1.
Ken Shuttleworth (architect)
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Ken Shuttleworth is an English architect. Shuttleworth studied architecture at the Leicester School of Architecture, De Montfort University, Shuttleworth became a partner at Foster and Partners where he worked on some of the worlds most iconic buildings. He joined the practice in 1977, moving to Hong Kong in 1979 to oversee the design and construction of The Hongkong, Shuttleworth left Foster and Partners to set up his own practice, Make Architects, in 2004

2.
City of London
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The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, however, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is also unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries. The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area. One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was later buried at Ludgate

3.
Hyperboloid of revolution
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In geometry, a hyperboloid of revolution, sometimes called circular hyperboloid, is a surface that may be generated by rotating a hyperbola around one of its principal axes. An hyperboloid is a surface that may be obtained from a paraboloid of revolution by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation. A hyperboloid is a surface, that is a surface that may be defined as the zero set of a polynomial of degree two in three variables. Among quadric surfaces, a hyperboloid is characterized by not being a cone or a cylinder, having a center of symmetry, a hyperboloid has also three pairwise perpendicular axes of symmetry, and three pairwise perpendicular planes of symmetry. Both of these surfaces are asymptotic to the cone of equation x 2 a 2 + y 2 b 2 − z 2 c 2 =0, one has an hyperboloid of revolution if and only if a 2 = b 2. It is a ruled surface. In case of a = b the hyperboloid is a surface of revolution, the more common generation of a hyperboloid of revolution is rotating a hyperbola around its semi-minor axis. Remark, A hyperboloid of two sheets is projectively equivalent to a hyperbolic paraboloid, for simplicity the plane sections of the unit hyperboloid with equation H1, x 2 + y 2 − z 2 =1 are considered. Because a hyperboloid in general position is an image of the unit hyperboloid. The hyperboloid of two sheets does not contain lines, the discussion of plane sections can be performed for the unit hyperboloid of two sheets with equation H2, x 2 + y 2 − z 2 = −1. Remark, A hyperboloid of two sheets is projectively equivalent to a sphere, whereas the Gaussian curvature of a hyperboloid of one sheet is negative, that of a two-sheet hyperboloid is positive. In spite of its curvature, the hyperboloid of two sheets with another suitably chosen metric can also be used as a model for hyperbolic geometry. More generally, an arbitrarily oriented hyperboloid, centered at v, is defined by the equation T A =1, where A is a matrix and x, v are vectors. The eigenvectors of A define the directions of the hyperboloid. The one-sheet hyperboloid has two positive eigenvalues and one negative eigenvalue, the two-sheet hyperboloid has one positive eigenvalue and two negative eigenvalues. Imaginary hyperboloids are frequently found in mathematics of higher dimensions, for example, in a pseudo-Euclidean space one has the use of a quadratic form, q = −, k < n. When c is any constant, then the part of the space given by is called a hyperboloid, the degenerate case corresponds to c =0. As an example, consider the following passage, however, the term quasi-sphere is also used in this context since the sphere and hyperboloid have some commonality

4.
Structure
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Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as biological organisms, abstract structures include data structures in computer science and musical form. Types of structure include a hierarchy, a network featuring many-to-many links, buildings, aircraft, skeletons, anthills, beaver dams and salt domes are all examples of load-bearing structures. The results of construction are divided into buildings and non-building structures, the effects of loads on physical structures are determined through structural analysis, which is one of the tasks of structural engineering. The structural elements can be classified as one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, the latter was the main option available to early structures such as Chichen Itza. Two-dimensional elements with a third dimension have little of either. The structure elements are combined in structural systems, the majority of everyday load-bearing structures are section-active structures like frames, which are primarily composed of one-dimensional structures. In biology, structures exist at all levels of organization, ranging hierarchically from the atomic and molecular to the cellular, tissue, organ, organismic, population, usually, a higher-level structure is composed of multiple copies of a lower-level structure. Structural biology is concerned with the structure of macromolecules, particularly proteins. The function of molecules is determined by their shape as well as their composition. Protein structure has a four-level hierarchy, the primary structure is the sequence of amino acids that make it up. It has a backbone made up of a repeated sequence of a nitrogen. The secondary structure consists of repeated patterns determined by hydrogen bonding, the two basic types are the α-helix and the β-pleated sheet. The tertiary structure is a back and forth bending of the chain. Chemical structure refers to both molecular geometry and electronic structure, the structure can be represented by a variety of diagrams called structural formulas. Lewis structures use a dot notation to represent the valence electrons for an atom, bonds between atoms can be represented by lines with one line for each pair of electrons that is shared. In a simplified version of such a diagram, called a skeletal formula, only carbon-carbon bonds, atoms in a crystal have a structure that involves repetition of a basic unit called a unit cell. The atoms can be modeled as points on a lattice, and one can explore the effect of symmetry operations that include rotations about a point, reflections about a symmetry planes, and translations

5.
Shape
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A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture, or material composition. Psychologists have theorized that humans mentally break down images into simple geometric shapes called geons, examples of geons include cones and spheres. Some simple shapes can be put into broad categories, for instance, polygons are classified according to their number of edges as triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, etc. Each of these is divided into categories, triangles can be equilateral, isosceles, obtuse, acute, scalene, etc. while quadrilaterals can be rectangles, rhombi, trapezoids, squares. Other common shapes are points, lines, planes, and conic sections such as ellipses, circles, among the most common 3-dimensional shapes are polyhedra, which are shapes with flat faces, ellipsoids, which are egg-shaped or sphere-shaped objects, cylinders, and cones. If an object falls into one of these categories exactly or even approximately, thus, we say that the shape of a manhole cover is a disk, because it is approximately the same geometric object as an actual geometric disk. Similarity, Two objects are similar if one can be transformed into the other by a scaling, together with a sequence of rotations, translations. Isotopy, Two objects are isotopic if one can be transformed into the other by a sequence of deformations that do not tear the object or put holes in it. Sometimes, two similar or congruent objects may be regarded as having a different shape if a reflection is required to transform one into the other. For instance, the b and d are a reflection of each other, and hence they are congruent and similar. Sometimes, only the outline or external boundary of the object is considered to determine its shape, for instance, an hollow sphere may be considered to have the same shape as a solid sphere. Procrustes analysis is used in many sciences to determine whether or not two objects have the shape, or to measure the difference between two shapes. In advanced mathematics, quasi-isometry can be used as a criterion to state that two shapes are approximately the same. Simple shapes can often be classified into basic objects such as a point, a line, a curve, a plane. However, most shapes occurring in the world are complex. Some, such as plant structures and coastlines, may be so complicated as to defy traditional mathematical description – in which case they may be analyzed by differential geometry, or as fractals. In geometry, two subsets of a Euclidean space have the shape if one can be transformed to the other by a combination of translations, rotations. In other words, the shape of a set of points is all the information that is invariant to translations, rotations

6.
Column
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A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member, the term column applies especially to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal and made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces, other compression members are often termed columns because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, column refers to such an element that also has certain proportional. A column might also be an element not needed for structural purposes, many columns are engaged. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns, egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres. Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians and they included double-bull structures in their capitals. The Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 ×70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I, many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. The Minoans used whole tree-trunks, usually turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a set in the stylobate. These were then painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos, the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals. These traditions were continued by the later Mycenaean civilization, particularly in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their bases have and through these we may see their use. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most easily distinguished by the form of the column and their Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders. Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages. Early columns were constructed of stone, some out of a piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture, other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of stone, mortared or dry-fit together

7.
Hyperboloid
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In geometry, a hyperboloid of revolution, sometimes called circular hyperboloid, is a surface that may be generated by rotating a hyperbola around one of its principal axes. An hyperboloid is a surface that may be obtained from a paraboloid of revolution by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation. A hyperboloid is a surface, that is a surface that may be defined as the zero set of a polynomial of degree two in three variables. Among quadric surfaces, a hyperboloid is characterized by not being a cone or a cylinder, having a center of symmetry, a hyperboloid has also three pairwise perpendicular axes of symmetry, and three pairwise perpendicular planes of symmetry. Both of these surfaces are asymptotic to the cone of equation x 2 a 2 + y 2 b 2 − z 2 c 2 =0, one has an hyperboloid of revolution if and only if a 2 = b 2. It is a ruled surface. In case of a = b the hyperboloid is a surface of revolution, the more common generation of a hyperboloid of revolution is rotating a hyperbola around its semi-minor axis. Remark, A hyperboloid of two sheets is projectively equivalent to a hyperbolic paraboloid, for simplicity the plane sections of the unit hyperboloid with equation H1, x 2 + y 2 − z 2 =1 are considered. Because a hyperboloid in general position is an image of the unit hyperboloid. The hyperboloid of two sheets does not contain lines, the discussion of plane sections can be performed for the unit hyperboloid of two sheets with equation H2, x 2 + y 2 − z 2 = −1. Remark, A hyperboloid of two sheets is projectively equivalent to a sphere, whereas the Gaussian curvature of a hyperboloid of one sheet is negative, that of a two-sheet hyperboloid is positive. In spite of its curvature, the hyperboloid of two sheets with another suitably chosen metric can also be used as a model for hyperbolic geometry. More generally, an arbitrarily oriented hyperboloid, centered at v, is defined by the equation T A =1, where A is a matrix and x, v are vectors. The eigenvectors of A define the directions of the hyperboloid. The one-sheet hyperboloid has two positive eigenvalues and one negative eigenvalue, the two-sheet hyperboloid has one positive eigenvalue and two negative eigenvalues. Imaginary hyperboloids are frequently found in mathematics of higher dimensions, for example, in a pseudo-Euclidean space one has the use of a quadratic form, q = −, k < n. When c is any constant, then the part of the space given by is called a hyperboloid, the degenerate case corresponds to c =0. As an example, consider the following passage, however, the term quasi-sphere is also used in this context since the sphere and hyperboloid have some commonality

8.
Kobe Port Tower
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The Kobe Port Tower is one of the landmarks in the port city of Kobe, Japan. The sightseeing tower was completed in 1963 and pause operation since late 2009 till April 28,2010 for renovation and it locates in the Central District, Kobe, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The Kobe Port Tower was designed by the Nikken Sekkei Company, the maintenance of the whole facility began since November 2009 and The Kobe Port Tower was closed to the public since 12 January,2010 for refurbishment. The Kobe Port Tower is 108 meters high with total of 8 layers that is designed as the outlook of Tsuzumi which is a Japanese drum, the Tower is surrounded by 32 red steel staves as symbolize welcome vessels return to the shore. Kobe Port Tower has two layers, the ground layers and the sightseeing layers are separated which are having three and five floors respectively. For the ground layers, first floor is mainly to sell souvenirs. Souvenir shops and ticket office to the level is locating on the second floor. For the sightseeing layers, the first floor has aerial view from the area as 75 meters above the ground. Moreover, it is observatory floor with the floor and the rest floors are sightseeing decks. The third floor is a 360 rotate cafe with 20 minutes for a round, fourth floor can see Awajishima and Osaka Bay and the fifth floor can see Mount Rokkō and Kansai International Airport