Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
This article is about a river in Moscow, a tributary of the Moskva River. There are three other Yauza rivers in Central Russia: tributaries of the Lama and Sestra; the Yauza is a river in a tributary of the Moskva River. It originates in the Losiny Ostrov National Park northeast of Moscow, flows through Mytishchi, enters Moscow in the Medvedkovo District and flows through the city in an irregular, meandering north-south direction; the Yauza joins the Moskva River in Tagansky District just west of Tagansky Hill, now marked by the Kotelnicheskaya Embankment tower. Valleys of the Yauza, from the MKAD beltway in the north to the Moscow-Yaroslavl railway west of Sokolniki Park, are protected as natural reserves; the Yauza has been mentioned in Russian chronicles since 1156. Moscow crossed its former natural eastern boundary in the beginning of the 16th century; the banks of the Yauza within the Garden Ring were densely urbanized by the middle of the 17th century. Settlements along the Yauza played a significant role in the history of Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Industrialization in the 19th and 20th centuries made the Yauza "the biggest gutter for waste in Moscow". In the 2000s the ecology improved, with the closing or conversion of old factories and cleanup efforts by the city government. In 2007 the Yauza waters were reclassified from "dirty" to "polluted" status, but in 2008 the trend reversed and pollution in the Yauza exceeded its 2006 levels; as of 2008, Yauza water passing the Moscow city boundary is rated as "polluted", reaches a "very dirty" level at its inlet. Untreated surface runoff in the Central Administrative District remains the main source of pollution; the Yauza is arguably one of the most ancient European rivers. A proto-Yauza River first appeared in Permian-Triassic period, at which time it flowed to the east of its present riverbed, down today's Izmailovo Gully. After being periodically submerged during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, the region became land in the Tertiary period. Due to minor elevation changes, the Yauza diverted into its present course, with its former riverbed taken over by the present-day Serebryanka River, which forms part of Yauza basin and flows in the westward direction opposite to the original Yauza.
The contemporary Yauza consists of three parts: The Yauza collects waters from many tributaries, most of them confined to underground sewers. The few that remain on the surface, at least are: The flow of the Yauza is regulated and reinforced with water from the Volga River that reaches the city through the Moscow Canal. 80 million cubic meters of Volga water is sourced each year from the Khimki Reservoir in northwest Moscow and fed through underground pipes and an open channel to Golovinsky Ponds and the Likhoborka River. The water level in the lower Yauza is regulated by the Pererva Dam on the Moskva River, by the locks on the Yauza itself east of Kursky Rail Terminal. Raised water levels in the downtown portion of the Yauza basin led to long-term flooding and death of trees deep inside Losiny Ostrov. Within the city of Moscow the Yauza is spanned by 21 road bridges, five railroad bridges, one dedicated tram bridge, two Moscow Metro bridges, numerous pedestrian bridges and the historical Rostokino Aqueduct.
Spring floods due to low clearance under old bridges were common, with four in the 1950s alone. The most recent flash flood on the Yauza occurred August 14, 2003, following a record-setting rainfall; the Yauza and its valleys are not prone to the landslides and erosion common in the western and southern districts of Moscow. There were two minor landslides on the Yauza in 2008, compared with 40 on the Chertanovka River and 33 on the Gorodnya River. There is no commercial or recreational shipping, although the river is accessible to small motor boats as far as Preobrazhenskaya Square; the first mention of the Yauza in Russian chronicles is directly connected to the foundation of Moscow: according to the chronicles, in 1156 Yury Dolgoruky "founded Moscow at the estuary of Neglinnaya above the Yauza" on the site owned by Stepan Kuchka and known through another chronicle since 1147. There is no accepted etymology for Yauza or Auza. Similar toponyms exist in modern Latvia. Medieval Moscow grew from its Kremlin in a northeasterly direction, towards the Yauza.
St. Andronik Monastery on the Yauza formed the eastern defence arc, together with the Pokrovsky and Novospassky monasteries; the Yauza was used as a commercial waterway from Moscow to Vladimir until the 16th century. After the fire of 1494, Ivan III of Russia set up his country residence on the western bank of the Yauza in Vorontsovo. During the same period potters and other craftsmen deemed a fire hazard were evicted from Moscow proper onto the opposite, eastern bank of the Yauza, thus beginning the industrialization of the river. Slobodas of metalworkers' guilds expanded, in the 17th century Taganka became the most densely populated, remote area of the city of Moscow; the lower Yauza was used by numerous wa
Sportivnaya (Moscow Metro)
Sportivnaya is a Moscow Metro station on the Sokolnicheskaya line. It is in the Khamovniki District in the Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow. Named for the nearby Luzhniki Olympic Complex, it opened in 1957. Passengers may make out-of-station transfers from Sportivnaya to Luzhniki on the Moscow Central Circle, about 200 meters away; the architects were Nadezhda Bykova, I. Gokhar-Kharmandaryan, Ivan Taranov, B. Cherepanov. Sportivnaya has white marble pylons with green marble accents and a ceiling of embossed asbestos-cement tiles rather than the usual plaster; the upper two floors of the three-story vestibule are home to the Moscow Metro Museum, which displays 70 years of Metro memorabilia
Moscow Leningradsky railway station
Moscow Leningradsky railway terminal known as Moscow Passazhirskaya station is the oldest of Moscow's nine railway terminals. Situated on Komsomolskaya Square, the station serves North-Western directions, notably Saint Petersburg. International services from the station include Tallinn, operated by GoRail, Helsinki, Finland, it is the only Moscow railway terminal operated by October Railway rather than Moscow Railway. The station was constructed between 1844 and 1851 to an eclectic design by Konstantin Thon as the terminus of the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Railway, a pet project of Emperor Nicholas I. Regular connection was opened in 1851, it was known as Peterburgsky. Upon the Emperor's death five years the station was named Nikolayevsky after him and retained this name until 1924, when the Bolsheviks renamed it Oktyabrsky terminal, to commemorate the October Revolution; the present name was given a year when the city of Petrograd became Leningrad. Thon's design follows that of the station's counterpart in St. Petersburg.
The monotonous regularity of rustication and pilasters is enlivened with Italianate details and an elegant clocktower at the centre. More rigorous is the exterior of the nearby Moscow Customs House by Thon; the interior of the station was modernized and renovated in 1950 and 1972. There are numerous ordinary long range trains to these directions. High-speed commuter rail Since 1 October 2015 Siemens Desiro RUS high speed commuter trains operating on Moscow-Tver and Moscow-Kryukovo routes; the major stops on the route are:Khimki, Kryukovo and Klin. Suburban commuter trains connect Leningradsky station with stations and platforms of the Leningradsky suburban direction of Oktyabrskaya Railway, in particular, with the towns of Khimki, Solnechnogorsk, Klin and Tver. Leningradsky station Official site
Bulvar Rokossovskogo (Sokolnicheskaya line)
Bulvar Rokossovskogo Ulitsa Podbelskogo, is a Moscow Metro station in the Bogorodskoye District, Eastern Administrative Okrug, Russia. It is on the Sokolnicheskaya line; the station was opened in 1990. Riders may make an out-of-station transfer to Bulvar Rokossovskogo on the Moscow Central Circle line; the station was named "Ulitsa Podbelskogo" for Podbelskogo Street, named for the Bolshevik revolutionary Vadim Podbelsky. After the street was renamed in 1991 to Ivanteyevskaya Street, the station's name was unchanged until 2014. On 10 April 2014 Moscow City Commission on Names recommended renaming the station to "Bulvar Marshala Rokossovskogo", for Rokossovsky Boulevard, named for Soviet Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky. On 8 July, the station was renamed to "Bulvar Rokossovskogo". Rather than continuing the straight path of the Sokolnicheskaya line to the northeast, Bulvar Rokossovskogo was built to the northwest of Cherkizovskaya, forming a right angle with the rest of the line; this would allow Bulvar Rokossovskogo to become part of a planned second ring line around the city, at which time the Sokolnicheskaya line could be further extended in its original direction.
Beyond Bulvar Rokossovskogo are reversal sidings which are planned to become part of the future "Big Ring" line. A junction between Bulvar Rokossovskogo and Cherkizovskaya is used by southbound trains entering and leaving the Cherkizovo depot, since the depot is directly connected only to the southbound tunnel. Bulvar Rokossovskogo is a shallow column tri-vault station; the station was designed by architects Nina Aleshin and Natalya K. Samoilova and applied the following theme: ferroconcrete pillars faced with white marble.
Frunzenskaya (Moscow Metro)
Frunzenskaya is a Metro station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line in Moscow, Russia. The station was opened on 1 May 1957 as the first stage of the extension of the Frunzenskiy radius; as the radius follows the bend of the Moskva river, the whole segment had to be built deep. The station closed on 2 January 2016 for renovation, expected to last 14 months; the renovations were completed ahead of schedule with the station reopening on December 29, 2016. The renovations included the installation of four new escalators to replace the three, in place. Metro authorities projected that the new escalators would reduce energy consumption by 40% and increase the capacity by one-third; the station is symbolic as being one of the last in Moscow to be built in Stalinist style which dominated the Metro Architecture since the mid-1940s, afterwards the station designs show evidence of more vivid decorations that were meant to be installed yet designs were simplified. Frunzenskaya still stands out and architects Robert Pogrebnoi and Yuriy Zenkivich applied a pylon design with cream marbled vaults and tops of pylons, decorated with metallic shields containing a five-sided star.
The bottom of Pylons are a form of a thicker red marble base. Suspended from the ceiling are massive eight-horned chandeliers; the floor is covered with black and red granite on floors and the walls are faced with white ceramic tiles. In the far end of the station, in front of a red-marbled semicircle is a bust to Mikhail Frunze, a famous military commander in the Russian Civil War for whom the station is named; the station's massive vestibule is situated on the Komsomolskiy Avenue and Kholzunov side-street was demolished and built into the Moscow's Palace of Youth building in the 1984, presently receives a daily passenger traffic of 47,410. Behind the station is a junction for a branch to the Koltsevaya Line used for transfers
Moscow Yaroslavsky railway station
Moscow Yaroslavsky railway station is one of the nine main railway stations in Moscow. Situated on Komsomolskaya Square, Moscow Yaroslavskaya has the highest passenger throughput of all nine of the capital's main-line terminuses, it serves eastern destinations, including those in the Russian Far East, being the western terminus of the world's longest railway line, the Trans-Siberian. The station takes its name from that of the ancient city of Yaroslavl which, lying 284 rail kilometres north-east of Moscow, is the first large city served by the line; the first Yaroslavsky station was built on this site in 1862, next to Moscow's first rail terminal, the Oktyabrsky station. The existing Neorussian revival building facing Komsomolskaya Square was built in 1902–1904 by Fyodor Shechtel; the main departure hall beneath the fairy-tale roof connected directly into the boarding concourse. In 1910, its platforms and concourse were expanded by Lev Kekushev. Two major additions, in 1965–66 and 1995, further expanded station capacity.
The station serves around 300 pairs of trains daily. »: through coach Suburban commuter trains connect Yaroslavsky Rail station stations and platforms of the Yaroslavsky suburban direction of Moscow Railway, in particular, with the towns of Mytishchi, Yubileyny, Monino, Fryazino, Krasnoarmeysk, Sergiyev Posad, Alexandrov. Yaroslavsky station Russian Railways Chinese Railways Mongolian Railways Photo gallery of architectural details Virtual tour to Leningradsky and Kazansky train station