Sengkang is a planning area and residential town located in the North-East Region of Singapore. The town is the most populous in the region, being home to 232,100 residents in 2017. Sengkang shares boundaries with Seletar and Punggol in the north, Pasir Ris and Paya Lebar in the east and Serangoon to the south, as well as Yishun and Ang Mo Kio to the west. A fishing village, the area is undergoing rapid development under the ambition of the Housing and Development Board to transform it into a mature housing estate; the name Sengkang means "prosperous harbour" in Chinese. The name comes from a road called Lorong Sengkang, off Lorong Buangkok; the area was known as Kangkar or "foot of the port" as there was once a fishing port located along Sungei Serangoon. Sengkang originated from the area once called Kangkar, named after the port and fishing village along Sungei Serangoon. By the mid-20th century, the area was home to several rubber and pineapple plantations. At that time, the nearest public housing estate was the Punggol Rural Centre located along Punggol Road.
Sengkang was left alone until 1994, when an urban design team of ten from HDB began conceptualization for a new town in Sengkang. Sengkang was carved up into seven subzones that would house a total of 95,000 public and private housing units in the long term. Conjured by local newspapers, Sengkang's theme became'Town of the Seafarer', which reflects its history as a fishing village. Two sub-themes were assigned to the four neighbourhood areas of the new town: one reflected Sengkang's marine history, while the other related to the sprawling plantations that covered parts of the area; the neighborhoods were each given a colour scheme to go with their respective themes. The three-storey pilotis or stilt effect was utilized in the design of housing blocks, to resemble the stilts of fishing villages and trunks of the various plantations of bygone years; the town's first apartment blocks at Rivervale were completed in 1997. By August 2001, about 33,700 dwelling units were completed; as of 31 March 2017, there are 65,981 HDB dwelling units in Sengkang.
In October 1999, a steering committee chaired by Dr Michael Lim Member of Parliament for Cheng San Group Representation Constituency, was formed to look into providing sufficient amenities in Sengkang New Town. In view of feedback from residents, it completed its report on the need for facilities and services in the new town in July 2000, they coordinated with various organizations to open more void-deck precinct shops, a new shopping mall and childcare centres. Sengkang is a residential town situated to the north of Hougang New Town in the north-eastern part of Singapore, under the North-East Region as defined by the Urban Redevelopment Authority; the town is bordered to the north by the Tampines Expressway, to the east by Sungei Serangoon, Yio Chu Kang Road and Buangkok Drive to the south and the Central Expressway to the west. Sungei Punggol cuts through the new town, divides the town into Sengkang East and Sengkang West. Sengkang Town Centre is located in Compassvale. A new industrial area,'Sengkang West Industrial Area', is to be built to the west of Sengkang West Road in the near future.
The construction of Sengkang West Road, which begins where Yio Chu Kang Road and Jalan Kayu intersect, started in 2011 and the first section was opened to traffic on 13 October 2013. The remaining section of the road opened on 16 May 2015; the road passes through the extended roads of Fernvale Lane, Sengkang West Avenue, Sengkang West Way in front of the Fernvale neighbourhood, cuts through the TPE across the Seletar Aerospace Flyover and links to Seletar Aerospace Park. An extension of Sengkang West Way to Sengkang West Road opened on 14 May 2017. Sengkang New Town is divided into the following seven subzones. Rivervale Compassvale Anchorvale Fernvale Sengkang Town Centre Sengkang West Lorong Halus North As of 2017, Sengkang has a population of 232,100, most of whom are part of the working population; the most populous subzone is Rivervale with 61,400 residents followed by Sengkang Town Centre with 60,800 residents. Sengkang West, has just ten residents, while Lorong Halus North is unpopulated.
Packed into an area of 10.59 km2, of which just 3.97 km2 are designated as residential areas, Sengkang has a population density of 22,000 people per km2. Sengkang's two main rivers, Sungei Punggol and Sungei Serangoon, run through the town with a network of green connectors along their banks, they link housing precincts to neighbourhood parks such as Sengkang Riverside Park, as well as the Sengkang Swimming Complex, Sengkang Hockey Stadium and Anchorvale Community Centre. These park connectors are linked to the Coney Island Park in Punggol New Town and the existing Punggol Park in the south, to better serve the recreational needs of the residents of Sengkang. Sengkang Sculpture Park, located in Compassvale, is an elongated green space created below the LRT viaducts. Sengkang's major public transport amenities were built in tandem with the main public housing development; the main heavy rail tunnels through Sengkang and the elevated track infrastructure of the intra-town Sengkang LRT were developed as the existing public housing blocks were being built in the late 1990s.
The amenities were built in a contiguous building complex, which gives commuters direct access between Sengkang MRT/LRT Station, Sengkang Bus Interchange, Compass Heights condominium and Compass One shopping centre. City planners plan for public transport to become the preferr
Wrightbus is a Northern Irish coachbuilder and pioneer of the low-floor bus based in Northern Ireland. Wrightbus was founded in 1946 as Robert Son Coachbuilders. In its early years it rebodied lorries. In 1978, the company released its first aluminium-structured bus bodywork. Wright's breakthrough into the mainstream bus bodybuilding sector came in the early 1990s; the Handybus was a midibus body offered on a variety of chassis but was more successful than the emerging Dennis Dart in attracting reasonably-sized orders from a variety of operators including London Buses, Go Ahead Northern and Citybus. This was followed by a move into the full size single deck market with the Endeavour, fitted to Dennis Javelin, Leyland Tiger and Scania K93 chassis, enabled Wright to develop its successful Endurance body which competed with the Alexander Strider and Northern Counties Paladin for orders on Volvo B10B and Scania N113CRB chassis. Other Wright products introduced in this period included two Mercedes-Benz-based products, the O405 based Cityranger and the OH1416 based Urbanranger.
This was launched around the time. As a consequence the Urbanranger only attracted a handful of orders; however Wright had become well established in the bus bodybuilding sector by and was more than able to exploit the opportunities the low-floor revolution would offer it from the mid-1990s onwards. In 1993, the Pathfinder on low floor Dennis Lance SLF and Scania N113CRL chassis was unveiled; the Axcess-Ultralow was offered on the Scania L113 chassis. At this time it was selling in reasonable numbers to UK bus operators, but unlike other bodybuilders who could only offer the L113 with step-entrance bodies, Wright modified it by removing the middle section of the chassis and thus offered UK bus operators one of the first mainstream low-floor body/chassis combinations. A major customer for the Axcess-Ultralow was FirstGroup taking 240. Next up was the Volvo B10L based Liberator introduced at the end of 1995. Notable came from National Express who ordered 120 in 1997. Next came the Renown body built on the Volvo B10BLE which went on to become the standard bus of the Blazefield Group.
However Renown production was stopped when the B10BLE was replaced by the Volvo B7L on the new Wright Eclipse, which due to its vertical rear engine wasn't popular with many operators. However Wright didn't lose custom and many operators including the likes of Ulsterbus switched to the incline-engined Scania L94UB, on a similar Wright Solar body. Another bodywork, which resembles the current Solar/Eclipse range is the Meridian, bodied on the MAN A22 full low-floor single-deck chassis; the most distinctive product of Wright is the New Routemaster London bus, introduced on 27 February 2012 as an update of the AEC Routemaster. By the end of 2017, 1,000 were in service. Production ended in 2017; the first Wright Eclipse Gemini double-decker was first built on the Volvo B7TL chassis in 2001. A styled bus entered service with Arriva London in August 2001 as the Wright Pulsar Gemini on the VDL DB250 chassis. Large operators of Gemini-bodied buses include Arriva, FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group, Lothian Buses and National Express.
In 2016, the Wright SRM was introduced on the Volvo B5LH. Since May 2013, Wrightbus has built its own chassis, the StreetLite single-decker and StreetDeck double decker. However, they still continue to produce bodywork for the Volvo B5TL, Volvo B5LH and Volvo B8RLE. In 1997, an order for 25 Wright Crusader-bodied Dennis Darts was delivered to Australian operator ACTION. Between 2003 and 2006, Hong Kong operator Kowloon Motor Bus received a total of 164 Wrightbus three-axle double-deckers. In 2009, Kowloon Motor Bus had order a total 291 buses, including one demonstrator with two-axle, all buses were in service in 2012. In 2010, the first of 450 Wright Eclipse Gemini 2-bodied Volvo B9TLs was delivered to SBS Transit, Singapore till end 2012. In 2011, Wrightbus International was established. A contract was awarded by SBS Transit for 565 Wright Eclipse Gemini 2 bodied Volvo B9TLs and delivered since January 2013 till June 2015. In November 2012, a contract for 50 Wright Eclipse Gemini 2 bodied Volvos was awarded by Kowloon Motor Bus.
These are being sent in knock-down kit form from Ireland and assembled in China and followed by another 85, including two 12.8-metre-long demonstrators. In September 2013, Wrightbus entered into a partnership with Daimler Buses to manufacture buses in Chennai, India. In March 2014, orders were secured from Hong Kong operators Citybus and New World First Bus for 51 Volvo B9TLs; these are being assembled in Malaysia. In July 2014, SBS Transit ordered a further 415 Eclipse Gemini 2-bodied Volvo B9TLs which will be delivered from August 2015 till 2017, increasing the total to 1,430 by 2017. Wright make two classes of bus: the Street series. Axcess-Floline Axcess-Ultralow Cadet Cityranger Commander Consort Contour Crusader Crusader 2 Eclipse Metro/Eclipse Fusion Eclipse Urban/Eclipse 2 Eclipse Commuter Eclipse SchoolRun Endeavour (for Leyland Tiger, Scania
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks. Double-decker buses are used for mass transport in the United Kingdom, Europe and many former European possessions, the most iconic example being the red London bus. Early double-deckers put the driver in a separate cab. Passenger access was via an open platform at the rear, a bus conductor would collect fares. Modern double-deckers have a main entrance door at the front, the driver takes fares, thus halving the number of bus workers aboard, but slowing the boarding process; the rear open platform, popular with passengers, was abandoned for safety reasons, as there was a risk of passengers falling when running and jumping onto the bus. Double-deckers are for commuter transport but open-top models are used as sight-seeing buses for tourists. William Gladstone, speaking of London's double-deck horse drawn omnibuses, once observed that "...the best way to see London is from the top of a bus". Cities listed here have double-decker buses as part of their regular mass transit fleet.
Cities with only tourist and sightseeing double-decker buses are excluded. The first commercial horse-drawn double-decker omnibuses were introduced in England in 1847 by Adams & Co. of Fairfield, Bow improved upon by John Greenwood, who introduced a new double-decker in 1852. Double-decker buses are in common use throughout the United Kingdom, have been favoured over articulated buses by many operators because of the shorter length of double-deckers and larger amount of seating capacity; the majority of double-decker buses in the UK are between 9.5 metres and 11.1 metres long, the latter being more common since the mid-1990s, though there are three-axle 12-metre models in service with some operators. Double-decker coaches in the UK have traditionally been 12.0 metres in length, though many newer models are about 13.75 metres. The maximum permissible length of a rigid double-decker bus and coach in the UK is 15.0 metres, however the total maximum dimensions, including trailer or articulated section, in normal circumstances are.
Articulated double-deckers are allowed at a maximum length of 18.65 metres. In 1941, Miss Phyllis Thompson became the first woman licensed to drive a double-decker vehicle in the United Kingdom, she drove for the bus company Felix Bus Services at Hatfield near Doncaster. The red double-decker buses in London have become a national symbol of England; the majority of buses in London are double-deckers. A iconic example was the AEC Routemaster bus, a staple of the public transport network in London for nearly half a century following its introduction in 1956; because of cited difficulties accommodating disabled passengers, the last remaining Routemasters in use retired from general service in 2005. Transport for London has continued to keep these vintage buses in operation on heritage route 15H, there was a second heritage route but this ceased operation in 2014 due to low patronage and increased operation costs. In 2007, a hybrid-powered double-decker entered service on London Buses route 141. By late 2008, more hybrid double-deckers from three manufacturers entered service in London.
A New Routemaster was developed that year, entered service on 20 February 2012. In October 2015, London added five all-electric double-decker buses - the world's first - made by Chinese firm BYD. Bus Vannin operate several double-deckers on routes all across the island. In the Republic of Ireland, nearly all of buses operated in and around Greater Dublin by Dublin Bus are double-deckers. There are 936 double-decker buses in the company's fleet of 942. Bus Éireann utilises double-decker buses on some of its commuter routes, such as the Dublin to Dundalk service. Double-deckers are common on some of the company's suburban routes in Cork city. More luxurious Double-Deckers are used on Intercity Routes like the XI Dublin-Belfast Route or X3/X4 Dublin-Derry route. Double decker buses were in use on city services in Vienna between 1960 and 1991, they are used on services between Vienna and its airport, operated by Ötztaler Verkehrsgesellschaft under contract to ÖBB-Postbus on service 4420 between Innsbruck and Lienz.
Since 1970, various operators of Copenhagen city transport were using double-deckers—originally Leyland, in the 1980s-90s MAN and in the 2000s Volvo, derivates of model B7. The first French double-decker bus was brought into service in Paris in 1853; the upper floor was cheaper and uncovered. The first double-decker motor bus in Paris, the Schneider Brillié P2, appeared in 1906, it was designed to replace the horse-drawn double-decker omnibus. Like trams and omnibuses, double-decker motor buses included two classes of travel: first class inside the car and second class outdoors on top, but this type of vehicle was withdrawn in 1911. It was not until 1966. A prototype built by Berliet, was put into service in 1966, with an order being placed for 25 vehicles; the first production car was commissioned on 19 June 1968 on Gare Montparnasse - Levallois. On 17 February 1969, Opera - Porte d'Asnieres was in turn equipped with this model, but traffic problems caused RATP to definitively abandon this ve
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Kowloon Motor Bus
The Kowloon Motor Bus Company Limited, is a bus company operating franchised services in Hong Kong. It is the largest bus company in Hong Kong by fleet number of bus routes, it is a subsidiary of Transport International. KMB was founded on 13 April 1933 as a result of the reformation of public transport by the Hong Kong Government. Before the reformation, there were several independent bus operators working on both sides of Victoria Harbour including KMB; the Hong Kong Government enforces the bus franchises in favour of the franchisees, while it prosecutes the operators of unauthorized private bus services and other types of authorized bus service that pick up or drop off passengers in franchised bus parking zones. The KMB franchise allowed for the operation of public omnibus service on the Kowloon side as well as the New Territories. By 11 June 1933, KMB had a fleet of 106 single-deck buses; the founding members of KMB were: Tang Shiu Kin William Louey Sui Tak Lui Leung Tam Woon Tong Lam Ming Fan By December 1941, KMB had 140 single-deckers operating on 17 routes.
As only a handful of buses survived World War II, some lorries were temporarily converted into buses. By the late 1940s, KMB ridership increased with the huge influx of immigration from China. In 1949, KMB bought 20 Daimler double-deckers from England, becoming the first operator of double-deckers in Hong Kong. Following the opening of the Cross Harbour Tunnel in 1972, KMB operated a number of cross-harbour routes jointly with China Motor Bus, the sole bus operator on Hong Kong Island; this marked. In the same year, KMB began experimenting with buses operating without a fare collector. All passengers would board from the front door and pay the fare by putting money into the collection box next to the driver. In 1996, KMB launched an advertising campaign to promote modern image, it is the first bus company advertising in Hong Kong. On 1 June 1997, KMB formed a subsidiary, Long Win Bus, to provide service on the Lantau Link to the new Hong Kong International Airport and Tung Chung. In 1998, KMB extended its business into mainland China with a co-operative joint venture, Dalian Hong Kong Macau Company.
In 1999, KMB started to operate some KCR Feeder Bus routes, which are complimentary to passengers of the KCR East Rail. In July 2007, KMB commenced operating a 10-year franchise, that has since been renewed until June 2027; as at December 2017, KMB operated 397 routes in Kowloon and the New Territories, operates cross-harbour tunnel routes in co-operation with the two other bus operators Citybus and New World First Bus. Passengers pay the fare in cash or using an Octopus card, a smart card payment system. Discounts apply for Octopus users on specified route interchange combinations. To enable elderly people and eligible persons with disabilities to travel on the general Mass Transit Railway lines, franchised buses and ferries are charged concessionary fare of $2 per trip, starting from 2012; the scheme aims to help build a caring and inclusive society by encouraging these groups to participate more in community activities. As of December 2017, Kowloon Motor Bus operated a fleet of 3,972 predominately double-decker buses.
KMB traditionally purchased buses from English manufacturers including AEC, Dennis, Guy Motors, Metro Cammell Weymann and Seddon, that either were bodied in England or locally. In 1975, the first air-conditioned bus in Hong Kong was put into service by KMB. Following the testing of double-deck air-conditioned buses Victory and Jubilant in the early 1980s, KMB became the world's first operator of such buses. All purchases after 1995 were for air-conditioned buses. In May 2012, KMB withdrew its last non-air-conditioned buses from service. In the late 1970s, it began to purchase chassis from European manufacturers MAN, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo. KMB original liveries were combinations of cream. In the early 1990s, a white and grey livery was introduced for air-conditioned buses, followed in 1997 by a champagne livery. In June 2017 a red and silver livery was introduced. KMB operate four depots in the New Territories; the depot of a bus is identified by the letter K, L, S, or U, the letter is marked on the bottom left of the driver's windscreen or below windscreen.
The assignment scheme is as follows: K: Kowloon Bay depot L: Lai Chi Kok depot S: Sha Tin depot U: Formerly Un Long depot Tuen Mun depot Kowloon Motor Bus has a Hong Kong football club, Kowloon Motor Bus Co. It joined Hong Kong First Division League in the 1947/48 season. Nicknamed "Atomic Bus", the team obtained the only two league titles in 1953/54 and 1966/67; the team attained its peak in the 1950s and 1960s when the "South China - Kowloon Motor Bus Co. crash" was one of the highlighted rival matches in Hong Kong. In 1970/71, the team faced their first relegation, but was able to stay in the First Division as Jardines quit the league in the following season. However, the team were relegated in 1972/73, it made its last First Division League appearance in 1976/77, but was relegated after only one season. The football team quit the league in 1981 and reformed in 2017. 2018 Hong Kong bus accident The Bus Uncle – a 2006 incident filmed on a KMB bus that became an internet phenomenon Transport in Hong Kong Ko, Tim-keung.
80 Years with KMB. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing. ISBN 9789620434907. Official website Historic photos on Flickr
New World First Bus
New World First Bus Services Limited is the third largest bus operator in Hong Kong. NWFB was established in 1998, taking over 88 China Motor Bus services on 1 September 1998 on Hong Kong Island, it is owned by NWS Holdings. Before NWFB commenced, franchised bus service in Hong Kong Island was provided by China Motor Bus and Citybus. In the early 1990s, the service levels of CMB were in decline. Therefore, the Government of Hong Kong started to introduce new competitors by transferring the franchise of CMB routes to other companies; as a result, Citybus became the 2nd franchisee of the bus service on Hong Kong Island. Over 40 routes were transferred between 1991 and 1995. In spite of the loss of many profitable routes, the service of China Motor Bus did not show any significant improvement. In February 1998, the government announced the franchise for all 140 routes operated by China Motor Bus would not be reviewed when it expired 31 August 1998. Eighty-eight of the routes were placed to open tender, 12 routes were transferred directly to Citybus, one cross-harbour route to Kowloon Motor Bus, the remaining routes were cancelled.
Six companies lodged bids: Affluent Dragon Island Limited China Motor Bus Stagecoach Group Argos Bus Argos Enterprise HKR International Hong Kong Public Bus Co Limited Dah Chong Hong Kwoon Chung Bus Holdings Hong Kong United Bus Limited Citybus Group Cheung Kong Infrastructure Holdings China Travel International Investment Hong Kong CNT Group Kowloon Motor Bus Holdings New World First Bus New World First Holdings FirstGroup New World First Holdings was considered a dark horse as it was the only bidder with no local bus operation experience. However, New World First Holdings was awarded a five-year franchise in March 1998 with commitments of new facilities, improved service standards and employment of CMB staff. During the handover in mid-1998, NWFB faced a lot of difficulties since China Motor Bus was reluctant to cooperate with New World First Bus. NWFB commenced operating at midnight on 1 September 1998 after a series of negotiations and with help from the government; the first official NWFB departure took place at 00:15 on route N8 with the first new bus in the fleet, no 1001.
However NWFB had started its operation of other non-overnight routes at midnight as CMB refused to operate after that time. NWFB commenced operations with around 50 new buses and 710 former CMB buses, with the NWFB logo applied over the CMB logos and blue patches over the CMB corporate flag. Having purchased large numbers of second-hand buses from China Motor Bus, New World First Bus started an extensive program to refurbish them; the floor, lighting system and seating layout were all upgraded. The seating arrangement of buses were modified. A typical refurbished bus accommodated 10 fewer passengers than one before refurbishment. In May 2000 FirstGroup sold its shares to joint venture partner New World Development giving it 100% ownership. In June 2003 fellow franchised bus operator Citybus was purchased by NWFB parent company NWS Holdings, bringing the bus services of Hong Kong Island once again under control of a single organisation. Before the acquisition, many of the two companies' competing routes overlap each other.
In order to make better use of company resources, many routes were reshuffled. Redundant routes were cancelled, Octopus card bus-bus interchange discounts were introduced between routes of both companies. In January 2004 NWFB took a 51% shareholding in Kunming New World First Bus, a joint venture established with the Kunming government to operate services to Kunming in Yunnan on 39 routes with 700 buses; as at 2018, the entire fleet consisted of around 800 low-floor buses where the majority are double-deck. NWFB operates four depots at Wong Chuk Hang, Tseung Kwan o and West Kowloon; when the government decided to terminate China Motor Bus' franchise, New World First Bus acquired 88 routes. Other routes were handed over to Citybus and Kowloon Motor Bus. New World First Bus operates bus routes in the New Kowloon Development Area and Tseung Kwan O. On the bus stop signs, different types of routes are distinguished by different colors; as at November 2013 NWFB operates 51 routes. As it is the second bus operator to be air-conditioned fleet in Hong Kong, triple digit routes beginning with 5 do not have significant meaning.
In October 2009, NWFB commenced operating through its Rickshaw Sightseeing Bus subsidiary. List of bus routes in Hong Kong List of Hong Kong companies New World Development Rickshaw Sightseeing Bus Transportation in Hong Kong New World First Bus and Citybus Company website Bus Fan World New World First Bus Enviro500 12m Euro V Information