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Vote splitting

Vote splitting is an electoral effect in which the distribution of votes among multiple similar candidates reduces the chance of winning for any of the similar candidates, increases the chance of winning for a dissimilar candidate. Vote splitting most occurs in plurality voting in which each voter indicates a single choice and the candidate with the most votes wins if the winner does not have majority support. For example, if candidate A1 receives 30% of the votes, similar candidate A2 receives another 30% of the votes, dissimilar candidate B receives the remaining 40% of the votes, plurality voting declares candidate B as the winner though 60% of the voters prefer either candidate A1 or A2. Cardinal voting methods are immune to vote splitting, since each candidate is rated independently of each other. Pairwise-counting Condorcet methods minimize vote splitting effects. Plurality-runoff voting methods still suffer from vote-splitting in each round, but can somewhat reduce its effects compared to single-round plurality voting.

A well-known effect of vote splitting is the spoiler effect, in which a popular candidate loses an election by a small margin because a less-popular similar candidate attracts votes away from the popular candidate, allowing a dissimilar candidate to win. As a result, the notion of vote splitting is controversial because it can discourage third party candidates. Strategic nomination takes advantage of vote splitting to defeat a popular candidate by supporting another similar candidate. Vote splitting is one possible cause for an electoral system failing the independence of clones or independence of irrelevant alternatives fairness criteria. Different electoral systems have different levels of vulnerability to vote splitting. Vote splitting most occurs in plurality voting because the ballots only gather the "least worst" preference of the voter. In the United States vote splitting occurs in primary elections; the purpose of primary elections is to eliminate vote splitting among candidates in the same party before the General Election.

If primary elections or party nominations are not used to identify a single candidate from each party, the party that has more candidates is more to lose because of vote splitting among the candidates from the same party. Primary elections only occur within each party, so vote splitting can still occur between parties in the secondary election. In open primaries, vote splitting occurs between all candidates. In addition to applying to single-winner voting systems, a split vote can occur in proportional representation methods that use election thresholds, such as in Germany, New Zealand and Turkey. In these cases, "fringe" parties that do not meet the threshold can take away votes from larger parties with similar ideologies; when ranked ballots are used, a voter can vote for a minor party candidate as their first choice, indicate their order of preference for the remaining candidates, without regard for whether a candidate is in a major political party. For example, voters who support a conservative candidate can select a somewhat conservative candidate as their second choice, thus minimising the chance that their vote will result in the election of a liberal candidate.

Runoff voting is less vulnerable to vote splitting compared to plurality voting, yet vote splitting can occur in any round of runoff voting. Vote splitting occurs when the chosen electoral system uses ranked ballots and a pairwise-counting method, such as a Condorcet method. Pairwise counting methods do not involve distributing each voter's vote among the candidates. Instead, pairwise counting methods separately consider each possible pair of candidates, for all possible pairs. For each pair of candidates there is a count for how many voters prefer the first candidate to the second candidate, how many voters have the opposite preference; the resulting table of pairwise counts eliminates the step-by-step distribution of votes that facilitates vote splitting in other voting methods. Voting methods that are vulnerable to strategic nomination methods that fail independence of clones, are vulnerable to vote splitting. Vote splitting can occur in situations that do not involve strategic nomination, such as talent contests where earlier rounds of voting determine the current contestants.

Cardinal voting methods require an independent score to be given to candidates, as opposed to a ranking. The three primary Cardinal Voting methods are Approval Voting, with a range between 0-1, Score Voting where there's an arbitrary range, STAR voting. All cardinal voting methods are immune to vote-splitting, as each candidate is evaluated independently of each other candidate; when the cities of Fort William and Port Arthur merged and voted on a name for the new town, the vote was split between the popular choices of "Lakehead" and "The Lakehead", allowing the third option to win, creating the town of Thunder Bay, Ontario. In 1987 Roh Tae-woo won the South Korean presidential election with just under 36% of the popular vote because his two main rivals split the vote. In the 2000, spoiler candidate Ralph Nader is believed to have split votes away from Democratic candidate Al Gore, contributing to the victory of Republican candidate George W. Bush. In the 2000 presidential election in Taiwan, James Soong left Kuomintang party and ran as an independent against KMT's candidate Lien Chan.

This caused vote-splitting among KMT voters and resulted in victory for Democratic Progressive Party's candidate, Chen Shui-bian. It is the first

Dutch Lenten Campaign Foundation

Dutch Lenten Campaign Foundation is the Roman Catholic aid agency for the Netherlands. In Dutch: “Stichting Bisschoppelijke Vastenaktie Nederland”; the foundation is supported in developing countries. The organization campaigns in cooperation with private initiatives during the Advent period before Christmas and the Lenten period before Easter; the Dutch Bishops Lenten Campaign Foundation is an initiative of the Dutch bishops led by Cardinal Alfrink in 1961. Since 2011 she is responsible for the Advent campaign; the Lenten Campaign is best known for the Lenten Campaign pockets. It is a small organization in The Hague that works with thousands of volunteers in Parishes and cities in the Netherlands; the scope of Lenten Campaign lies in Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe and has a disposable budget of about 5 million euros. The Foundation performs various campaigns; each campaign has its own theme. The supported projects are socio-economic in nature, on small scale, focused on self-help. Lenten Campaign asks to slow down, for another person, in the period between Easter.

Advent Campaign wants to bring light to those who live on the margins of society, in the period before Christmas. The revenues of the campaigns of this charity organisation support hundreds of projects in developing countries; the Lenten campaign started in 1961, not in place of existing missionary activities, but was an additional fundraising activity for alleviating acute needs in dioceses in developing countries. More encouraging a spirit of detachment and sacrifice at a time of increasing prosperity and rising military spending; the execution was placed in the hands of the parishes. Workgroups spread; the board of the Lenten selected each year. From 1965 14 national aid agencies went together in the international umbrella organization CIDSE, International Working Group for socio - economic development; the international Lenten Campaign had an eye for social and political injustices in places such as South America and the Philippines and supported the resistance against it. In 1995, the development organizations Lenten Campaign and Cebemo merged.

The aim of the merger was a pooling of resources and increase the effectiveness and efficiency as well as cost savings. Cordaid was formed in 1999 from a merger of two Catholic development organizations: Memisa Medicus Mundi and Mensen in nood, was entered into with Bilance; the Lenten Campaign Foundation was co-founder of Cordaid. End of 2011, the campaigning partnership with Cordaid ended

The Far Call

The Far Call is a 1929 American lost film directed by Allan Dwan and starring Charles Morton and Leila Hyams. Produced and distributed by the Fox Film Corporation, it is a late silent film with Fox's Movietone sound on film system containing music and sound effects. Charles Morton as Pat Loring Leila Hyams as Hilda Larsen Warner Baxter Arthur Stone as Schmidt Warren Hymer as Soup Brophy Dan Wolheim as Black O'Neil Tiny Sandford as Captain Storkerson Ullrich Haupt as London Nick Charles B. Middleton as Kris Larsen Pat Hartigan as Lars Johannson Charles Gorman as Haycox Ivan Linow as Red Dunkirk Harry Gripp as Pete Sam Baker as Tubal Bernard Siegel as Aleut Chief 1937 Fox vault fire The Far Call on IMDb The Far Call synopsis at AllMovie

Chet Koneczny

Chet Koneczny is a professional lacrosse player for the Halifax Thunderbirds in the National Lacrosse League. Koneczny attended York University, where he earned a bachelor's degree in Kinesiology, he was recruited to play quarterback for the college football team. He was a decorated player in the Ontario Lacrosse Association, where he played in both the junior and senior divisions, he earned "Most Improved Player" award in 2001, helping the Scarborough Saints to a bronze medal in the national championships. He was a member of the Barrie Tornado National Champion team in 2003, he received "Unsung Hero" award for Orangeville Northmen in 2005. He played for Barrie Lakeshores in 2006-07, he was selected "Best Two-Way" player for Owen Sound, helping that team win back-to-back National Championships in 2008-09. He was a standout Defenseman/Transition player for Kitchener Kodiaks in 2009. Koneczny was a third round draft pick of the Toronto Rock in the 2004 NLL Entry Draft. Spent time on the Rock's practice squad in 2005 and 2006.

Attended training camp with Toronto in 2009. Signed by the Orlando Titans as an unrestricted free agent prior to the start of 2010 training camp. Selected by the Washington Stealth in the first round of the Orlando Titans Dispersal Draft. On August 13, 2012 Koneczny signed as an unrestricted free agent to a one-year agreement with the Colorado Mammoth of the NLL; because of his Czech ancestors, Koneczny was able to play for Czech Republic in field lacrosse on 2010 World Lacrosse Championship, as well as in box lacrosse on 2011 FIL World Indoor Lacrosse Championship. On both tournaments, he showed himself as a useful player because of his experience from the National Lacrosse League, he once again represented the Czech Republic at the 2019 World Indoor Lacrosse Championship, recording five points in eight total games. Statistics are as of December 18, 2018. Chet Koneczny at Chet Koneczny at Philadelphia Wings website

Eric Varley

Eric Graham Varley, Baron Varley, was a British Labour politician and cabinet minister on the right-wing of the party. Varley was born at 15 Poolsbrook Square, Staveley, near Chesterfield, the son of Frank Varley and his wife Eva, née Goring, he attended the local secondary modern school after failing his eleven-plus but left at the age of fourteen in 1946. His mother was determined that he should not go down the pit, he began his working life as an apprentice turner at Staveley iron works, before qualifying as an engineer's turner in 1952. If it had not been for his political predilections his career could have gone in an different direction, since in his youth he was regarded as a first-rate soccer player, became a semi-professional, was believed by experts to have the makings of a leading professional footballer, he was active in the National Union of Mineworkers, became a branch secretary of the union in 1955, joining the Labour Party the same year. After a period at Ruskin College, Varley won the NUM nomination to be the Labour candidate for his home town, where the sitting Labour Member of Parliament George Benson was retiring from Parliament.

He duly held the Chesterfield seat in the 1964 election. Despite rebelling against the government's application to join the Common Market in 1967, Varley became an Assistant Whip that year, Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Prime Minister Harold Wilson in November 1968, he served as a junior minister under Tony Benn at the Ministry of Technology from 1969. During the Labour Party's period of opposition in the early 1970s Varley was Chairman of the Trade Union Group of MPs, became spokesman on fuel and power. Varley was appointed Secretary of State for Energy in March 1974; the appointment of an NUM-sponsored MP helped the government end the NUM strike which had led the previous government to ration electricity to three days a week. Varley subsidised the National Coal Board and chose a British design for new nuclear power stations over an American rival, he began the procedure to nationalise North Sea oil. During the Common Market referendum he advocated a ` No' vote. Afterwards Wilson swapped Varley's and Benn's posts, so that Varley was promoted to Secretary of State for Industry.

In November 1976 Varley suffered an embarrassing public defeat when he determined to shut down the loss-making Chrysler car factory: the Cabinet forced him to increase its subsidy to keep it open. He continued the government's slow nationalisation programme by appointing Michael Edwardes to take over at British Leyland; when Labour went into opposition in 1979 Varley was elected to the Shadow Cabinet in fifth place. He led Denis Healey's campaign for the party leadership in 1980 and defeated the left-winger Norman Atkinson for the post of party Treasurer in 1981, he served as opposition spokesman on employment, resisted an attempt by Michael Foot to replace him with Neil Kinnock in 1982. After Kinnock's election as party leader in 1983, Varley announced that he would retire from Parliament at the next general election. However, he was appointed as Chairman of Coalite plc, a private company manufacturing coal-based products including a coke-like smokeless fuel of the same name, resigned his seat in January 1984.

This opened the way for Tony Benn to return to the House of Commons as Varley's successor in the seat. Varley served five years at Coalite, held other directorships, including a regional director for Lloyds Bank from 1987 to 1991. Ashgate Hospice Ltd, 1987–96. Following a Labour Party nomination, he was created a life peer on 30 May 1990 taking the title Baron Varley, of Chesterfield in the County of Derbyshire. An observant Methodist all his life, on 11 June 1955 he married Marjorie Turner, a 21-year-old shop assistant, at Middle Duckmanton Methodist Church, she was the daughter of a coal miner. They had Roger. Eric Varley died on 29 July 2008 of cancer at his home. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Eric Varley

Lagoon (video game)

Lagoon is a top-view action/adventure video game for the X68000 and Super NES, in which Nasir, Champion of Light, must investigate the source of the world's corrupted water and return peace to Lakeland. Lagoon is an action role-playing game with a fantasy setting similar to the early Ys games, combining real-time action gameplay with RPG elements such as experience levels and equipment management; the player travels through an assortment of towns and dungeons while battling a variety of enemies ranging from insects to giant bosses, gaining experience and items along the way. Lakeland is a prosperous country full of their families. All was great, it seems. An evil being known as Zerah has polluted all of Lakeland's rivers and lakes, making people sick, some dying, he does this in hopes to release the Evil Spirit, hiding underneath Lagoon Castle, so Zerah lifts Lagoon Castle into the clouds to where no one can reach it. With all this, Lakeland needs a hero; that hero is named the Champion of the Light.

Nasir must go through many lands, challenge many monsters, meet many people who will help him on his quest. The following is a list of major characters in Lagoon, taken directly from the manual: Nasir - Born to be the Champion of Light, the protagonist has become a skilled swordsman under the tutelage of the wise Mathias, he displays courage beyond his years. Mathias - Skilled in the art of the sword and in the ways of magic, he raised Nasir from infancy. Thor - Aligned with the forces of Darkness, he is known as a skilled swordsman and for the fact that each of his eyes is a different color. Zerah - an evil warlock, he is aligned with the forces of Darkness, he raised him. He seeks to bring the forces of Darkness to rule the land. Felicia - Queen of Lagoon castle, she is the only one who has the power to open the door to the Secret Place and to move the Lagoon Castle. Duma and Battler - Henchmen of Zerah; the original Sharp X68000 version has several differences from the more common Super NES release.

It features animated cutscenes between game situations. The storyline is different, with objectives that do not match the order in which they happen in the Super NES version; the combat is closer in style to Ys, Hydlide or The Tower of Druaga, where the player attacks by drawing a sword and crashing into an enemy, rather than hitting a button for each slash. Lagoon at MobyGames Mike's RPG Center - Lagoon, a Lagoon reference site