Voting at the Eurovision Song Contest

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The winner of the Eurovision Song Contest is selected by a positional voting system, each country awards two sets of 12, 10, 8–1 points to their 10 favourite songs: one from their professional jury and the other from televoting.[1] The current system has been in place since 2016.


Small, demographically-balanced juries made up of ordinary people had been used to rank the entries, but after the widespread use of telephone voting in 1998 the contest organizers resorted to juries only in the event of a televoting malfunctions; in 2003, Eircom's telephone polling system malfunction. Irish broadcaster RTÉ did not receive the polling results from Eircom in time, and substituted votes by a panel of judges.[2] Between 1997 and 2003 (the first years of televoting), lines were opened to the public for only five minutes after the performance and recap of the final song. Between 2004 and 2006 the lines were opened for 10 minutes, and from 2007 to 2009 they were opened for 15 minutes; in 2010 viewers were allowed to vote during the performances, but this was rescinded for the 2012 contest.[citation needed]

The BBC contacted regional juries by telephone to choose the 1956 winners, and the European Broadcasting Union (producers of the contest) later began contacting international juries by telephone. This method continued to be used until 1993, the following year saw the first satellite linkup to juries.[citation needed]

To announce the votes, the contest's presenters connect by satellite to each country in turn and inviting a spokesperson to read the country's votes in French or English. The presenters originally repeated the votes in both languages, but since 2004 the votes have been translated due to time constraints. To offset increased voting time required by a larger number of participating countries, since 2006 only countries' eight-, 10-, and 12-point scores are read aloud; one- to seven-point votes are added automatically to the scoreboard while each country's spokesperson is introduced. The scoreboard displays the number of points each country has received and, since 2008, a progress bar indicating the number of countries which have voted.

Voting systems[edit]

Year Points Voting system
1956 2 Two-member juries from each country awarded two points to their favourite song.
1957–61 10–1 Ten-member juries distributed 10 points among their favourite songs.
1962 3–1 Ten-member juries awarded points to their three favourite songs.
1963 5–1 Twenty-member juries awarded points to their five favourite songs.
1964–66 5, 3, 1 Ten-member juries awarded points to their three favourite songs.
1967–69 10–1 Ten-member juries distributed ten points among their favourite songs.
1970 Ten-member juries distributed 10 points among their favourite songs. A tie-breaking round was available.
1971–73 10–2 Two-member juries (one aged 16 to 25 and the other 25 to 55) rated songs between one and five points.
1974 10–1 Ten-member juries distributed ten points among their favourite songs.
1975–96 12, 10, 8–1 All countries had at least eleven jury members (later rising to sixteen) that would award points to their top ten songs.
1997 Twenty countries had jury members and five countries used televote to decide which songs would get points.[3]
1998–2000 All countries should use telephone voting to decide which songs would receive points. In exceptional circumstances (e.g. weak telephone system) where televoting was not possible at all, a jury was used.[4][5][6]
2001–02 Every broadcaster was free to make a choice between the full televoting system and the mixed 50–50 system to decide which songs would receive points. In exceptional circumstances where televoting was not possible, only a jury was used.[7][8]
2003 All countries should use telephone/SMS voting to decide which songs would receive points. In exceptional circumstances where televoting was not possible at all, only a jury was used.[9]
2004–08 All countries used televoting and/or SMS-voting and to decide which songs would receive points.[note 1]
2009–12 All countries used televoting and/or SMS-voting (50%) and five-member juries (50%), apart from San Marino which is 100% jury due to country size. This is so called jury–televote 50/50,[note 2] the two parts of the vote were combined by awarding 12, 10, 8–1 points to the top ten in each discipline, then combining the scores. Where two songs were tied, the televote score took precedence.
2013–15 The same as in 2009–12, except jury and televote are combined differently. The jurors and televoting each rank all the competing entries, rather than just their top ten, the scores are then added together and in the event of a tie, the televote score takes precedence.[10][11]
2016– Points awarded from popular vote are calculated together before being announced, effectively doubling the points which can be awarded in total.[1] With a total of 43 voting countries (maximum number of participating countries), the maximum number of points one can mathematically receive is now 1008 (42 countries giving 12 points in each of jury and popular votes)
  1. ^ Back-up juries are used by each country (with eight members) in the event of a televoting failure.
  2. ^ In the event of a televoting failure, only a jury is used by that country; in the event of a jury failure, only televoting is used by that country.

The most-used voting system (other than the current one) was last used for the 1969 contest, this system was used from 1957 to 1961 and from 1967 to 1969. Ten jurors in each country each cast one vote for their favourite song; in 1969 this resulted in a four-way tie for first place (between the UK, the Netherlands, France, and Spain), with no tie-breaking procedure. A second round of voting in the event of a tie was introduced to this system the following year.

From 1962 to 1966, a voting system similar to the current one was used; in 1962, each country awarded its top three one, two and three points; in 1963 the top five were awarded one, two, three, four and five points, and from 1964 to 1966, each country awarded its top three one, three and five points. With the latter system, a country could choose to give points to two countries instead of three (giving three to one and six to the other); in 1965, Belgium awarded the United Kingdom six points and Italy three. Although it was possible to give one country nine points, this never occurred.

The 1971, 1972, and 1973 contests saw the jurors "in vision" for the first time. Each country was represented by two jurors: one older than 25 and one younger, with at least ten years' difference in their ages, each juror gave a minimum of one point and a maximum of five points to each song. In 1974 the previous system of ten jurors was used, and the following year the current system was introduced. Spokespeople were next seen on screen in 1994 with a satellite link to the venue.

The 2004 contest had its first semifinal, with a slight change in voting: countries which did not qualify from the semifinal would be allowed to cast votes in the final, this resulted in Ukraine's Ruslana finishing first, with a record 280 points. If the voting had been conducted as it had been from 1956 to 2003 (when only finalist countries could vote), Serbia and Montenegro's Željko Joksimović would have won the contest with 190 points: a 15-point lead over Ruslana, who would have scored 175 points. To date, non-qualifying countries are still allowed to vote in the final; in 2006, Serbia and Montenegro were able to vote in the semifinal and the final despite their non-participation due to a scandal in the selection process.

With the introduction of two semifinals in 2008, a new method of selecting finalists was created, the top nine songs (ranked by televote) qualified, along with one song selected by the back-up juries. This method, in most cases, meant that the tenth song in the televoting failed to qualify; this attracted some criticism, especially from Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (who had placed 10th in the televote in both years).[12] In 2010 the 2009 final system was used, with a combination of televoting and jury votes from each country also used to select the semi-finalists,[13] each participating country had a national jury, consisting of five music-industry professionals[14] appointed by national broadcasters.[15]

Highest scores[edit]

"A Million Voices" sung by Russian artist Polina Gagarina, became the first song to get over 300 points without winning the contest; with a new voting system introduced in 2016, Australia became the first country to get over 500 points without winning the contest. In 2017, Bulgaria became the first non-winning entry to score above 600 points, as well as Portugal becoming the first country to get over 750 points - winning the contest as a result of this, as the number of voting countries and the voting systems have varied, it may be more relevant to compare what percentage of all points awarded in the competition that each song received (computed from the published scoreboards [1] [2]. The table below show winning songs by the percentage of all votes.

Top 5 Winners by percentage of all votes[edit]

This table shows top 5 winning songs by the percentage from the all votes cast.

Contest Country Artist Song Points Percentage of all points cast Percentage of maximum possible points
1964  Italy Gigliola Cinquetti "Non ho l'età" 49 34.03% 65.33%
1957  Netherlands Corry Brokken "Net als toen" 31 31.00% 34.44%
1967  United Kingdom Sandie Shaw "Puppet on a String" 47 27.65% 29.38%
1962  France Isabelle Aubret "Un premier amour" 26 27.08% 57.78%
1958  France André Claveau "Dors, mon amour" 27 27.00% 30.00%

Top 5 Winners by percentage of the maximum possible score[edit]

This table shows top 5 winning songs by the percentage from the maximum possible score a song can achieve.

Contest Country Artist Song Points Percentage of all points cast Percentage of maximum possible points
1973  Luxembourg Anne-Marie David "Tu te reconnaîtras" 129 8.66% 80.62%
1976  United Kingdom Brotherhood of Man "Save Your Kisses for Me" 164 15.71% 80.39%
1982  Germany Nicole "Ein Bißchen Frieden" 161 15.42% 78.92%
1997  United Kingdom Katrina and the Waves "Love Shine a Light" 227 15.66% 78.82%
2009  Norway Alexander Rybak "Fairytale" 387 15.89% 78.66%

Top 10 participants by number of votes[edit]

This table shows top 10 participating songs (both winning and non-winning) by the number of votes cast.

Contest Country Artist Song Points Percentage of points
2017  Portugal Salvador Sobral "Amar pelos dois" 758 15.56%
 Bulgaria Kristian Kostov "Beautiful Mess" 615 12.62%
2016  Ukraine Jamala "1944" 534 10.96%
 Australia Dami Im "Sound of Silence" 511 10.49%
 Russia Sergey Lazarev "You Are the Only One" 491 10.08%
2009  Norway Alexander Rybak "Fairytale" 387 15.89%
2017  Moldova SunStroke Project "Hey, Mamma!" 374 7.68%
2012  Sweden Loreen "Euphoria" 372 15.27%
2015 Måns Zelmerlöw "Heroes" 365 15.73%
2017  Belgium Blanche "City Lights" 363 7.45%

Under the 2013–15 voting system Portugal would have gotten 17.12% of points.[16]


A tie-break procedure was implemented after the 1969 contest, in which France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom tied for first place. With no tie-breaking system in place at the time, it was determined that all four countries would be awarded the title; in protest, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Portugal did not participate the following year.

In the procedure, sometimes known as a countback, if two (or more) countries tie the song receiving points from the greater number of countries is the winner. If there is still a tie, a second tie-breaker counts the number of countries who assigned twelve points to each entry in the tie. Tie-breaks continue with ten points, eight points, and so on until the tie is resolved. If the tie cannot be resolved after the number of countries which assigned one point to the song is equal, the song performed earlier in the running order is declared the winner unless the host country performed earlier (in which case the song performed later would be the winner), this rule originally applied only to first place ties,[17] but since 2008 has been applied to all places.[18]

In 1991, the tie-break procedure was implemented when Sweden and France both had 146 points at the end of the voting, at the time, the tie-break rule was slightly different; the first tie-break rule (the country supported by the most other countries wins) was not yet in use, and the current rule of first determining the country with the votes from the most countries was not added until 2003.[19][20] Both Sweden and France had received the maximum twelve points four times; when the number of ten-point scores was counted Sweden, represented by Carola and "Fångad av en stormvind", claimed its third victory since it received five ten-point scores against France's two. The French song "Le Dernier qui a parlé...", performed by Amina, finished second with the smallest-ever losing margin.

Scoring no points[edit]

Colour-coded map
Countries with no points, and the number of times for each

As each participating country casts a series of preference votes, under the current scoring system it is rare that a song fails to receive any votes at all; such a result means that the song failed to make the top ten most popular songs in any country.

The first zero points in Eurovision were scored in 1962, under a new voting system. When a country finishes with a score of zero, it is often referred to in English-language media as nul points or nil points, albeit incorrectly. Grammatical French for "no points" is pas de points or zéro point, but none of these phrases are used in the contest; before 2016's voting overhaul, no-point scores were not announced by the presenters. Following the change in the voting system, a country receiving no points from the public voting is announced as receiving "zero points".[citation needed]

Before 1975[edit]

Entries which received no points before the introduction of the scoring system introduced in 1975 are:[citation needed]

Contest Country Artist Song
1962  Belgium Fud Leclerc "Ton nom"
 Spain Victor Balaguer "Llámame"
 Austria Eleonore Schwarz "Nur in der Wiener Luft"
 Netherlands De Spelbrekers "Katinka"
1963 Annie Palmen "Een speeldoos"
 Norway Anita Thallaug "Solhverv"
 Finland Laila Halme "Muistojeni laulu"
 Sweden Monica Zetterlund "En gång i Stockholm"
1964  Germany Nora Nova "Man gewöhnt sich so schnell an das Schöne"
 Portugal António Calvário "Oração"
 Yugoslavia Sabahudin Kurt "Život je sklopio krug"
  Switzerland Anita Traversi "I miei pensieri"
1965  Spain Conchita Bautista "¡Qué bueno, qué bueno!"
 Germany Ulla Wiesner "Paradies, wo bist du?"
 Belgium Lize Marke "Als het weer lente is"
 Finland Viktor Klimenko "Aurinko laskee länteen"
1966  Monaco Tereza Kesovija "Bien plus fort"
 Italy Domenico Modugno "Dio, come ti amo"
1967   Switzerland Géraldine "Quel cœur vas-tu briser?"
1970  Luxembourg David Alexandre Winter "Je suis tombé du ciel"

1975 to 2015[edit]


Entries which received no points since the introduction of this system in 1975 up until the scoring reformation in 2016 are:[citation needed]

Contest Country Artist Song
1978  Norway Jahn Teigen "Mil etter mil"
1981 Finn Kalvik "Aldri i livet"
1982  Finland Kojo "Nuku pommiin"
1983  Spain Remedios Amaya "¿Quién maneja mi barca?"
 Turkey Çetin Alp and The Short Waves "Opera"
1987 Seyyal Taner and Grup Locomotif "Şarkım Sevgi Üstüne"
1988  Austria Wilfried "Lisa Mona Lisa"
1989  Iceland Daníel Ágúst "Það sem enginn sér"
1991  Austria Thomas Forstner "Venedig im Regen"
1994  Lithuania Ovidijus Vyšniauskas "Lopšinė mylimai"
1997  Norway Tor Endresen "San Francisco"
 Portugal Célia Lawson "Antes do adeus"
1998   Switzerland Gunvor "Lass ihn"
2003  United Kingdom Jemini "Cry Baby"[21]
2015  Austria (host) The Makemakes "I Am Yours"
 Germany Ann Sophie "Black Smoke"

The first time a host nation ever finished with nul points was in the 2015 final, when Austria's "I Am Yours" by The Makemakes scored zero; in 2003, following the UK's first zero score,[21] an online poll was held to determine public opinion about each zero-point entry's worthiness of the score. Spain's "¿Quién maneja mi barca?" (1983) won the poll as the song that least deserved a zero, and Austria's "Lisa Mona Lisa" (1988) was the song most deserving of a zero.[22]

In 2012, although it scored in the combined voting, France's "Echo (You and I)" by Anggun would have received no points if televoting alone had been used. In that year's first semi-final, although Belgium's "Would You?" by Iris received two points in the televoting-only hypothetical results from the Albanian jury (since Albania did not use televoting); Belgium would have received no official points from televoting alone.[23] In his book, Nul Points, comic writer Tim Moore interviews several of these performers about how their Eurovision score affected their careers.[24]

Since the creation of a qualifying round (semifinal) in 2004[25] and an expansion to two semifinals in 2008,[26] more than thirty countries vote each night – even countries which have been eliminated or have already qualified. No points are rarer; it would require a song to place less than tenth in every country in jury voting and televote.


Entries which received no points during the semifinals are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2004   Switzerland Piero Esteriore & The MusicStars "Celebrate"*
2009  Czech Republic "Aven Romale"[27]

2016 onwards: One section of voting[edit]

With the new televoting system being introduced in the 2016 contest, scoring no points in either the jury voting or televoting phase is possible. An overall "nul points" is possible, but much less likely.

In 2016, the Czech Republic's entry "I Stand" received no points from the televote, they did get 41 points from juries.[28] In 2017, Spain's entry "Do It for Your Lover" received no points from the juries, they did get 5 points from the televote. Also in 2017, Austria's entry "Running on Air" received no points from the televote but they did get 93 points from juries.

In finals[edit]

Entries that received no jury points are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2017  Spain Manel Navarro "Do It for Your Lover"

Entries that received no televote points are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2016  Czech Republic Gabriela Gunčíková "I Stand"
2017  Austria Nathan Trent "Running on Air"

In semifinals[edit]

Entries that received no jury points in the semifinals are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2017  San Marino Valentina Monetta & Jimmie Wilson "Spirit of the Night"

Entries that received no televote points in the semifinals are:

Contest Country Artist Song
2017  Malta Claudia Faniello "Breathlessly"

Junior Eurovision[edit]

No entry in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest has ever received nul points; between 2005 and 2015, each contestant begins with 12 points to prevent such a result.[29] However, there has not been a situation that the 12 points received in the beginning would have remained as the sole points.[citation needed] On 15 October 2012, it was announced by the EBU, that for the first time in the contest's history a new "Kids Jury" was being introduced into the voting system. The jury consists of members aged between 10 and 15, and representing each of the participating countries. A spokesperson from the jury would then announce the points 1-8, 10 and the maximum 12 as decided upon by the jury members;[30] in 2016 the Kids Jury was removed and instead, each country awarded 1-8, 10 and 12 points from both adult and kid's juries, also eliminating televoting from the contest.[31] An expert panel were also present at the 2016 contest, with each of the panelists being able to award 1-8, 10 and 12 points themselves.[32]

Regional bloc voting[edit]

Colour-coded map of Europe
Bloc voting in the Eurovision Song Contest from 2001 to 2005, according to Derek Gatherer (2006)[33]
  Pyrenean Axis (Andorra and Spain)
  Partial Benelux (Belgium and The Netherlands)
  Viking Empire (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden)
  Warsaw Pact (Poland, Russia and Ukraine)
  Balkan Bloc (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey)

Although statistical analysis of the results from 2001 to 2005 suggests regional bloc voting;[33] it is debatable whether this is due to political alliances or a tendency for culturally-close countries to have similar musical tastes.[34] The United Kingdom and France would historically exchange points (an average of 6.5 points per contest), and the UK has also had such a relationship with Ireland. Several countries can be categorised as voting blocs, which regularly award one another high points:[33]

  • Greece and Cyprus
  • Turkey and Azerbaijan
  • English-speaking countries or countries of the Commonwealth: Australia, Malta, Ireland and United Kingdom
  • Austria, Germany and Switzerland
  • The Netherlands and Belgium
  • Andorra, Portugal and Spain
  • The Nordic states: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland
  • The Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
  • Romania and Moldova, acting as a bridge between the Balkan and Warsaw Pact states
  • The Balkan countries:
    Macedonia and Albania
    The former Yugoslav countries: Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Croatia
  • The former USSR countries of Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova

It is still common for countries to award points to their neighbours regularly, even if they are not part of a voting bloc (for example, Finland and Estonia, Germany and Denmark, the Baltic states and Russia or Albania and Greece). Votes may also be based on a diaspora. Greece, Turkey, Poland, Russia and the former Yugoslav countries normally get high scores from Germany or the United Kingdom, Armenia votes from France or Belgium, Poland from Ireland, Romania from Spain and Italy and Albania from Switzerland, Italy and San Marino. Former Eurovision TV director Bjørn Erichsen disagreed with the assertion that regional bloc voting significantly affects the contest's outcome, saying that Russia's first victory in 2008 was only possible with votes from thirty-eight of the participating countries.[35]

In a recent study, [36], a new methodology is presented which allows a complete analysis of the competition from 1957 till 2017. The voting patterns change and the previous studies restrained their analysis to a particular time window where the voting scheme is homogeneous and this approach allows the sampling comparison over arbitrary periods consistent with the unbiased assumption of voting patterns, this methodology also allows for a sliding time window to accumulate a degree of collusion over the years producing a weighted network. The previous results are supported and the changes over time provide insight into the collusive behaviours given more or less choice.

Voting conclusion[edit]

This table shows when the winner of the contest was known each year from 1975. Gold column appeared if the winning country wasn't known until the last country.

Contest Voting Country Points Receiving country Conclusion
1975  Sweden 10  Ireland  UK couldn't catch  Netherlands
1976  France 7  UK  UK won
1977  Finland 12  France  France won
1978  Luxembourg 12  Israel  Israel won
1979  Spain 10  Israel  Israel won
1980  Belgium 7  Germany  Germany couldn't catch  Ireland
1981  Sweden 8  UK  UK won
1982  Yugoslavia 3  Israel  Israel couldn't catch  Germany
1983  Belgium 8  Luxembourg  Luxembourg won
1984  Portugal 2  Ireland  Ireland couldn't catch  Sweden
1985  Luxembourg 7  Norway  Norway won
1986  Denmark 10  Belgium  Belgium won
1987  Yugoslavia 6  Ireland  Ireland won
1988  Yugoslavia 12  France  UK couldn't catch   Switzerland
1989  Germany 1  Yugoslavia  Yugoslavia won
1990  Cyprus 12  Italy  Italy won
1991  Italy 12  France  Israel couldn't catch  Sweden
1992  Germany 10  Ireland  Ireland won
1993  Malta 12  Ireland  Ireland won
1994  Spain 10  Ireland  Ireland won
1995  Israel 10  Norway  Norway won
1996  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3  Norway  Norway couldn't catch  Ireland
1997  Russia 12  UK  UK won
1998  Macedonia 12  Croatia  Malta couldn't catch  Israel
1999  Bosnia and Herzegovina 12  Sweden  Sweden won
2000  Turkey 12  Sweden  Russia couldn't catch  Denmark
2001  Greece 6  Denmark  Denmark couldn't catch  Estonia
2002  Lithuania 3  Malta  Malta tied but lost the tie-breaker to  Latvia
2003  Slovenia 10  Turkey  Turkey won
2004  Slovenia 8  Ukraine  Ukraine won
2005  Bosnia and Herzegovina 12  Croatia  Malta couldn't catch  Greece
2006  Greece 8  Russia  Russia couldn't catch  Finland
2007  Macedonia 12  Serbia  Serbia won
2008  Lithuania 12  Russia  Russia won
2009  Estonia 12  Norway  Norway won
2010  Netherlands 4  Germany  Germany won
2011  Moldova 3  Sweden  Sweden couldn't catch  Azerbaijan
2012  Georgia 8  Sweden  Sweden won
2013  Macedonia 12  Denmark  Denmark won
2014  Ukraine 12  Sweden  Netherlands couldn't catch  Austria
2015  Cyprus 5  Russia  Russia couldn't catch  Sweden
2016 Televoting 323  Ukraine  Ukraine won
2017 Televoting 337  Bulgaria  Bulgaria couldn't catch  Portugal

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Jordan, Paul (18 February 2016). "Biggest change to Eurovision Song Contest voting since 1975". Retrieved 18 February 2016. 
  2. ^ Nick, Paton Walsh (2003-05-30). "Vote switch 'stole Tatu's Eurovision win'". The Guardian. 
  3. ^ "Eurovision 1997". Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  4. ^ "Eurovision history". Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  5. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 1999" (PDF). Myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  6. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 2000" (PDF). Myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  7. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 2001" (PDF). myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  8. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 2002" (PDF). Myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  9. ^ "Rules of Eurovision Song Contest 2003" (PDF). myledbury. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ Viniker, Barry (2009-05-20). "FYR Macedonia threatens Eurovision withdrawal". ESCToday. Archived from the original on 2009-05-21. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  13. ^ Bakker, Sietse (2009-10-11). "Exclusive: Juries also get 50% stake in Semi-Final result!". EBU. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  14. ^ Bakker, Sietse (22 January 2015). "EBU restores televoting window as from 2012". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  15. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-30. Retrieved 2015-05-15.  read 2015-05-20
  16. ^
  17. ^ "Public rules of the 60th Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  18. ^ "Eurovision 2008 Final". Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ a b "'Nul points' sparks Eurovision rejig". Broadcast. Retrieved 29 May 2003. 
  22. ^ "The BIG Zero". 
  23. ^ Siim, Jarmo. "Eurovision 2012 split jury-televote results revealed". Eurovision. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  24. ^ "Nul Points: Tim Moore: 9780099492979: Books". 
  25. ^ "Rules of the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. MyLedbury. 
  26. ^ "Eurovision: 2 semi finals confirmed!". Esctoday. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2007. 
  27. ^ Cameron, Rob. "Czechs pull out of Eurovision after three years and "nul points"". Radio Prague. Retrieved 23 July 2009. 
  28. ^ "ESC 2016 grand final full results". Eurovision. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016. 
  29. ^ "'Your votes please: the spokespersons'". ESC Today. 26 November 2005. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2009. 
  30. ^ Siim, Jarmo (15 October 2012). "Extra 'country' to give points in 2012". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  31. ^ Jordan, Paul (13 May 2016). "Format changes for the Junior Eurovision 2016". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  32. ^ Jordan, Paul (13 May 2016). "Jedward to appear at Junior Eurovision 2016!". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  33. ^ a b c Derek Gatherer (2005-09-20). "Comparison of Eurovision Song Contest Simulation with Actual Results Reveals Shifting Patterns of Collusive Voting Alliances". Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  34. ^ Victor Ginsburgh, Abdul Noury (October 2006). "The Eurovision Song Contest:: Is Voting Political or Cultural?" (PDF). 
  35. ^ Bakker, Sietse. "Eurovision TV Director responds to allegations on voting". Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  36. ^ Mantzaris, Alexander V., Rein, Samuel R. and Hopkins, Alexander D. "Examining Collusion and Voting Biases Between Countries During the Eurovision Song Contest Since 1957.", Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation vol. 21, no. 1. 31 Jan 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2017.