The Straits Times
The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore owned by Singapore Press Holdings. Singapore Press Holdings claims that the print and digital editions of the newspaper have a daily average circulation of 383,600, it was established on 15 July 1845 as The Straits Times and Singapore Journal of Commerce, There are specific Myanmar and Brunei editions published, with a newsprint circulation of 5,000 and 2,500 respectively. The Straits Times was started by an Armenian, Catchick Moses. Moses's friend, Martyrose Apcar, had intended to start a local paper, but met with financial difficulties. To fulfil his friend's dream, Moses appointed Robert Carr Woods as editor. On 15 July 1845, The Straits Times was launched as an eight-page weekly, published at 7 Commercial Square using a hand-operated press; the subscription fee was Sp.$1.75 per month. In September 1846, he sold the paper to Robert Woods. On 20 February 1942, five days after the British had surrendered to the Japanese, The Straits Times became known as The Shonan Times and The Syonan Shimbun.
This name change lasted until 5 September 1945. During the early days of Singaporean self-governance, the paper had an uneasy relationship with some politicians, including the leaders of the People's Action Party. Editors were warned that any reportage that may threaten the merger between the Malayan Federation and Singapore may result in subversion charges, that they may be detained without trial under the Preservation of Public Security Ordinance Act; the Straits Times functions with 16 bureaus and special correspondents in major cities worldwide. The paper has five sections: the main section consist of Asian and international news, with sub-sections of columns and editorials and the Forum Page; the Home section consist of local news and topics on Education for Monday and Body for Tuesday, Digital for Wednesday, Community for Thursday and Science for Friday. There are a sports and finance section, a classified ads and job listing section and a lifestyle, style and the arts section titled "Life!".
The newspaper publishes special editions for primary and secondary schools in Singapore. The primary-school version contains a special pull-out, titled "Little Red Dot" and the secondary-school version contains a pull-out titled "In". A separate edition The Sunday Times is published on Sundays. Owing to political sensitivities, The Straits Times is not sold in neighboring Malaysia, the Malaysian newspaper New Straits Times is not sold in Singapore; the ban was imposed before independence in Malaysia. A specific Myanmar and Brunei edition of this paper was launched on 25 Mar 2014 and 30 October 2014, it is published daily with local newspaper printers on licence with SPH. This paper is distributed on ministries, major hotels, airlines and supermarkets on major cities and target sales to local and foreign businessmen in both countries. Circulation of the Myanmar edition stands at 5,000 and 2,500 for the Brunei edition; the Brunei edition is sold at B$1 per copy and an All-in-One Straits Times package consisting of the print edition and full digital access via online and smartphones, will be introduced in Brunei.
Launched on 1 January 1994, The Straits Times' website was free of charge and granted access to all the sections and articles found in the print edition. On 1 January 2005, the online version began requiring registration and after a short period became a paid-access-only site. Only people who subscribe to the online edition can read all the articles on the Internet, including the updated "Latest News" section. A free section, featuring a selection of news stories, is available at the site. Regular podcast and twice-daily—mid-day and evening updates—radio-news bulletins are available for free online; the Straits Times School Pocket Money Fund was initiated on October 1, 2000 by The Straits Times, to heighten public awareness of the plight of children from low-income families who were attending school without proper breakfast, or pocket money to sustain their day in school. The aim is to alleviate the financial burden faced by parents in providing for their children's education. At the same time the funds will help children who are facing difficulties in remaining in school to stay on.
The Straits Times Media Club is a youth programme to encourage youth readership and interest in news and current affairs. Schools will have to subscribe for at least 500 copies, will receive their papers every Monday. A youth newspaper, IN, is slotted in together with the main paper for the students; the newspaper is sometimes referred as "the mouthpiece" of the ruling party or at least "mostly pro-government" and "close to the government". Chua Chin Hon ST’s bureau chief for the United States, was quoted as saying that SPH’s “editors have all been groomed as pro-government supporters and are careful to ensure that reporting of local events adheres to the official line” in a 2009 US diplomatic cable leaked by WikiLeaks. Past chairpersons of Singapore Press Holdings have been public servants. Current SPH Chairman Lee Boon Yang is a former PAP cabinet minister who took over from Tony Tan, former Deputy Prime Minister. Many current ST management and senior editors have close links to the government as well.
SPH CEO Alan Chan was a former top civil servant and Principal Private Secretary of Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew. Current editor-in-chief Warren Fernandez was considered as a PAP candidate for the 2006 elections. In his memoir OB Markers: My Straits Times Story, former edi
The Volvo B6 was a 5.5-litre engined midibus chassis manufactured by Volvo between 1991 and 1999. It was available as the low-entry Volvo B6LE. In the United Kingdom, the B6 competed in the midibus market with the Dennis Dart, with the MAN 10.xxx HOCL and 12.xxx HOCL/12.xxx HOCL-NL throughout Europe. When launched in 1991, it was presented as being available in several different lengths. For LHD markets it was available with a 350 mm low-entry floor, while the RHD markets had to wait until 1995 before this option became available. Most B6s were built for the UK market, they were sold in mainland Europe, both in bus and in coach versions. When launched in the UK, it was marketed as the B6R, but this name would only be used in the Asia-Pacific region; the initial pre-production series of around 30 chassis were manufactured by Volvo subsidiary Steyr Bus GmbH in Vienna, Austria. This would however not be the case with the production series. Most of the pre-production units were built as coaches. Only nine of these units were delivered in the United Kingdom.
In March 1993, serial production of the B6 started up at Volvo's brand new bus chassis plant in Irvine, Scotland. The B6-50 length was popular; the short-wheelbase B6-36 sold a few from the start. The B6-45 midicoach suffered from disappointingly low sales in the UK - by 1995, when the RHD version was withdrawn from sale, only fourteen had been built; the last one being delivered to the Russian embassy in 1998, being unsold since 1995. No further RHD B6-45s were built. For the RHD markets the entire step-entrance B6 lineup was discontinued in 1997, while the LHD version was available until the introduction of the B6BLE in 1999; the step-entrance B6 never received a proper successor. Between 1993 and 1997 a total of 627 B6s were delivered in the UK; the B6 were labeled as the Volvo B6R in the Asia-Pacific region. In Australia, Blue Ribbon purchased Southtrans four and Whyalla City Transport two. Citybus took delivery of one Alexander bodied B6R; the B6LE was only available as LHD, but in 1995 it became available as RHD, to compete with the Dennis Dart SLF.
However, after sales proved promising, the B6LE replaced the B6 in some markets in 1997 before it was itself replaced by the B6BLE in 1999. A total of 394 B6LEs were produced for the UK between 1995 and 1999; the B6LE were labeled as the Volvo B6RLE in the Asia-Pacific region. In Australia, Brisbane Transport purchased two B6RLE. Three were purchased by National Bus Company in Brisbane. Citybus took delivery of 10 Plaxton Pointer bodied B6LEs. TD63, 5478 cc, in-line 6 cyl. turbodiesel TD63E - 132 kW, 520 Nm, Euro I TD63ES - 154 kW, Euro ID6A, 5478 cc, in-line 6 cyl. turbodiesel D6A180 - 132 kW, 550 Nm, Euro II D6A210 - 154 kW, 700 Nm, Euro II Media related to Volvo B6 at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Volvo B6LE at Wikimedia Commons
The Volvo B7TL is a low-floor double-decker bus, launched in 1999 and replaced the 2-axle version of the Volvo Olympian. It was built as the British bus operators seemed hesitant to purchase the B7L double decker with a long rear overhang; the B7TL chassis was designed by the Leyland Product Developments consultancy based at the Leyland Technical Centre. It was built in Irvine, North Ayrshire, Scotland. In 2000, production was transferred to Sweden. In mid-2004, production of the MkII version of the B7TL was started. Like the Olympian, the B7TL features a transversely-mounted rear engine and a shorter rear overhang, but the radiator was mounted on the right side of the engine compartment, it was equipped with ZF or Voith gearbox. The B7TL was available with Alexander ALX400 and Plaxton President bodywork followed by East Lancs Vyking and Myllennium Vyking bodies, the Wright Eclipse Gemini; the Volvo B7TL was popular in the United Kingdom, with a large number being purchased by most of the major bus groups such as FirstGroup and Arriva.
Travel West Midlands purchased over 320 B7TLs with Plaxton President, Alexander ALX400 and Wright Eclipse Gemini bodies. Translink of Northern Ireland purchased over 150 B7TLs. Southern Vectis at the end of 2001 beginning of 2002 ordered 7 Volvo B7TLs with Plaxton President Bodywork, they on delivery were registered Under HW52 and carried Go South Coasts 199x fleet numbers, at 16 years of age they are still doing well, it was popular in London, however these buses were phased out since January 2012. London Central AVL1 cited to be the first example of a production B7TL. Arriva London had Alexander ALX400 and Wright Eclipse Gemini bodywork buses First London had Alexander ALX400, Plaxton President and Wright Eclipse Gemini bodywork buses Go-Ahead London had Alexander ALX400, Plaxton President, East Lancs Myllennium Vyking and Wright Eclipse Gemini buses Metroline had Alexander ALX400, Plaxton President and Wright Eclipse Gemini bodywork buses Transdev had Alexander ALX400, Plaxton President, East Lancs Myllennium Vyking and Wright Eclipse Gemini buses Travel London had Wright Eclipse Gemini buses.
It was popular in the Republic of Ireland, Dublin Bus acquired 648 B7TLs between 2000 and 2007, all with Alexander/TransBus/Alexander Dennis ALX400 bodywork. Bus Éireann purchased more than twenty B7TLs. On the other hand, a batch of 150 B7TLs had been delivered to Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002 and were fitted with Marcopolo Viale DD bodywork. A Volvo B7TL with East Lancs Vyking bodywork operated by Lincolnshire RoadCar was involved in an accident in Ingoldmells, Lincolnshire, on 11 April 2004 in which five people died and six more were injured, two critically. Despite the bus being found to have faulty brakes following the accident, this did not contribute to the accident, there have been no further reports of similar braking problems involving Volvo B7TLs; the Volvo B7TL was superseded by the 2-axle version of the Volvo B9TL in late 2006. Competitors Dennis Trident 2 Scania OmniDekka VDL DB250List of buses
Molde is a city and municipality in Romsdal in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. The municipality is located on the Romsdal Peninsula, surrounding the Moldefjord; the city is located on the northern shore of the Romsdalsfjord. The city of Molde is the administrative centre of Møre og Romsdal county, the administrative centre of the Municipality of Molde, the commercial hub of the Romsdal region, the seat of the Diocese of Møre. Other main population centres in the municipality include Hjelset and Nesjestranda. Molde has a maritime, temperate climate, with cool-to-warm summers, mild winters; the city is nicknamed The Town of Roses. It is an old settlement. Formal trading rights were introduced in 1614, the town was incorporated through a royal charter in 1742. Molde was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 The town continued to grow throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, becoming a centre for Norwegian textile and garment industry, as well as the administrative centre for the region, a major tourist destination.
After World War II, Molde experienced accelerated growth, merging with Bolsøy Municipality and parts of Veøy Municipality on 1 January 1964, has become a centre for not only administrative and public services, but academic resources and industrial output. The 363-square-kilometre municipality is the 254th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Molde is the 38th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 26,822; the municipality's population density is 75.4 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 10.6% over the last decade. The city's current location dates from the late mediaeval period, but is preceded by the early mediaeval township on Veøya, an island to the south of present-day Molde; the settlement at Veøya dates from the Migration Period, but is first mentioned in the sagas by Snorri Sturluson as the location of the Battle of Sekken in 1162, where king Håkon the Broad-shouldered was killed fighting the aristocrat Erling Skakke, during the Norwegian civil wars.
However, settlement in the area can be traced much further back in time—evidence given by two rock slabs carved with petroglyphs found at Bjørset, west of the city centre. At the eve of the 15th century, the influence of Veøy waned, the island was deserted. However, commercial life in the region was not dead, originating from the two settlements at Reknes and Molde, a minor port called Molde Fjære emerged, based on trade with timber and herring to foreign merchants; the town gained formal trading rights in 1614. During the Swedish occupation of Middle Norway, 1658–1660, after Denmark-Norway's devastating defeat in the Northern Wars, the town became a hub of resistance to the Swedes. After the rebellion and liberation in 1660, Molde became the administrative centre of Romsdalen Amt and was incorporated through a royal charter in 1742. Molde continued to grow throughout the 18th and 19th Centuries, becoming a centre for Norwegian textile and garment industry. Tourism became a major industry, Molde saw notabilities such as the German emperor Wilhelm II of Germany and the Prince of Wales as regular summer visitors.
Molde consisted of luxurious hotels surrounding an idyllic township with quaint, wooden houses, lush gardens and parks and pavilions, earning it the nickname the Town of Roses. This was interrupted when one third of the city was destroyed in a fire on 21 January 1916. However, Molde continued to grow in the economically difficult interbellum period. A second fire, or series of fires, struck from the German air-raids in April and May 1940, which destroyed about two thirds of the town. Molde was in effect the capital of Norway for a week after King Haakon, Crown Prince Olav, members of the government and parliament arrived at Molde on April 23, after a dramatic flight from Oslo, they were put up at Glomstua at the western outskirts of the town, experienced the bombing raids personally. The Norwegian gold reserve was conveyed to Molde, was hidden in a clothing factory. However, German intelligence was well aware of this, on April 25 the Luftwaffe initiated a series of air-raids. For a week the air-raid siren on the chimney of the dairy building announced the repeated attacks.
April 29 turned out to be the worst day in the history of Molde, as the city was transformed into a sea of flames by incendiary bombs. Until the church had escaped undamaged, but in the final sortie a firebomb became stuck high up in the tower, the beautiful wooden church was obliterated by fire. After World War II, Molde experienced tremendous growth; as the modernisation of the Norwegian society accelerated in the post-reconstruction years, Molde became a centre for not only administrative and public services, but academic resources and industrial output. After the consolidation of the town itself and its adjacent communities in 1964, Molde became a modern city, encompassing most branches of employment, from farming and fisheries, to industrial production, higher education, commerce, health care, civil administration; the city of Molde was established as an urban municipality on 1 January 1838. It was surrounded by the rural municipality of Bolsøy. On 1 July 1915, a part of Bolsøy was transferred to the city of Molde.
On 1 January 1952, another part of Bolsøy was transferred to Molde. On 1 January 1964, Molde merged with the Sekken, Veøya, Nesjestranda parts of municipality of Veøy, all of Bo
The Volvo B10BLE was a low-entry single-decker bus chassis manufactured by Volvo in Sweden between 1993 and 2004. The first prototypes were built in 1992, but mass production started in 1993, only a year after the high-floor B10B, it was popular in Australia and the United Kingdom. It had the engine mounted on the rear overhang of the bus, it became the successor of the city bus version of the B10B and was used as a base for single-decker buses worldwide. The B10BLE was available in diesel powered format, in a compressed natural gas powered format with the fuel tanks on the roof of the bus, its low-floor design was promoted by Volvo when it was first launched, on the basis of added convenience to the passengers, the increase in transport efficiency due to the low-floor design. The production of the diesel powered variants ended in 2001 to give way for B7RLE and B12BLE, while the CNG variants were produced until 2004. In the United Kingdom market, Volvo unsuccessfully tried to replace the B10BLE with the B7L in 2001, but realized that it was not as popular among the customers and offered the B7RLE from 2003.
The Volvo B10BLE features a Volvo DH10A engine with a displacement of 9,600 cc. It is an inline six-cylinder four-strokediesel engine with a intercooler; this engine used a dry sump system due to being horizontally mounted. The engine has a power output of either 285 bhp; the engine is able to meet Euro II emissions limits. The name of the chassis stands for: B - Bus 10 - 10 litre engine B - Back/Rear mounted engine LE - Low-entryOptionally available is a Volvo GH10-series natural gas or biogas engine. All generations of this engine are inline four-stroke six-cylinder spark-ignition engines with a turbocharger and intercooler; the GH10A and GH10B engines were lean-burn engines and the GH10C is a "mixed-lean" engine, operating on an optimised balance between stoichiometric and lean-burn combustion strategies. Power ratings vary from 245 bhp in the GH10A to 290 bhp in the uprated version of the GH10C; the GH10C is able to meet Euro IV emissions limits. In Australia, Sydney Buses purchased 125, Westbus 41 and Grenda Corporation 16.
In mainland Europe, B10BLEs were bodied by Säffle/Aabenraa and other local manufacturers. In Singapore, all SBS Transit B10BLEs were bodied by Volgren. One diesel-powered demonstrator was introduced in 1997 and scrapped in 2015 after reaching its 17 year lifespan; the other 12 were CNG powered, bought in 2003 and some of them were scrapped. The CNG buses are the last public buses in Singapore to use plastic destination signages. Retirement began in September 2018. In the United Kingdom, many of the B10BLEs had Wright Renown bodywork, a small number received Alexander ALX300 bodywork; the original Plaxton Prestige featured the Volvo chassis as an option, but few of these were built. Media related to Volvo B10BLE at Wikimedia Commons
The Volvo B10M is a mid-engined city bus and coach chassis manufactured by the Swedish automaker Volvo between 1978 and 2003. It succeeded the B58 and was equipped with the same 9.6-litre horizontally mounted Volvo diesel engine mounted under the floor behind the front axle. An articulated version under the model name Volvo B10MA was offered, as was a semi-integral version known as the C10M, with the engine in the middle of the chassis. Designed as a successor to the Volvo B58, a large portion of B10M chassis were built in Sweden, but some were built in other countries, like England and Brazil; the B10M was one of the best-selling chassis in the United Kingdom throughout the 1990s. Having been produced only as a coach chassis, the B10M was made available as a city bus, in which form it was very popular, it was available as B10M-46, B10M-50, B10M-55, B10M-60, B10M-62, B10M-65 and B10M-70, where the number represents the wheelbase in decimetres. Many bodybuilders did however extend the chassis to fit their needs.
No than 1981 a tri-axle chassis was introduced, available as B10M-50B, B10M-55B, B10M-60B, B10M-65B and B10M-70B, with some bodybuilders extending them up to 7.25 metres wheelbase. A double-decker version of the B10M was developed for Strathclyde PTE in 1981, it was launched in early 1982, with a downrated engine from the coach, was named Citybus. Most early examples were bodied by Alexander Coachbuilders, who provided a modified version - common to all Volvo double-deck chassis bodied by the company after 1980 - of their popular and attractive R type bodywork. Eastern Scottish and Fife Scottish bought many of these early versions in 1985-1987. Two were exported in 1984, one of them to Singapore Bus Service and the other to Kowloon Motor Bus, but was destroyed by fire in 1988; the Citybus lasted until the end of B10M production but fell out of favour after Volvo re-engineered the Leyland Olympian as the Volvo Olympian in 1993. The B9M was launched in 1982 as a light-weight, stripped-down, budget version of the standard B10M.
It was available as B9M-46, B9M-50, B9M-55 and B9M-60. Although technically not a successor to the B57, it found more or less the same place in the markets where it was available; the B9M at lower outputs. It sold well with the exception of Denmark, where only a few were sold; the model was available at least past 1996. In the United Kingdom, the B9M-46 was sold as a shorter 9.5 to 9.7 metre version of the B10M from 1985. From 1984, a RHD version of the B10M-55B was available as the B10MT also B10T. In 1984, Swiss bodybuilder Ramseier & Jenzer collaborated with Volvo to unveil a semi-integral coach known as the C10M, with the engine in the middle of the chassis. Production of the C10M was ended in 1987, but the position of the engine was still available as an option and became known as B10M-C. Coach operators National Express, Park's of Hamilton and Wallace Arnold all purchased large quantities of B10Ms. In the 1990s, Stagecoach standardised on the bus version of the B10M as their full-size single decker.
Most received Alexander PS bodies but some received Northern Counties Paladin bodywork. Stagecoach took numerous examples of the coach version with Plaxton's Interurban bodywork and Jonckheere's Modulo bodywork. South Yorkshire Transport and Kelvin Central Buses purchased large numbers of the type with Alexander PS bodies; the B10MA articulated variant was of limited popularity among bus operators in the UK. British Caledonian Airways took four in 1988, the next examples sold in Britain were supplied eight years with the delivery of four to Ulsterbus. Stagecoach was the biggest customer for the model in the UK, purchasing 18 in the mid- to late-1990s, with the last delivered in 1999. Singapore Bus Service would evaluate a mid-engine Volvo B10MD double-decker bus bodied by East Lancashire Coachbuilders registered as SBS4961B in 1984. No further double-deck B10MD units were acquired however. Singapore Bus Service purchased 977 units between 1988 and 2000, making up a large part of its single-decker bus fleet.
The Volvo B10M Mark IIs were the first to be used, with 200 delivered between March 1988 and April 1989. They were retired by May 2008 after fulfilling their 19-year lifespan, except one, sold to New Zealand; the Mark IIs were replaced by the Mark IIIs and IVs. 300 B10M Mark IIIs were delivered between November 1992 and June 1993. They were bodied by Duple Metsec, had received mid-life refurbishment. Most units received a two-year lifespan extension due to insufficient replacement buses, were all retired by June 2012. 475 B10M Mark IVs were delivered between June 1995 and December 2000. They were bodied by either Duple Walter Alexander Strider. Mid-life refurbishments extended their lifespan by two years, 30 DM3500-bodied buses received another one-year extension in 2017 due to insufficient replacement buses. All these buses have been retired as of 23 December 2018. A 14.5m B10M Superlong tri-axle bus, bodied by Duple Metsec, was purchased in 1995 and retired in October 2012. A 19m B10MA articulated bus bodied by Duple Metsec, was purchased in 1996.
It was known as "Asia's Longest Bus". In 2006, it was sold to Bayes Coachlines in New Zealand. For Expo'85 in Tsukuba, Fuji Heavy Industries bodied 100 B10MLs. Seventy-nine were exported to Australia in 1986 with Brisbane Transport, Grenda's Bus Service, Hornibrook Bus Lines, Invicta Bus Service, Kangaroo Bus Lines, Metro-link Bus Lines, Metropolitan Transit Authority, Premier Roadliners, Sunbury Bus Service and Surfside Buslines purchasing examples. From 1983 to 1986, a number of B10Ms was used in the United States; the A
Alexander Y Type
The Alexander Y Type was a long-running design of single-decker bus and single-decker intercity bus bodywork built by Walter Alexander Coachbuilders in Falkirk, Scotland. It was built on a wide range of chassis between 1962 and 1983. A small number were built at Alexander's Belfast subsidiary. From 1971 it became the AY Type or AYS Type, although in common usage all are referred to as Y Type; the majority of Y Type bodies were fitted to Leyland Leopard chassis, most were built for the Scottish Bus Group and its predecessors. As can be seen from the table above, SBG was by far the biggest customer, buying over 86% of the total output of Y Types; however other customers existed, amongst these being the North Western Road Car Company with 65 Leopards and 30 Bristol REs, Venture of Consett with 32 Leopards and 12 Reliances, Lancaster City Council with 26 Leopards, Potteries Motor Traction with 25 Reliances. Preserved Ex Clydeside Scottish Leyland Leopard Bus Website