The Vought XF2U was a prototype biplane fighter aircraft evaluated by the United States Navy at the end of the 1920s, but was outclassed by competing designs and never put into production. Vought's O2U Corsair, first delivered in 1927, was a successful design that set several speed and altitude record in that year. To compete for the Bureau of Aeronautics requirement for a two-seat carrier-based fighter, Vought adapted this design, but progress was slow. Ordered on 30 June 1927, the aircraft was not completed until June 1929, it was no longer state-of-the-art. The aircraft was constructed of welded steel tubing, covered in fabric; the wings were made of fabric covered. The prototype first flew on 21 June 1929, was tested on a simulated carrier deck in Norfolk, Virginia, it was found satisfactory, allaying concerns about problems due to the rather long cowling over the engine. The aircraft went to the Naval Aircraft Factory, who operated it until 6 March 1931, when it was lost in a crash landing.
Data from The American Fighter from 1917 to the presentGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 27 ft 0 in Wingspan: 36 ft 0 in Height: 10 ft 0 in Wing area: 318 sq ft Empty weight: 1,152 lb Gross weight: 2,539 lb Max takeoff weight: 3,907 lb Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340-C/D 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 450 hp Propellers: 2-bladed propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 146 mph Cruise speed: 110 mph Range: 495 mi Service ceiling: 18,700 ft Rate of climb: 910 ft/min Armament Guns: 3x 0.30 in machine-guns Jones, Lloyd S.. U. S. naval fighters. Fallbrook CA: Aero Publishers. Pp. 68–70. ISBN 0-8168-9254-7. Vought page on the XF2U
Vought SB2U Vindicator
The Vought SB2U Vindicator is an American carrier-based dive bomber developed for the United States Navy in the 1930s, the first monoplane in this role. Obsolete at the outbreak of World War II, Vindicators still remained in service at the time of the Battle of Midway, but by 1943, all had been withdrawn to training units, it was known as the Chesapeake in Royal Navy service. In 1934, the United States Navy issued a requirement for a new Scout Bomber for carrier use, received proposals from six manufacturers; the specification was issued in two parts, one for a monoplane, one for a biplane. Vought submitted designs in both categories, which would become the XSB2U-1 and XSB3U-1 respectively; the biplane was considered alongside the monoplane design as a "hedge" against the U. S. Navy's reluctance to pursue the modern configuration; the XSB2U-1 was of conventional low-wing monoplane configuration with a retractable conventional tailwheel landing gear, the pilot and tail gunner being seated in tandem under a long greenhouse-style canopy.
The fuselage was of steel tube construction, covered with aluminum panels from the nose to the rear cockpit with a fabric-covered rear fuselage, while the folding cantilever wing was of all-metal construction. A Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin-Wasp Junior radial engine drove a two-blade constant-speed propeller, intended to act as a dive brake during a dive bombing attack. A single 1,000 lb bomb could be carried on a swinging trapeze to allow it to clear the propeller in a steep dive, while further bombs could be carried under the wings to give a maximum bombload of 1,500 lb; the SB2U was evaluated against the Brewster XSBA-1, Curtiss XSBC-3, Great Lakes XB2G-1, Grumman XSBF-1 and Northrop XBT-1. All but the Great Lakes and Grumman submissions were ordered into production. Designated XSB2U-1, one prototype was ordered on 15 October 1934 and was delivered on 15 April 1936. Accepted for operational evaluation on 2 July 1936, the prototype XSB2U-1, BuNo 9725, crashed on 20 August 1936, its successful completion of trials led to further orders.
The SB2U is prominently featured in the 1941 film Dive Bomber. There were 260 examples of all Vindicator variants produced, a single example is preserved at the National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola, Florida. Vindicators served on the carriers Lexington, Saratoga and Wasp from December 1937-September 1942. Air Group Nine, destined for Essex, trained in Vindicators aboard the escort carrier Charger, but they transitioned to the Douglas SBD Dauntless before Essex joined the war. During the attack on Pearl Harbor, seven Vindicators from the U. S. squadron VMSB-231 were destroyed at Ewa Field. VMSB-131 and VMSB-241 were the only two USMC squadrons that fielded the Marine-specific SB2U-3 between March 1941 and September 1943. VMSB-241's Vindicators saw combat at the Battle of Midway in June 1942. Airmen with experience in more modern aircraft spoke disparagingly of SB2Us as "vibrators" or "wind indicators" in their combat assignments. Captain Richard E. Fleming piloted a SB2U-3 Vindicator in an attack on the Japanese cruiser Mikuma on 5 June 1942, for which he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.
Based on the SB2U-2, the V-156-F incorporated specific French equipment. After the deliveries started in July 1939, V-156-F crews were trained for carrier operations aboard the French carrier Béarn, but when the war broke out the old carrier was declared too slow for operational service; as a result, V-156-F-equipped units escadrilles AB 1 and AB 3 were based ashore when the Battle of France started. AB 1 sustained heavy losses while attacking bridges and German ground targets in Northern France, as well as providing air cover for the Evacuation of Dunkirk. AB 3's V-156-Fs were engaged against the Italians, during which time they were credited with sinking one submarine off Albenga. By the time of the Armistice, there were only a handful of remaining Voughts in French hands, the type was phased out of service. France had placed an order for a further 50 V-156-Fs in March 1940, with delivery planned from March 1941. Following the defeat of France, this order was taken over by the British government for use by the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm, who named the aircraft the Chesapeake.
The British required several modifications to the Chesapeake, including the additional fuel tank fitted to the SB2U-3, additional armor and heavier forward firing armament, with four rifle caliber machine guns replacing the single forward-firing Darne machine gun of the French aircraft. Fourteen Chesapeakes were used to equip a reformed 811 Naval Air Squadron on 14 July 1941 at RNAS Lee-on-Solent; the squadron, whose crews referred to it as the "cheesecake", intended to use them for anti-submarine patrols, they were earmarked for the escort carrier HMS Archer. By the end of October that year, it had been decided that the Chesapeakes were underpowered for the planned duties and would not be able to lift a sensible payload from the small escort carriers. Accordingly, they were withdrawn from 811 Squadron in November 1941 for use as training aircraft and the unit was re-equipped with the biplane Fairey Swordfish. XSB2U-1 Single prototype, powered by a 750hp R-1535-78 engine. SB2U-1 Initial production version powered by an 825hp R-1535-96 engine, 54 built.
SB2U-2 Same as SB2U-1 but with minor equipment changed, 58 built. XSB2U-3 Single prototype of the extended-range version with twin floats, converted from the SB2U-1. SB2U-3 Similar to the SB2U-2 but fitted with an 825hp R-1535-102 engine, crew armor and two 0.5in guns, 57 built V-156F-3 Export version for the French Navy, 40 built. V-156B-1 Export version similar to the SB2U-3 and powered by a 750hp R-1535-SB4-G engine for the British Royal Navy. Designated Chesapeake Mk. I. V-167 The V-156 company demonstr
A machine gun is a automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire rifle cartridges in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine for the purpose of suppressive fire. Not all automatic firearms are machine guns. Submachine guns, assault rifles, battle rifles, pistols or cannons may be capable of automatic fire, but are not designed for sustained fire; as a class of military rapid-fire guns, machine guns are automatic weapons designed to be used as support weapons and used when attached to a mount- or fired from the ground on a bipod or tripod. Many machine guns use belt feeding and open bolt operation, features not found on rifles. In the U. S. A, a "machine gun" is a legal term for any weapon able to fire more than one shot per function of the trigger regardless of caliber, the receiver of any such weapon, any weapon convertible to such a state using normal tools, or any component or part that will modify an existing firearm such that it functions as a "machine gun" such as a drop-in auto sear.
Civilian possession of such weapons manufactured prior to 1986 is not prohibited by any federal law and not illegal in many states, but they must be registered as Title II weapons under the National Firearms Act and have a tax stamp paid. Machine guns manufactured after 1986 are prohibited by the Hughes Amendment to the Gun Owners Protection Act. Unlike semi-automatic firearms, which require one trigger pull per round fired, a machine gun is designed to fire for as long as the trigger is held down. Nowadays the term is restricted to heavy weapons, able to provide continuous or frequent bursts of automatic fire for as long as ammunition lasts. Machine guns are used against personnel and light vehicles, or to provide suppressive fire, either directly or indirectly, they are mounted on fast attack vehicles such as technicals to provide heavy mobile firepower, armored vehicles such as tanks for engaging targets too small to justify use of the primary weaponry or too fast to engage with it, on aircraft as defensive armament or for strafing ground targets, though on fighter aircraft true machine guns have been supplanted by large-caliber rotary guns.
Some machine guns have in practice sustained fire continuously for hours. Because they become hot all machine guns fire from an open bolt, to permit air cooling from the breech between bursts, they usually have either a barrel cooling system, slow-heating heavyweight barrel, or removable barrels which allow a hot barrel to be replaced. Although subdivided into "light", "medium", "heavy" or "general-purpose" the lightest machine guns tend to be larger and heavier than standard infantry arms. Medium and heavy machine guns are either mounted on a vehicle. Light machine guns are designed to provide mobile fire support to a squad and are air-cooled weapons fitted with a box magazine or drum and a bipod. Medium machine guns use full-sized rifle rounds and are designed to be used from fixed positions mounted on a tripod. Heavy machine gun is a term originating in World War I to describe heavyweight medium machine guns and persisted into World War II with Japanese Hotchkiss M1914 clones. A general-purpose machine gun is a lightweight medium machine gun which can either be used with a bipod and drum in the light machine gun role or a tripod and belt feed in the medium machine gun role.
Machine guns have simple iron sights, though the use of optics is becoming more common. A common aiming system for direct fire is to alternate solid rounds and tracer ammunition rounds, so shooters can see the trajectory and "walk" the fire into the target, direct the fire of other soldiers. Many heavy machine guns, such as the Browning M2.50 caliber machine gun, are accurate enough to engage targets at great distances. During the Vietnam War, Carlos Hathcock set the record for a long-distance shot at 7,382 ft with a.50 caliber heavy machine gun he had equipped with a telescopic sight. This led to the introduction of.50 caliber anti-materiel sniper rifles, such as the Barrett M82. Other automatic weapons are subdivided into several categories based on the size of the bullet used, whether the cartridge is fired from a closed bolt or an open bolt, whether the action used is locked or is some form of blowback. Automatic firearms using pistol-calibre ammunition are called machine pistols or submachine guns on the basis of size.
The term personal defense weapon is sometimes applied to weapons firing dedicated armor-piercing rounds which would otherwise be regarded as machine pistols or SMGs, but it is not strongly defined and has been used to describe a range of weapons from ordinary SMGs to compact assault rifles. Selective fire rifles firing a full-power rifle cartridge from a closed bolt are called automatic rifles or battle rifles, while rifles that fire an intermediate cartridge are called assault rifles. Assault rifles are a compromise between the size and weight of a pistol-calibre submachine gun and a full size battle rifle, firing intermediate cartridges and allowing semi-automatic and burst or full-automatic fire options
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
In aviation, V-speeds are standard terms used to define airspeeds important or useful to the operation of all aircraft. These speeds are derived from data obtained by aircraft designers and manufacturers during flight testing for aircraft type-certification testing. Using them is considered a best practice to maximize aviation safety, aircraft performance or both; the actual speeds represented by these designators are specific to a particular model of aircraft. They are expressed by the aircraft's indicated airspeed, so that pilots may use them directly, without having to apply correction factors, as aircraft instruments show indicated airspeed. In general aviation aircraft, the most used and most safety-critical airspeeds are displayed as color-coded arcs and lines located on the face of an aircraft's airspeed indicator; the lower ends of the green arc and the white arc are the stalling speed with wing flaps retracted, stalling speed with wing flaps extended, respectively. These are the stalling speeds for the aircraft at its maximum weight.
The yellow range is the range in which the aircraft may be operated in smooth air, only with caution to avoid abrupt control movement, the red line is the VNE, the never exceed speed. Proper display of V-speeds is an airworthiness requirement for type-certificated aircraft in most countries; the most common V-speeds are defined by a particular government's aviation regulations. In the United States, these are defined in title 14 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations, known as the Federal Aviation Regulations. In Canada, the regulatory body, Transport Canada, defines 26 used V-speeds in their Aeronautical Information Manual. V-speed definitions in FAR 23, 25 and equivalent are for designing and certification of airplanes, not for their operational use; the descriptions below are for use by pilots. These V-speeds are defined by regulations, they are defined with constraints such as weight, configuration, or phases of flight. Some of these constraints have been omitted to simplify the description.
Some of these V-speeds are specific to particular types of aircraft and are not defined by regulations. Whenever a limiting speed is expressed by a Mach number, it is expressed relative to the speed of sound, e.g. VMO: Maximum operating speed, MMO: Maximum operating Mach number. V1 is takeoff decision speed, it is the speed above which the takeoff will continue if an engine fails or another problem occurs, such as a blown tire. The speed will vary among aircraft types and varies according to factors such as aircraft weight, runway length, wing flap setting, engine thrust used and runway surface contamination, thus it must be determined by the pilot before takeoff. Aborting a takeoff after V1 is discouraged because the aircraft will by definition not be able to stop before the end of the runway, thus suffering a "runway overrun". V1 is defined differently in different jurisdictions: The US Federal Aviation Administration defines it as: "the maximum speed in the takeoff at which the pilot must take the first action to stop the airplane within the accelerate-stop distance.
V1 means the minimum speed in the takeoff, following a failure of the critical engine at VEF, at which the pilot can continue the takeoff and achieve the required height above the takeoff surface within the takeoff distance." Transport Canada defines it as: "Critical engine failure recognition speed" and adds: "This definition is not restrictive. An operator may adopt any other definition outlined in the aircraft flight manual of TC type-approved aircraft as long as such definition does not compromise operational safety of the aircraft." Getting to grips with aircraft performance. Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance. Airbus Customer Services. January 2002