A car wash or auto wash is a facility used to clean the exterior and, in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. Car washes can be self-serve automated, or full-service with attendants who wash the vehicle, it may be an event where people pay to have their cars washed by volunteers as a method to raise money for some purpose. With the modern convenience of automatic car washes, it may be difficult to remember that the industry was not always so high-tech. Though, other commercial car washes came before it, the first semi-automatic car wash in the United States made its debut in 1946, from there, the industry has grown in both size and sophistication; the start of the history of car washing dated back into 1914. People used manpower to move the cars through stages of the process. Manual car wash operations peaked at 32 drive-through facilities in the United States. Prior to this time, the evolution of car washing was just at the beginning, that the automatic car washing was born; the first semi-automatic car wash was active for the first time in Detroit, Michigan using automatic pulley systems and manual brushing.
Many things had occurred within 1955 regarding car washing history. A businessman named Dan Hanna was encouraged by the car washers in Detroit, operated his own materials eventually made his own car wash called the Rub-a-Dub in Oregon. In 1957, he formed the Hanna Enterprises and reached about 31 car washes in America. In 1959, Hanna operated his wash rack; as the news spread throughout the city, so did his business. By the mid 1960s Hanna Enterprises had established itself as the main source innovator and the manufacturer of car washing equipments and materials. Over time, Hanna had made several machines that will be the first to do the main requirements over car washing, this includes the Wrap-Around Brush, Roller-on-demand Conveyor belt, soft cloth friction washing, several ways to wash the tires, a recirculating water system. With that said, Hanna Enterprises have become the largest vehicle washing equipment manufacturer. In the 1970s it was a difficult time for the car washing industry, as the result of the gasoline prices increasing rapidly.
Still, Hanna Enterprises made another two inventions during this time: the automatic wheel cleaner, the polish'n'wax. While there are many types of car washes, most fall into the following categories: Car wash lift, where cars are placed in a car wash lift where cars can be washed by employees. Hand car wash facilities. Self-service facilities, which are coin-operated, where the customer does the washing, including pressurized "jet washing". In-bay automatics, consist of an automatic washing machine and dryer that rolls back and forth over a stationary vehicle - seen at filling stations and stand-alone wash sites. Tunnel washes, which use a conveyor to move the vehicle through a series of fixed cleaning mechanisms. Chemical car wash known as waterless car wash, uses chemicals to wash and polish car surface. Claims to be an eco-friendly car wash method. Recommended only for cars with light dirt accumulation to avoid paint damage. Steam car washes use a jet of steam and micro fiber towels, some include detergent injection.
Known to have originated from South Korea, steam car washes have been popular as a low-investment, eco-friendly car wash solution in Asia, Middle East, Europe thanks to its sanitizing features and mobility. Mobile car washes also serving as mobile detailing systems, which carry plastic water tanks and use pressure washers. Sometimes these systems are mounted on trucks, or in vans; these operators have a generator to run a shop vac. buffers, other tools as well. Mechanized car washes those with brushes, were once avoided by some meticulous car owners because of the risk of damaging the finish. Paint finishes have improved as have car washing processes, this perception of vehicle damage is much less prevalent today. However, this perception was the motive behind the rise of facilities utilizing "brushless" and "touch-free" equipment, as well as modern "foam" washing wheels made of closed cell foam. In today's modern car wash facilities, whether tunnel, in-bay automatic or self-serve and other cleaning solutions used are designed to loosen and eliminate dirt and grime.
This is in contrast to earlier times, when hydrofluoric acid, a hazardous chemical, was used as a cleaning agent in the industry by some operators. There has been a strong move in the industry to shift to safer cleaning solutions. Most car wash facilities are required by law to treat and/or reuse their water and may be required to maintain waste-water discharge permits, in contrast to unregulated facilities or driveway washing, where waste-water can end up in the storm drain and in streams and lakes. A simple and automated type of car wash, coin-operated or token-operated self-service system. Newer self-service car washes offer the ability to pay with credit cards or loyalty cards; the vehicle is parked inside a large covered bay, equipped with a trigger gun and wand and a scrub foam-brush. When customers insert coins or tokens into the controller, they can choose options such as soap, tire cleaner, wax or clear water rinse, all dispensed from the sprayer, or scrub the vehicle with the foam brush.
The number of coins or tokens inserted determines the amount of time customers have to operate the equipment. These facilities are equipped with separat
A lottery scam is a type of advance-fee fraud which begins with an unexpected email notification, phone call, or mailing explaining that "You have won!" A large sum of money in a lottery. The recipient of the message—the target of the scam—is told to keep the notice secret, "due to a mix-up in some of the names and numbers," and to contact a "claims agent." After contacting the agent, the target of the scam will be asked to pay "processing fees" or "transfer charges" so that the winnings can be distributed, but will never receive any lottery payment. Many email lottery scams use the names of legitimate lottery organizations or other legitimate corporations/companies, but this does not mean the legitimate organizations are in any way involved with the scams. There are several ways of identifying a fake lottery email: Unless someone has bought a ticket, one cannot have won a prize. There are no such things as "email" draws or any other lottery where "no tickets were sold"; this is another invention by the scammer to make the victims believe that they have won.
The scammer will ask the victims to pay a fee in advance to receive their prize. All genuine lotteries subtract any fees and tax from the prize. Regardless of what the scammer claims this fee is for, these are all fabricated by the scammer to obtain money from victims. Scam lottery emails will nearly always come from free email accounts such as Outlook, Yahoo!, Live, MSN, Gmail etc. Scam emails will insist that the recipient keeps their win confidential, this is avoid them speaking to others who may advise them that the email is illegitimate. There will be inconsistencies with currencies or countries mentioned - for example an email might be sent to an individual in the UK claiming that they won a USD amount in a South African lottery. If there are spelling or grammatical issues that indicates that an email is a scam. Most email lottery scams are a type of advance fee fraud. A typical scam email will read like this: Another type of lottery scam is a scam email or web page where the recipient had won a sum of money in the lottery.
The recipient is instructed to contact an agent quickly but the scammers are just using a third party company, email or names to hide their true identity, in some cases offering extra prizes. After contacting the "agent", the recipient will be asked to come to an office, where during one hour or more, the conditions of receiving the offer are revealed. For example, the prize recipient is encouraged to spend as much as 30 times the prize money in order to receive the prize itself. In other words, although the offer is in fact genuine, it is only a discount of a few percent on an expensive purchase; this type of scam is legal in many jurisdictions. Sometimes lottery scam messages are sent by ordinary postal mail. For example, some scams by letter misuse the names of the legal Spanish lotteries, such as El Gordo de la Primitiva. In the UK, lottery scams have become such a major problem that many legitimate lottery sites now have dedicated pages on the subject; this variation relies on the target agreeing to accept a sum of money that they know that they are not entitled to and when they refuse to pay the advance fee, the scammers threaten to report them unless blackmail is paid.
A typical scenario is when the emails are sent to staff of a multinational corporation with offices/branches throughout the world using their work email address. The fraudsters will represent themselves as the agents of a scheme. An example being the "winners" of a prize as a result of placing an advertisement with the supposed promoter of the scheme in an obscure trade magazine published in an obscure country; the scammers will allege that they have written to the corporation's headquarters and made every attempt to pass on the "prize" but without success. As they don't want to lose face with the promoters they are anxious to discharge their responsibilities to pass on the prize money. So they ask for the target's personal banking details to allow the "prize" to be sent and they will trust the target will pass it on to their employers; this makes the target vulnerable to a phishing attack but, more to blackmail attempts. When they refuse to pay any advance fee the fraudsters threaten to report the matter to their employers and/or the police.
World Lottery Association warns of foreign lottery fraud risks, the World Lottery Association The Rundown on Lottery Scams Lottery Scams Lottery fraud
Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order initiated by the debtor. Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings. In France, the cognate French word banqueroute is used for cases of fraudulent bankruptcy, whereas the term faillite is used for bankruptcy in accordance with the law; the word bankruptcy is derived from Italian banca rotta, meaning "broken bench", which may stem from a widespread custom in the Republic of Genoa of breaking a moneychanger's bench or counter to signify their insolvency, or which may be only a figure of speech. In Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist.
If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into "debt slavery", until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime under harsher conditions. An exception to this rule was Athens; the Statute of Bankrupts of 1542 was the first statute under English law dealing with bankruptcy or insolvency. Bankruptcy is documented in East Asia. According to al-Maqrizi, the Yassa of Genghis Khan contained a provision that mandated the death penalty for anyone who became bankrupt three times. A failure of a nation to meet bond repayments has been seen on many occasions. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. According to Kenneth S. Rogoff, "Although the development of international capital markets was quite limited prior to 1800, we catalog the various defaults of France, Prussia and the early Italian city-states.
At the edge of Europe, Egypt and Turkey have histories of chronic default as well." The principal focus of modern insolvency legislation and business debt restructuring practices no longer rests on the elimination of insolvent entities, but on the remodeling of the financial and organizational structure of debtors experiencing financial distress so as to permit the rehabilitation and continuation of the business. For private households, some argue that it is insufficient to dismiss debts after a certain period, it is important to assess the underlying problems and to minimize the risk of financial distress to re-occur. It has been stressed that debt advice, a supervised rehabilitation period, financial education and social help to find sources of income and to improve the management of household expenditures must be provided during this period of rehabilitation. In most EU Member States, debt discharge is conditioned by a partial payment obligation and by a number of requirements concerning the debtor's behavior.
In the United States, discharge is conditioned to a lesser extent. The spectrum is broad in the EU, with the UK coming closest to the US system; the Other Member States do not provide the option of a debt discharge. Spain, for example, passed a bankruptcy law in 2003 which provides for debt settlement plans that can result in a reduction of the debt or an extension of the payment period of maximally five years, but it does not foresee debt discharge. In the US, it is difficult to discharge federal or federally guaranteed student loan debt by filing bankruptcy. Unlike most other debts, those student loans may be discharged only if the person seeking discharge establishes specific grounds for discharge under the Brunner test, under which the court evaluates three factors: If required to repay the loan, the borrower cannot maintain a minimal standard of living. If a debtor proves all three elements, a court may permit only a partial discharge of the student loan. Student loan borrowers may benefit from restructuring their payments through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy repayment plan, but few qualify for discharge of part or all of their student loan debt.
Bankruptcy fraud is a white-collar crime. While difficult to generalize across jurisdictions, common criminal acts under bankruptcy statutes involve concealment of assets, concealment or destruction of documents, conflicts of interest, fraudulent claims, false statements or declarations, fee fixing or redistribution arrangements. Falsifications on bankruptcy forms constitute perjury. Multiple filings are not in and of themselves criminal, but they may violate provisions of bankruptcy law. In the U. S. bankruptcy fraud statutes are focused on the mental state of particular actions. Bankruptcy fraud is a federal crime in the United States. Bankruptcy fraud should be distinguished from strategic bankruptcy, not a criminal act since it creates a real bankruptcy state. Howeve
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it. The word is used as an informal shorthand term for some crimes against property, such as burglary, larceny, robbery, library theft, fraud. In some jurisdictions, theft is considered to be synonymous with larceny. Someone who carries out an act of or makes a career of theft is known as a thief; the act of theft is known by other terms such as stealing and filching. Theft is the name of a statutory offence in California, Canada and Wales, Hong Kong, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, the Australian states of South Australia, Victoria; the actus reus of theft is defined as an unauthorized taking, keeping, or using of another's property which must be accompanied by a mens rea of dishonesty and the intent permanently to deprive the owner or rightful possessor of that property or its use. For example, if X goes to a restaurant and, by mistake, takes Y's scarf instead of her own, she has physically deprived Y of the use of the property but the mistake prevents X from forming the mens rea so no crime has been committed at this point.
But if she realises the mistake when she gets home and could return the scarf to Y, she will steal the scarf if she dishonestly keeps it. Note that there may be civil liability for the torts of trespass to chattels or conversion in either eventuality. Section 322 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for theft in Canada: 322; every one commits theft who fraudulently and without colour of right takes, or fraudulently and without colour of right converts to his/her use or to the use of another person, whether animate or inanimate, with intent to deprive, temporarily or the owner of it, or a person who has a special property or interest in it, of the thing or of his property or interest in it. Sections 323 to 333 provide for more specific instances and exclusions: theft from oyster beds theft by bailee of things under seizure exception when agent is pledging goods theft of telecommunications service possession of device to obtain telecommunication facility or service theft by or from person having special property or interest theft by person required to account theft by person holding power of attorney misappropriation of money held under direction exception for ore taken for exploration or scientific research In the general definition above, the Supreme Court of Canada has construed "anything" broadly, stating that it is not restricted to tangibles, but includes intangibles.
To be the subject of theft it must, however: be property of some sort. Because of this, confidential information cannot be the subject of theft, as it is not capable of being taken as only tangibles can be taken, it cannot be converted, not because it is an intangible, but because, save in exceptional far‑fetched circumstances, the owner would never be deprived of it. However, the theft of trade secrets in certain circumstances does constitute part of the offence of economic espionage, which can be prosecuted under s. 19 of the Security of Information Act. For the purposes of punishment, Section 334 divides theft into two separate offences, according to the value and nature of the goods stolen: If the thing stolen is worth more than $5000 or is a testamentary instrument the offence is referred to as Theft Over $5000 and is an indictable offence with a maximum punishment of 10 years imprisonment. Where the stolen item is not a testamentary instrument and is not worth more than $5000 it is known as Theft Under $5000 and is a hybrid offence, meaning that it can be treated either as an indictable offence or a less serious summary conviction offence, depending on the choice of the prosecutor.if dealt with as an indictable offence, it is punishable by imprisonment for not more than 2 years, and, if treated as a summary conviction offence, it is punishable by 6 months imprisonment, a fine of $2000 or both.
Where a motor vehicle is stolen, Section 333.1 provides for a maximum punishment of 10 years for an indictable offence, a maximum sentence of 18 months on summary conviction. Article 2 of the Theft Ordinance provides the general definition of theft in Hong Kong: A person commits theft if he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it, it is immaterial whether the appropriation is made with a view to gain, or is made for the thief’s own benefit. Theft is a crime with related articles in the Wetboek van Strafrecht. Article 310 prohibits theft, defined as taking away any object that belongs to someone else, with the intention to appropriate it illegally. Maximum imprisonment is 4 years or a fine o
Uber Technologies Inc. is a transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco, California. Uber offers services including peer-to-peer ridesharing, ride service hailing, food delivery, a bicycle-sharing system; the company has operations in 785 metropolitan areas worldwide. Its platforms can be accessed via mobile apps. Uber has been so prominent in the sharing economy that the changes in industries as a result of it have been referred to as uberisation, many startups have described their products as "Uber for X"; the name "Uber" is a reference to the common word uber, meaning "topmost" or "super", having its origins in the German word über, cognate with over, meaning "above". Uber is estimated to have a 67.3 % market share in the United States. Uber is a gold member of the Linux Foundation and has a five star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Most jurisdictions regulate TNCs such as Uber and TNCs are banned from operating in some jurisdictions. For more information, see Legality of TNCs by jurisdiction.
The Uber app gives riders a quote for the fare. Uber uses a dynamic pricing model. At the end of the ride, payment is made based on the rider's pre-selected preferences, which could be a credit card on file, Google Pay, Apple Pay, cash, or, in India, Airtel mobile wallet or Unified Payments Interface. After the ride is over, the rider is given the option to provide a gratuity to the driver, billed to the rider's payment method. In some locations, if the driver has to wait more than a few minutes after arriving to the pickup location, riders are charged a wait time fee. UberX, the basic level of service, provides a private ride in a standard car with driver for up to four passengers. Rider service levels, many of which are only available in certain cities, include: UberASSIST provides additional assistance to senior citizens and passengers with a physical disability, but cannot transport a non-folding wheelchair. UberAUTO, available in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan, provides transportation by auto rickshaw.
UberBike is a dockless bicycle-sharing system that allows users to rent electric bicycles via Uber subsidiary Jump Bikes in 9 metropolitan areas in the United States including San Francisco and Washington, D. C. Uber users are able to rent Lime scooters in 46 cities via the Uber mobile app. UberBLACK provides a black luxury vehicle. UberBOAT, a water-taxi service, provides speedboats in the summer to/from points on the coast of Croatia. UberBOAT has offered transport across Biscayne Bay during Miami Art Week and across the Bosporus strait in Istanbul in the summer. UberChapchap, available in Nairobi, Kenya is a low-cost service offering transport via a Suzuki Alto, a kei car. "Chapchap" means "faster" in the Swahili language. UberESPAÑOL is a version of UberX that allows Spanish-speaking riders to request Spanish-speaking drivers. UberFLASH, available in Singapore, is a service that combines both private cars and ComfortDelGro taxis. UberGO, available in India and Sri Lanka, provides for a ride in a hatchback.
UberHealth is a HIPAA-compliant method for health professionals to arrange rides for patients to-and-from their appointments. Patients without smartphones can receive pickup information via Text messaging or via the health professional's office. UberKIDS provides a car with a child safety seat for an additional charge. UberMOTO, available in India, Indonesia and the Dominican Republic, provides transportation by motorcycle. UberPETS includes pet transport for an additional charge. Must be accompanied by pet's handler. Persons with a service animal may use any type of Uber service. UberPOOL, available for up to two people per party, provides a ride, shared with other riders going in the same general direction. Unless the rider pays an additional fee for door-to-door service, the rider are required to walk a short distance at both ends of the ride to save time for the driver and other riders; the pickup/drop-off locations are indicated via a map in the mobile app. UberPOP provides a subcompact car.
Uber Rent, powered by Getaround, is a peer-to-peer carsharing service available in San Francisco. UberSELECT provides a car with a leather interior. UberSUV provides a sport utility vehicle. UberTAXI allows users to summon a taxi using the Uber software application. Users can leave a gratuity through the app; the service was implemented to appease taxi drivers who protested the increased competition from Uber. UberX provides a private ride in a standard car for up to 4 passengers. UberXL provides a ride in a large vehicle. UberWAV provides a wheelchair accessible vehicle. UberAIR / UberElevate will provide short flights using VTOL aircraft. Demonstration flights are projected to start in 2020 in Los Angeles. Commercial operations are projected to begin in 2023. Although technically feasible, the program is expected to encounter safety and regulatory obstacles. Uber has operated promotional limited services, such as rides of up to 15 minutes each on September 6–8, 2013 in San Francisco in the DeLorean, featured in the Back to the Future film franchise.
Most Uber drivers use their own cars although drivers can lease a car to drive with Uber. Uber offers car rental or leasing via Getaround and Fair and Uber and BYD Auto have a partnership to provide leasing of electric cars to Uber drivers in Chicago and New York City. Drivers must meet requirements for age, car age and type, have
To counterfeit means to imitate something authentic, with the intent to steal, destroy, or replace the original, for use in illegal transactions, or otherwise to deceive individuals into believing that the fake is of equal or greater value than the real thing. Counterfeit products are unauthorized replicas of the real product. Counterfeit products are produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product; the word counterfeit describes both the forgeries of currency and documents, as well as the imitations of items such as clothing, shoes, pharmaceuticals and automobile parts, electronics, works of art and movies. Counterfeit products tend to have fake company logos and brands, have a reputation for being lower quality and may include toxic elements such as lead; this has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, due to automobile and aviation accidents, poisoning, or ceasing to take essential compounds. The counterfeiting of money is attacked aggressively by governments worldwide.
Paper money is the most popular product counterfeited. Counterfeit money is currency, produced without the legal sanction of the state or government and in deliberate violation of that country's laws; the United States Secret Service known for its guarding-of-officials task, was organized to combat the counterfeiting of American money. Counterfeit government bonds are public debt instruments that are produced without legal sanction, with the intention of "cashing them in" for authentic currency or using them as collateral to secure legitimate loans or lines of credit. Forgery is the process of adapting documents with the intention to deceive, it is a form of fraud, is a key technique in the execution of identity theft. Uttering and publishing is a term in United States law for the forgery of non-official documents, such as a trucking company's time and weight logs. Questioned document examination is a scientific process for investigating many aspects of various documents, is used to examine the provenance and verity of a suspected forgery.
Security printing is a printing industry specialty, focused on creating legal documents which are difficult to forge. The spread of counterfeit goods has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly. Apparel and accessories accounted for over 50 percent of the counterfeit goods seized by U. S Customs and Border Control. According to the study of Counterfeiting Intelligence Bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce, counterfeit goods make up 5 to 7% of World Trade. A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development indicates that up to US$200 Billion of international trade could have been in counterfeit and illegally copied goods in 2005. In November 2009, the OECD updated these estimates, concluding that the share of counterfeit and illegitimate goods in world trade had increased from 1.85% in 2000 to 1.95% in 2007. That represents an increase to US$250 billion worldwide. In a detailed breakdown of the counterfeit goods industry, the total loss faced by countries around the world is $600 billion, with the United States facing the most economic impact.
When calculating counterfeit products, current estimates place the global losses at $400 billion. On November 29, 2010, the Department of Homeland Security seized and shut down 82 websites as part of a U. S. crackdown of websites that sell counterfeit goods, was timed to coincide with "Cyber Monday," the start of the holiday online shopping season. Some see the rise in counterfeiting of goods as being related to globalisation; as more and more companies, in an effort to increase profits, move manufacturing to the cheaper labour markets of the third world, areas with weaker labour laws or environmental regulations, they give the means of production to foreign workers. These new managers of production have little or no loyalty to the original corporation, they see that profits are being made by the global brand for doing little and see the possibilities of removing the middle men and marketing directly to the consumer. This can result in counterfeit products being indistinguishable from original products, as they are being produced in the same company, in damage to the parent corporation due to copyright infringement.
Certain consumer goods very expensive or desirable brands or those that are easy to reproduce cheaply, have become frequent and common targets of counterfeiting. The counterfeiters either attempt to deceive the consumer into thinking they are purchasing a legitimate item, or convince the consumer that they could deceive others with the imitation. An item which makes no attempt to deceive, such as a copy of a DVD with missing or different cover art or a book without a cover, is called a "bootleg" or a "pirated copy" instead. Counterfeiting has been issued to "cash in" on the growing record collecting market. One major example is bootleggers have cloned copies of Elvis Presley's early singles for Sun Records since original copies starting changing hands amongst music fans for hundreds of US$; some who produce these do so with the wrong material. For example the song "Heartbreak Hotel", never released on Sun, as by the time Elvis' first heard it, prior to recording