamIn April 2017 Bury and Tameside depots closed with operations transferred to Bolton, Queens Road and Oldham depots. In January 2019 Rusholme depot, acquired as part of the Finglands purchase, closed with services 41 and 53 transferred across to Queens Road Depot; the Fleet of ADL Enviro 400's and Wright Streetlites were allocated elsewhere within Greater Manchester.. In February 2019, it was announced that the Queens Road bus depot would be sold with 163 buses to the Go-Ahead Group with Go North West to take over subject to receiving regulatory approval; as at February 2019, the fleet coaches. Over half are Volvos. First Greater Manchester followed the lead of Travel West Midlands in using low-floor articulated buses with the delivery in 1998/99 of 15 Wright Fusion bodied Volvo B10LAs; these were used on route 135 between Manchester and Bury, these transferred to Bolton and were used on route 8 from Bolton - Manchester via Pendlebury and more on route 582 Bolton - Atherton - Leigh.
Their introduction on the 582 was somewhat controversial, with users claiming that the reliability and frequency of the service had suffered. In April 2009 these Volvo artics were placed into storage in Bolton moved the Wigan depot, with the possibility of them being cascaded within FirstGroup however this never happened and they were moved to Leeds Cherry Row Depot where they were sent off to be scrapped; the last Wright Fusion operated with First Aberdeen in 2014 before being withdrawn, joining the rest of Aberdeen's Ex-Glasgow Fleet of Fusions to be scrapped. In 2005, 18 Scania OmniCity articulated buses arrived to take over operation of route 135. A single Wright Solar Fusion bodied Scania L94UA articulated is owned and was again used at Bury but has been used since on routes 8 and 582 from Bolton, it has since been reallocated back to Bury for use on the 471 routes. On 9 December 2016 X401 CSG was involved in an accident on the M60 motorway in the Heaton Park area; this bus
A timeline is a display of a list of events in chronological order. It is a graphic design showing a long bar labelled with dates paralleling it, contemporaneous events. Timelines can use any suitable scale representing time, suiting data; this timescale is dependent on the events in the timeline. A timeline of evolution can be over millions of years, whereas a timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks can take place over minutes, that of an explosion over milliseconds. While many timelines use a linear timescale -- where large or small timespans are relevant -- logarithmic timelines entail a logarithmic scale of time. There are different types of timelines Text timelines, labeled as text Number timelines, the labels are numbers line graphs Interactive, zoomableThere are many methods of visualizations for timelines. Timelines were static images and drawn or printed on paper. Timelines relied on graphic design, the ability of the artist to visualize the data. Timelines, no longer constrained by previous space and functional limitations, are now digital and interactive created with computer software.
ChronoZoom is an example of computer-aided interactive timeline software. Timelines are used in education to help students and researchers with understanding the order or chronology of historical events and trends for a subject; when showing time on a specific scale on an axis, a timeline can be used to visualize time lapses between events and the simultaneity or overlap of spans and events. Timelines are useful for studying history, as they convey a sense of change over time. Wars and social movements are shown as timelines. Timelines are useful for biographies. Examples include: Timeline of the civil rights movement Timeline of European exploration Timeline of imperialism Timeline of Solar System exploration Timeline of United States history Timeline of World War I Timeline of religion Timelines are used in the natural world and sciences, for subjects such as astronomy and geology: 2009 flu pandemic timeline Chronology of the universe Geologic time scale Timeline of evolutionary history of life Another type of timeline is used for project management.
In these cases, timelines are used to help team members to know what milestones need to be achieved and under what time schedule. For example, in the case of establishing a project timeline in the implementation phase of the life cycle of a computer system. British Library interactive timeline Port Royal des Champs museum timeline
High-floor describes the interior flooring of commuter vehicles used in public transport such as trains, light rail cars and other rail vehicles, along with buses and trolleybuses. Interior floor height is measured above the street surface or above the top of the rail. High-floor designs result from packaging requirements: mechanical items such as axles, crankshafts, and/or transmissions, or luggage storage spaces are traditionally placed under the interior floor of these vehicles; the term is used in contrast with low-floor designs, which offer a decreased floor and entry height above the street surface. Since low-floor designs were developed after high-floor vehicles, the older high-floor design is sometimes known as conventional or the “traditional” design. A rail vehicle of conventional or high-floor design has a flat floor ranging between 760 to 1,370 mm above the top of the railhead. To enhance accessibility and optimize dwell times, railway platform heights at stations are standard to allow level boarding for commuters on high platforms.
According to one definition, level boarding means the gap between the platform and the floor of the track varies by no more than 76 mm horizontally and 16 mm vertically. Level boarding is known as stepless entry since passengers do not have to negotiate a staircase to board the passenger car. For newly constructed routes, routes located in tunnels, or routes with a dedicated right of way and enough space, high platforms are preferred, since high-floor vehicles are cheaper to manufacture, have better operating characteristics. High platforms do have significant advantages beyond level boarding for wheelchair accessibility. Physically disabled passengers benefit, as do travelers pulling wheeled luggage or small folding shopping carts. Physically-able passengers can board a railcar more if they do not have to climb stairs to enter, reducing dwell time at a stop, reducing overall travel time. In addition, high-platform railcars have more floor space for passengers if space is not required for stairways, wheelwells needed to accommodate train bogies.
Because bilevel rail cars have two passenger levels within a standard height rail car, the lower level, where passengers board, is lower than a conventional high-floor car. Hence level boarding with a bilevel car is accomplished using a lower platform, as low as 460 mm ATOR; because tram/light-rail/streetcar vehicles share railway gauge sizes with heavy rail vehicles, these passenger vehicles also use high floor designs. Existing tram/streetcar/light-rail networks feature low platforms as many of the stations or stops are in the streets; the high construction/conversion cost of high platforms and the difficulty of making high platforms compatible with other features of the urban landscape are a significant obstacle to converting tram networks these into urban or commuter rail networks with high platforms. These problems were a major motivation for the development of low-floor trams, which allow transit operators to avoid the retrofitting of high platforms on existing routes, while still providing improved accessibility.
Although low-floor vehicles began to be developed in the 1920s, the first low-floor tram is recognized as the Duewag/ACM Vevey design of 1984 deployed in Geneva, providing a floor height of 480 mm ATOR. Tourist coaches have high floors, sometimes greater than 1,000 mm above the road surface, in order to have ample room for luggage under the floor. Since boarding must be allowed directly from flat ground and steep staircases are needed. Transit buses use high floors to provide mechanical clearances for solid axles, but the use of dropped axles has enabled the creation of low-floor buses and by 2008 in the United States, the majority of new transit bus orders were for low-floor types. Today, in Germany, all rapid transit railways, most commuter trains, many light rail vehicles operate as high-floor networks. A notable exception is the city railway in Cologne. In contrast with some light rail underground lines, which are provisionally equipped with low platforms or with tracks laid on raised ballast, there are new developments in the German cities of Düsseldorf and Dortmund.
In each of these cities, a new underground light rail line is equipped with platforms for low-floor trams and will be permanently operated with low-floor vehicles. This form of design and construction will avoid the need for subsequent rebuilding of stops on tram routes though both cities have underground lines with high-floor platforms. In San Francisco, the Muni Metro light-rail system, which has both on-street and underground stations, uses a combination of high and low platforms, the vehicles feature retractable stairs to accommodate both platform types. For on-street stations, stairs are deployed within the vehicle to allow boarding from low platforms. Accessibility#Low floor Accessible vehicle List of buses Low-floor bus Low-floor tram Railway platform height Street running Tram stop This article is based upon a translation of the German language version as at August 2011