Vosges (department)

Vosges is an eastern department of France named after the Vosges mountain range. It consists of 17 cantons and 507 communes, of which 234 are rural, including the commune of Domrémy-la-Pucelle, where Joan of Arc was born. Joan of Arc was born in the village of Domrémy in the French part of the duchy of Bar, or Barrois mouvant, located west of the Meuse; the part of the duchy lying east of the Meuse was part of the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy of Bar became part of the province of Lorraine; the village of Domrémy was renamed Domrémy-la-Pucelle in honour of Joan. The Vosges department is one of the original 83 departments of France, created on February 9, 1790 during the French Revolution, it was made of territories, part of the province of Lorraine. In German it is referred to as Vogesen. In 1793 the independent principality of Salm-Salm, enclosed inside the Vosges department, was annexed to France and incorporated into Vosges. In 1795 the area of Schirmeck was detached from the Bas-Rhin department and incorporated into the Vosges department.

The Vosges department had now an area of 6,127 km² which it kept until 1871. In 1794 the Vosges was the site of a major battle between the forces of Revolutionary France and the Allied Coalition. See Battle of Trippstadt; the Place des Vosges in Paris was so renamed in 1799 when the department became the first to pay the new Revolutionary taxes. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, 4% of the Vosges department in the extreme northeast of the department was annexed to the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfurt on the ground that the people there spoke Germanic dialects; the area annexed on May 18, 1871 corresponded to the canton of Schirmeck and the northern half of the canton of Saales. Schirmeck and Saales had been part of Alsace; these territories, along with the rest of Alsace and the annexed territories of Lorraine, became part of the Reichsland of Elsaß-Lothringen. The area of the Vosges department was thus reduced to its current 5,874 km². In 1919, with the allied victory in the World War I, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France by Germany at the Treaty of Versailles.

However and Saales were not returned to the Vosges department, but instead were incorporated into the recreated Bas-Rhin department. An ill-fated Special Air Service mission called Operation Loyton took place in the Vosges forests in 1944. Various military cemeteries are located in the department the largest of, the Le Quéquement American Cemetery in Dinozé, near Epinal, it was built by the American 45th Infantry Division in September 1944 and completed in 1959. 5,255 soldiers killed in action during fighting in France, the Vosges, the Rhine valley and Germany are interred there. The largest cities/towns are Épinal, Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, Gérardmer, on the lake of the same name, Remiremont. A total population of 378,830 inhabitants was recorded in the 2011 census; the population is split with 30 % living in rural districts. 47% of the department is covered by woodlands and forests, while 38% of land is in agricultural use. The remaining 13% is commercial and residential. While the west part of the Vosges is flat sedimentary land, the east is dominated by the Vosges Mountain range of which the Grand Ballon at 1424m is the highest peak.

The Monts Faucilles traverse the south of the department in a broad curve declining on the north into elevated plateaus, on the south encircling the upper basin of the River Saône. This chain, dividing the basins of the Rhône and the Rhine, forms part of the European watershed between the basins of the Mediterranean and Atlantic; the Saône rises in the Vosges. The Anger river passes through it. Population development since 1801: The Roman fortified town of Grand, located 30 km from Toul, has an amphitheatre and a temple to the Cult of Apollo. At La Bure, located a few kilometres from Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, archaeologists have found evidence for human habitation going back to around 2000 BC; as a border area, the Vosges region was a route for possible invasion. As such four important forts were constructed in the department: Bourlémont Fort in Mont-les-Neufchâteau. Cantons of the Vosges department Communes of the Vosges department Arrondissements of the Vosges department Economic information about the Vosges All information on and profiles of the climbs and cols of the Vosges General Council website Prefecture website Vosges vacations Information - Illustrated Article on the Vosges Battlefields in Winter at'Battlefields Europe' "Vosges".

Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921

Tarnya Cooper

Tarnya Cooper is an art historian and author. She was 16th Century Curator at the National Portrait Gallery, London and in 2011 was appointed Chief Curator. Cooper studied art history at the University of Sussex graduating in 1996, she obtained a D Phil from the University of Sussex in 2002. She was Assistant Curator of the College Art Collections and taught art history at University College London, she moved to the NPG in 2002 to become the 16th Century Curator. She led the seven-year "Making Art in Tudor Britain" project; this project encompassed a detailed and comprehensive scientific survey of Tudor paintings in the NPG. The NPG received a grant from the Getty Foundation to enable her to write Citizen Portrait based in part on her D Phil dissertation together with her research in her role as curator at the NPG. In 2010 she was awarded a Senior Research Fellowship by the Paul Mellon Centre which enabled her to complete the book, she was appointed Chief Curator at the NPG in 2011 and was elected as a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London in June of that year.

During her time at UCL, she curated two exhibitions from the college's collections. She co-curated the exhibition Elizabeth I at the National Maritime Museum in 2003 and was a contributor to the catalogue, she curated Searching for Shakespeare at the National Portrait Gallery in 2006. She was the curator of the exhibition Elizabeth I & her people, held at the NPG from October 2013 to January 2014; this exhibition included a miniature portrait of Elizabeth I found in a house clearance in 2012, that Cooper described as "a high quality image by a 16th-century artist". She curated the display The Real Tudors at the National Portrait Gallery, which includes results from the NPG's "Making Art in Tudor Britain" research project, she is co-editor of Painting in Britain 1500 - 1630: Production and Patronage, an interdisciplinary survey published by the British Academy and Oxford University Press in 2015. Cooper, Tarnya, ed.. Refashioning Death. University College. Cooper, Tarnya, ed.. Drawing Practices and Methods, 1500–1950.

University College. Cooper, Tarnya. "The Queen's Visual Presence". In Starkey, David. Elizabeth I. Chatto & Windus. Cooper, Tarnya. Searching for Shakespeare. National Portrait Gallery Publications. Cooper, Tarnya. Tudor and Jacobean Portraiture. National Portrait Gallery Publications. Cooper, Tarnya. "The enchantment of the familiar face". In Hamling, Tara. Everyday Objects: Medieval and Early Modern Material Culture and Its Meanings. Ashgate Publishing. P. 173. Cooper, Tarnya. Citizen Portrait. Yale University Press. Cooper, Tarnya. Elizabeth I & Her People. National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 978-1855144651. Cooper, Tarnya; the Real Tudors: kings and queens rediscovered. London: National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 9781855144927. Cooper, Tarnya. Painting in Britain 1500 - 1630: production and patronage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780197265840. Making Art in Tudor Britain

United States Court of Claims

The Court of Claims was a federal court that heard claims against the United States government. It was established in 1855, renamed in 1948 to the United States Court of Claims, abolished in 1982, its jurisdiction was assumed by the newly created United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and United States Claims Court, renamed the Court of Federal Claims. Before the Court of Claims was established, monetary claims against the federal government were submitted through petitions to Congress. By the time of the Court's creation, the workload had become unwieldy so Congress gave the Court jurisdiction to hear all monetary claims based upon a law, a regulation, or a federal government contract; the Court was required to report its findings to Congress and to prepare bills for payments to claimants whose petitions were approved by the Court. Since only Congress was constitutionally empowered to make appropriations, Congress still had to approve the bills and reports, but it did so pro forma.

The Court had three judges, who were given lifetime appointments. The judges were authorized to appoint commissioners to take depositions and issue subpoenas; the federal government was represented in the Court by a solicitor appointed by the President. The Court of Claims was established in 1855 to adjudicate certain claims brought against the United States government by veterans of the Mexican–American War; the court met at the Willard Hotel, from May to June 1855, when it moved to the US Capitol. There, the court met in the Supreme Court's chamber in the basement of the Capitol until it was given its space to use. In 1861, Abraham Lincoln in his Annual Message to Congress asked that the court be given the power to issue final judgments. Congress granted the power with the Act of March 3, 1863, it explicitly allowed the judgments to be appealed to the Supreme Court. However, it modified the law governing the Court so that its reports and bills were sent to the Department of the Treasury rather than directly to Congress.

The moneys to cover these costs were made a part of the appropriation for the Treasury Department. The conflict inherent between the two provisions was made manifest when in 1864, the decision in Gordon v. United States was appealed to the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court denied that it had jurisdiction because the decisions of the Court of Claims, hence any appeals, were subject to review by an executive department. Less than a year Congress passed a law removing review of the Court of Claims from the Treasury Department. In 1887, Congress passed the Tucker Act, which further restricted the claims that could be submitted directly to Congress and required the claims instead to be submitted to the Court of Claims, it broadened the court's jurisdiction. In particular, this meant that monetary claims based on takings under the eminent domain clause of the Fifth Amendment could be brought before the Court of Claims; the Tucker Act opened the Court to tax refund suits. Depredations against American shipping committed by the French during the Quasi-War of 1793 to 1800 led to claims against France that were relinquished by the terms of the Treaty of 1800.

Since the claims against France were no longer valid, claimants continually petitioned Congress for the relief, waived by the treaty. Only on January 20, 1885, a law was passed, 23 Stat. 283, to provide for consideration of the matter before the Court of Claims. The lead case, Gray v. United States, 21 Ct. Cl. 340, written by Judge John Davis, includes a complete discussion of the historical and political circumstances that led to the hostilities between the United States and France and their resolution by treaty. The cases, termed "French Spoliation Claims", continued in the court until 1915. In 1925, Congress changed the structure of the Court of Claims by authorizing the Court to appoint seven commissioners who were empowered to hear evidence in judicial proceedings and report on findings of fact; the judges of the Court of Claims would serve as a board of review for the commissioners. In 1932, Congress reduced the salary of the judges of the Court of Claims as part of the Legislative Appropriation Act of 1932.

Thomas Sutler Williams was one of the judges of the Court, he sued the federal government by claiming that his salary could not be cut because the Constitution had specified that judicial salaries could not be reduced. The Supreme Court ruled on Williams v. United States in 1933, deciding that the Court of Claims was an Article I or legislative court and so Congress had the authority to reduce the salaries of the judges of the Court of Claims. Beginning in 1948, Congress directed that when directed by the court, the commissioner could make recommendations for conclusions of law. Chief Judge Wilson Cowen made that mandatory under the court rules in 1964. On July 28, 1953, Congress passed a law to convert the Court of Claims into an Article III court and to raise the number of commissioners to 15. In spite of the Congressional statement of the Court's status, when Judge J. Warren Madden was sitting by designation with the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, one of the parties asked for the decision to be thrown out on the basis that Madden was not a valid judge in that court.

On appeal, the Supreme Court, in Glidden Co. v. Zdanok, held that the Court of Claims was a proper Article III court, its judges could sit by designation and assignment on other courts; the judges could no longer sit on Congressional reference cases because of this change since an independent court could not act in an advisory role to Congress. The solution, enacted by Congress in 1966, wa