Marshall Bus was an English builder of bus and coach bodywork based in Cambridge. Marshall Bus was a bodybuilder, it ceased manufacturing in the early 1980s. In January 1992, it re-entered the bus bodying industry after purchasing the rights to the Duple Dartline from Carlyle Works,The company's most popular product was the Marshall Capital, a single-decker bus body built between 1997 and 2003, it was built on the Dennis Dart SLF chassis, but was used for other chassis types and to re-body older chassis. In 2001/02, Marshall rebuilt a number of AEC Routemasters for Transport for London. In 2002, Marshall went into administration and shortly after closed. Thereafter, MCV Bus & Coach bought the design rights for the Capital body and they continued production for a short while before its successor MCV Stirling was introduced. C16/C19 C27 Dartline C29 C31 C32/C33 C35/C36/C37 C39 Capital C43 Capital Camair 80 Euro Minibus Media related to Marshall Bus at Wikimedia Commons
Gio. Ansaldo & C.
Ansaldo was one of Italy's oldest and most important engineering companies, existing for 140 years from 1853 to 1993. The company was founded in 1853 as Gio. Ansaldo & C. S. A. S. by renowned players in the Genoese business world, such as Giovanni Ansaldo, Raffaele Rubattino, Giacomo Filippo Penco and Carlo Bombrini. Until the end of the 19th century, the company focused on manufacturing and repairing railway components becoming a 10,000-worker company with seven factories, starting to expand into sectors such as shipbuilding and mechanical works in general. In 1904, Ansaldo was bought by Ferdinando Maria Perrone who, along with his sons Mario and Pio, bound the name of the Perrone family to the history of the company. Over the next twenty years, he aimed at making Ansaldo independent both in the ironworks and weapon-making areas, thanks to strong vertical integration; the onset of World War I was of obvious potential benefit to the company, though Italy was neutral. Ansaldo advocated for Italian entry into the war, both directly and by funding political groups that supported the war, such as Benito Mussolini's proto-Fascist movement.
The efforts paid off. In 1914 the company was worth 30 million lire, but its market value grew to 500 million in 1918; when the company issued shares in the summer of 1918 worth 400 million lire Ansaldo employed 80,000 workers, had dozens of factories and controlled companies such as A. Cerpelli & C. Banca industriale Italiana, Cantieri Officine Savoia, Dynamit Nobel, Gio. Fossati & C. Lloyd Italico, Nazionale di Navigazione, Società Idroelettrica Negri, Transatlantica Italiana. Following a financial crisis with its largest creditor, Banca Italiana di Sconto, problems in reconverting factories after the end of World War I, the Perrone family abandoned the company in 1921, the Banca d'Italia led a consortium to save it from bankruptcy. Company strategies were drastically sized down, during the 1920s though electro-mechanical productions grew Ansaldo found itself in such dire difficulties that it entered the control of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale, under which the company found new life and growth thanks to the new war effort during fascism.
The main figure in this rebirth, the engineer Agostino Rocca, reconfigured the structure and organisation of the company during his tenure as chief executive officer from 1935 to the end of World War II. War contracts indeed led to a significant growth: Ansaldo had 22,000 employees in 1939, 35,000 in 1943. After the end of World War II, conversion to peacetime production again caused problems for the company. In 1948, IRI entrusted the company to Finmeccanica, which operated several reorganisation measures during the 1950s and 1960s, such as the relinquishing of all shipbuilding activities to Italcantieri of Trieste in 1966. From that year, Finmeccanica further engaged Ansaldo within its activities, in 1980 they formed Italy's largest thermo-electric group. In 1993, Ansaldo ceased to exist as an independent entity, having been absorbed by Finmeccanica; some companies controlled by Finmeccanica still bear the Ansaldo family name: Ansaldo Energia, involved in building electric power plants, based in Genoa.
Ansaldo Caldaie, involved in building fired Steam Generators. Sofinter Group. Ansaldo Ricerche, involved in nuclear fusion technology, founded in 1987 by merging various research and development departments of Ansaldo and Nucleare Italiana Reattori Avanzati. Ansaldo Fuel Cells, founded in 1993 as a spin-off of the former, devoted to fuel cells. Ansaldo Nucleare, founded in 1989 by merging Ansaldo Meccanico Nucleare and Nucleare Italiana Reattori Avanzati. AnsaldoBreda S.p. A. A train-building company born from the merger of Breda Ferroviaria. Ansaldo STS, railway signalling systems. Nidec ASI. Former Finmeccanica Company, sold to the Japanese Nidec Group, in 2012 Nidec acquired Ansaldo Sistemi Industriali SpA. and becomes Nidec ASI S.p. A. Nidec ASI is a manufacturer of electric motors, their products are found in electrical engineering, electric motors and generators, control systems and automation for industrial applications. Nidec ASI is headquartered in Milan and has different subsidiaries in Italy in Genoa, Montebello Vicentino and abroad in China, Germany, Russia and Singapore.
Ansaldo Baby single seat biplane reconnaissance floatplane, a British Sopwith Baby built under licence with minor changes Ansaldo A.1 Balilla Single-engine one-seat biplane fighter aircraft Ansaldo SVA.1 Single-engine one-seat biplane utility aircraft SVA.2 Production version of SVA.1 SVA.3 Fast-climbing interceptor version of SVA.2 SVA.4 Production version of SVA.2 equipped for reconnaissance SVA.5 Production version of SVA.2 SVA.6 Prototype bomber version of SVA.2 SVA.8 Single prototype SVA.9 Two-seat unarmed reconnaissance version with larger wings SVA.10 Armed version of SVA.9 Ansaldo A.120 Parasol reconnaissance fighter Ansaldo A.300 Single-engine two-seat biplane utility aircraft. Three-seat versions were built for reconnaissance use. Ansaldo AC.1 designation for imported French Dewoitine D.1 single-engine two-seat parasol-wing fighter Ansaldo AC.2 licence-built French Dewoitine D.1 Ansaldo AC.3 licence-built French Dewoitine D.9 Ansaldo AC.4 AC.2 with 420 hp FIAT A.20 engine. RN Giuseppe Garibaldi, cruiser built for
The Volvo B10L was a rear-engined, low-floor single-decker public bus chassis built by Volvo between c. 1993 and c. 2005. An articulated version of the B10L, known as the B10LA, was produced; the B10L was available in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1994 and 1999, with a choice of two types of bodywork, the Alexander Ultra and the Wright Liberator. The Alexander Ultra body was marketed by Volvo, based on the Swedish design produced by Säffle, who built the body on the first B10L imported to Britain; the Wright bodywork proved more popular. In the UK, the articulated B10LA was bodied by Wrights for FirstGroup subsidiaries in Manchester and Glasgow; the Wright body for the B10LA is named Fusion. The B10L enjoyed limited success in Britain. In 1997 the Volvo B10BLE was introduced to the British market, this chassis became more popular; the B10BLE was cheaper than the B10L, shared more in common with the step-entrance B10B, examples of which were owned by many of its customers. The largest fleet of Volvo B10L buses in the UK was purchased by Travel West Midlands, consisting of 80 conventional diesel-powered chassis with Wright Liberator bodywork, 14 CNG-powered buses with Alexander Ultra bodies.
The Alexander Ultra models are now converted to run on conventional diesel, with seven having been transferred to the training fleet before being returned to normal passenger use to replace the ageing Volvo B10Bs withdrawn from the fleet. The second largest fleet was purchased by Translink, whose Citybus and Ulsterbus divisions acquired sixty new, plus a further two ex-demonstrators. All have Alexander Ultra bodies. There have been a small number of withdrawals but most remain intact as of January 2007, operating services in the Belfast and Derry areas; the B10Ls with Alexander Ultra bodies have proved unpopular with the drivers and the engineering due to poor electrics. Travel Dundee received 30 Wright-bodied examples which began to enter service in February 1997. Other UK operators who purchased B10Ls include: CMT Buses of Aintree, Liverpool - 10 Wrights First Greater Manchester North - 5 Wrights First Glasgow - 10 Wrights First Northampton - 9 Ultras Timeline, Wigan - 6 Ultras Spot On, Blackburn/Accrington - 15 WrightsThe pioneer Säffle-bodied B10L was new to Mainline but they did not order any further examples and disposed of it.
As of November 2006 it was being used around Lincoln by Stagecoach subsidiary RoadCar, is now preserved. Eleven Wright Liberator-bodied B10Ls are operated by Bus Éireann in Cork, sister CIÉ company Dublin Bus purchased five Alexander Ultra-bodied B10Ls for use in Dublin. A sixth, experimental LPG-powered, vehicle was leased and returned. Helsingin Bussiliikenne has 41 Volvo B10L buses with Carrus City U bodies purchased between 1995 and 1999. 21 of these are gas-powered. Pohjolan Liikenne has bought four Volvo B10L buses with Lahti 402 bodies in 1999. Tampereen kaupunkiliikenne has eight articulated Volvo B10LA buses with Carrus City U bodies bought between 1996–1998 and in 2008. Jyväskylän Liikenne has 29 Volvo B10L buses with Carrus City U bodies built between 1997 and 1998. Part of these buses have been bought from Kuopion Liikenne. Koiviston Auto has five Volvo B10L buses with Carrus City U bodies bought in 1997 and 1998. List of buses
The Volvo B9RLE was a 9.4-litre engined tri-axle low-entry single-decker bus and double-decker bus chassis manufactured by Volvo between 2010 and 2013. The double-decker can be built as either closed open top, it was introduced as an interim replacement for the soon to be discontinued B12BLE in the short gap of years before they had the Euro VI compliant B8RLE ready. At the same time they introduced a tri-axle variant of the B7RLE, but in Volvo's home markets the 290 bhp that the D7E produces is considered way too little for a 15-metre bus; the most reason for introducing the B9RLE a whole year before the end of production for the B12BLE was for the introduction of the first prototypes of the Volvo 8900LE in late 2010, the body that most B9RLE received. Some were bodied as open top double-decker sightseeing buses with the Unvi Urbis 2.5 DD body. In Sweden a total of 145 were built as 8900LE low-entry city buses to various customers, like Nettbuss and Nobina Sverige, 7 Unvi-bodied sightseeing buses.
In Norway Boreal Transport received 10 as 8900LE for Stavanger and Nobina Norge received 27 for Tromsø. A Unvi-bodied open top sightseeing bus was delivered to Oslo. D9B, 9364 cc, in-line 6 cyl. turbodiesel D9B380 - 280 kW, 1700 Nm, Euro V Media related to Volvo B9RLE 6x2 at Wikimedia Commons Volvo B9 Range brochure Volvo Buses
The Leyland National is an integrally-constructed British step-floor single-decker bus manufactured in large quantities between 1972 and 1985. It was developed as a joint project between two UK nationalised industries – the National Bus Company and British Leyland. Buses were constructed at a specially built factory at Workington. Styling was carried out by the Italian vehicle stylist Giovanni Michelotti commissioned by both Triumph and Scammell lorries, it was intended to replace all the rear-engined single-decker buses offered by British Leyland, including the AEC Swift, Bristol RE, single-deck Daimler Fleetline, Daimler Roadliner and Leyland Panther. The Leyland National was built with a rear engine. All components were designed for ease of replacement; until 1978, it was always built with a roof mounted pod at the rear, housing the heating equipment, which blew warm air out at roof level. At first the pod was the length of a bay and appeared designed to give a Trans-Atlantic feel. In 1976 a new shorter version of the roof pod was introduced along with the battery being relocated to the front under the cab.
The Leyland National was available in the majority being 10.3 m and 11.3 m. It was easy to spot the longer ones as its main side windows were all the same length, on the shorter models the windows were shorter except for one in the middle, the same length as on the longer models; the third length was 10.9m, specially produced for Australian operators due to stringent axle weight limits. This used the front section of the rear action of the 10.3 metre bus. One 10.9 metre bus was sold to a Scottish operator and was fitted out to dual purpose specification for use on express services. The Leyland National was a simple design: all parts could be replaced; some operators, like London Transport, bought dual door models, later configured some of them to single door. This was helped by the design of the body, the fact that parts were inter-changeable and that the bus was constructed using Avdelok rivets, specially designed for the National, instead of the more usual pop rivets screws or welding; the earlier vehicles were only available in a limited number of standard colours, e.g. dark red, light red, dark green, to try to match but simplify existing operators' liveries.
This just predated the decision by the National Bus Company to standardise on two colours: poppy red and leaf green. The timing was such that several vehicles were delivered in dark red paint to Ribble, who repainted them poppy red before entry into service. At London Transport's insistence, London bus red was added to the colour card, their fleet amounted to over 500 examples acquired between 1973 and 1980. In 1978, Leyland brought out a simplified model intended to replace the Bristol LH, in production since 1967 and was a type popular in NBC companies for rural routes, it was available in a single length and had a revised interior that had minimal lighting and without the rear roof-mounted heating unit in previous models. Heating was under the seats, was basic but effective; these vehicles were lighter, this characteristic and the lower cost helped make extra sales. London Country bought quite a number of these, which other operators snapped up when London Country was broken up; the National 2 was introduced in 1979.
It differed from its predecessor by having a wider choice of engines, along with a new nose moulding giving it a more bulbous look and a grille to cool the new front-mounted radiator, a revised rear end with new lights and a different engine door. The Mark I Leyland Nationals had an 8.3-litre straight-six turbocharged Leyland 510 headless diesel engine. The Leyland 510 engine had an unusual design; this engine did not prove popular with all operators, being prone to poor fuel consumption and heavy smoke production if not maintained to high standards. Some operators experimented with a different engine and found they could avoid the 510, which had the reputation of being a high maintenance unit and hard to work on. On a simplified model was offered, with an engine, reduced in power to 150bhp instead of the usual 180bhp setting for the heavier duty version of the National; the National 2 was powered by the 0.680 engine later the TL11, the Leyland 510 engine no longer being offered. In 1981, a Gardner 6HLXB engine was experimentally installed in accident-damaged Eastern Counties Omnibus Company National.
This paved the way for many engine conversions. Leyland were taken to court by Gardner for not offering their engine as an option in the fast selling National and as a result began to offer the Leyland National 2 with Gardner engines from 1982 the 6HLXB and the 6HLXCT; the first was delivered in March 1972 to Cumberland Motor Services and the bus became a common sight on British roads. Although developed for the National Bus Company, it was bought by the Scottish Bus Group subsidiaries, London Transport, SELNEC and British Airways and other operators. In years to come, with all of the pressures created by deregulation, operators began refurbishing their Nationals for extended service retrofitting DAF or Volvo engines; the riveted body parts were replaced. In some cases a veh
The Volvo B10R was a rear-engined bus chassis manufactured by Volvo between 1978 and 1992. It was as its predecessor, the B59, aimed as a citybus chassis, was succeeded by the more versatile B10B in 1992; the B10Rs were bodied by Aabenraa for Denmark, by Säffle and Aabenraa for Sweden by Arna, Säffle, by Hess in Switzerland, by Camo, Salvador Caetano and Irmãos Mota in Portugal and VBK for Norway. In Australia, a few B10Rs were operated by Busways, Hornibrook Bus Surfside Buslines. Media related to Volvo B10R at Wikimedia Commons
Melbourne and Metropolitan Tramways Board
The Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board was a government-owned authority, responsible for the tram network in Melbourne, Australia between 1919 and 1983, when it was merged into the Metropolitan Transit Authority. It had been formed by the merger of a number of smaller tramway trusts and companies that operated throughout the city. In 1869 Francis Boardman Clapp set up the Melbourne Omnibus Company which ran horse-drawn trams in the inner suburbs of Melbourne; the company carried five million passengers. By 1882 the company had over 178 omnibuses. In 1885 the company carried 11.7 million passengers. In 1885 Clapp's MOC was granted a 30-year exclusive franchise for a cable tram network in Melbourne, with no competing lines being permitted. Clapp reorganised the company as the Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Company. A total of 15 lines were built, opening progressively between 1885 and 1919; the first serious electric trams in Melbourne began in 1906, when the North Melbourne Electric Tramway & Lighting Company commenced operating an electric tram line from the terminus of the cable tram to Essendon, the motivation being the selling of electricity to customers along the route.
In the 1900s and 1910s, the government legislated for the formation of suburban electric tramway trusts to build and operate electric trams outside MTOC's exclusive licence area. These were: Prahran & Malvern Tramways Trust Hawthorn Tramways Trust Melbourne, Brunswick & Coburg Tramway Trust Fitzroy, Northcote & Preston Tramways Trust Footscray Tramway Trust Northcote Municipality Cable TramwaysWhen the MTOC franchise expired on 30 June 1916, the entire operation of the Melbourne cable tramway system passed to the State Government; the MMTB was formed in November 1919 to take over the street tramways systems in Melbourne. It had the responsibility of operating all tramways within a sixteen kilometre radius of the Melbourne GPO, the only exceptions being the lines operated by Victorian Railways. In January 1925, the M&MTB began operating buses; the MMTB ceased on 30 June 1983 with its function taken over by the Metropolitan Transit Authority. The MMTB commenced operations on 1 November 1919, taking over the cable tram network with 44 route miles of track, 539 grips cars, 485 four wheel trailer cars, 58 double bogie trailers, 11 engine sheds and 15 carriage sheds.
On 2 February 1920, it took over the six suburban electric tramway trusts, which were dissolved that month. The MMTB succeeded the Cable Tramway Board and the Royal Park Horse Tramway; the MMTB took over the North Melbourne Electric Tramway & Lighting Company's tramways operation on 1 August 1922, its lighting undertakings on 21 December 1922. The MMTB progressively converted cable tram lines to electric trams commencing in 1924, with the last Melbourne cable tram ceasing operation on 26 October 1940; the MMTB was established under the Melbourne and Metropolitan Tramways Act 1918. The seven members of the Board, including a chairman and a Deputy chairman, were appointed by an order of the Governor-in-Council dated 22 July 1919; the inaugural chairman was Alexander Cameron, chairman of the Prahran & Malvern Tramways Trust. The MMTB was an independent statutory body which reported to the Minister of Public Works until 1952 and subsequently to the Minister of Transport. Five people held the role of MMTB chairman from 1919 when the MMTB was established to 1983 when it was absorbed by the Metropolitan Transit Authority.
Alexander Cameron – 1919 to 1935. Hector Hercules Bell – 1936 to 1949. Robert Risson – 1949 to 1970. Francis Kirby – 1970 to 1976. Dudley Snell – 1976 to 1983; the MMTB's main maintenance facility was Preston Workshops, with depots at Brunswick, Coburg, East Preston, Footscray, Hawthorn, Malvern, North Fitzroy, South Melbourne and Thornbury. Public Record Office Victoria – Melbourne and Metropolitan Tramways Board