Voskhod (rocket)

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Voskhod (R-7 11A57)
Voskhod Rocket.png
Voskhod rocket
FunctionMan-rated LEO carrier rocket
ManufacturerOKB-1
Country of originSoviet Union
Size
Height30.84 m (101.2 ft)
Diameter2.99 m (9.8 ft)
Mass298,400 kg (657,900 lb)
Stages2
Capacity
Payload to LEO5,900 kg (13,000 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyR-7
Launch history
StatusRetired
Launch sitesLC-1 & LC-31, Baikonur
LC-41, Plesetsk
Total launches300
Successes287
Failures13
First flight16 November 1963
Last flight29 June 1976
Notable payloadsVoskhod spacecraft
Zenit
Boosters
No. boosters4
Engines1 RD-107-8D74K
Thrust995.4 kN (223,800 lbf)
Total thrust3,981.6 kN (895,100 lbf)
Specific impulse257 seconds (2.52 km/s)
Burn time119 s
FuelRP-1/LOX
First stage
Engines1 RD-107-8D75K
Thrust941 kN (212,000 lbf)
Specific impulse248 seconds (2.43 km/s)
Burn time301 s
FuelRP-1/LOX
Second stage
Engines1 RD-0108
Thrust294 kN (66,000 lbf)
Specific impulse330 seconds (3.2 km/s)
Burn time240 s
FuelRP-1/LOX

The Voskhod rocket (Russian: Восход, "ascent", "dawn") was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for launching Zenit reconnaissance satellites.[1][2] It consisted of the Molniya 8K78M third stage minus the Blok L.[3] In 1966, all R-7 variants were equipped with the uprated core stage and strap-ons of the Soyuz 11A511; the Blok I stage in the Voskhod booster used the RD-107 engine rather than the RD-110 in the Soyuz, which was more powerful and also man-rated. The sole exception to this were the two manned Voskhod launches, which had RD-108 engines, a man-rated RD-107 but with the same performance.

All 11A57s launched after 1965 were functionally an 11A511 without the Soyuz's payload shroud and launch escape system (with the exception of the third stage propulsion system as noted above). Around 300 were flown from Baikonur and Plesetsk through 1976 (various payloads, but Zenith PHOTINT satellites were the most common); the newer 11A511U core had been introduced in 1973, but the existing stock of 11A57s took another three years to use up.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barensky, C. Lardier, Stefan (2013). The Soyuz launch vehicle the two lives of an engineering triumph. New York: Springer. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-4614-5459-5.
  2. ^ Hall, Rex; Shayler, David J. (2001). The rocket men : Vostok & Voskhod, the first Soviet manned spaceflights. London [u.a.]: Springer [u.a.] p. 226. ISBN 978-1-85233-391-1.
  3. ^ Kruse, Richard. "Historic Spacecraft - Soviet and Russian Rockets". HistoricSpacecraft.com. Historic Spacecraft. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
Interactive 3D model of the Voskhod rocket.