Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
Kimolos is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. It lies near the bigger island of Milos. Kimolos is the administrative center of the municipality of Kimolos, which includes the uninhabited islands of Polyaigos, Agios Efstathios and Agios Georgios; the island has a land area of 36 square kilometres, while the municipality's land area is 53.251 square kilometres, it reported a population of 910 inhabitants in the 2011 census. Kimolos is an island with rich history records. According to tradition, it is named after Kimolos, the first resident of the island. Echinousa is a recorded name of the island during the ancient times because of the snake Echidna, being common today on the island. Since the ancient era, it was a battlefield between Ancient Athens, the ruler of the island, Sparta, the ruler of Milos. In the Middle Ages it was known as Argentiera, because of the silver-colored rocky lands of its southern coast. Since those times, these rocky lands provided Kimolia Gi-Kimolian Earth, a valuable trade good, which made the island a major trade hub.
It was ruled by the Ottoman Empire until 1829, when it was annexed by the Greek state along with the rest of the Cyclades. Kimolos lies to the northwest of larger Milos island, separated from it by a 1 km wide channel, it is round-shaped 7 km in radius. The island has a total area of 36 square kilometres; the highest point is mount Paleokastro, at 364 metres The only town is Chorio, located on a hill on the west of the island. There are smaller settlements of Psathi, Kara, Aliki and Dekas. To the east of Kimolos lies the island of Polyaigos, half its size. Polyaigos is the largest uninhabited island of Aegean, it is part of the municipality of Kimolos. Kimolos and the smaller islands that surround them belong to the Aegean volcanic arc and consist of acidic volcanic rocks. In some places, the pre-volcanic bedrock can be observed. Large areas of Kimolos are covered by tuffs and the volcanic activity can be obvious from the hot springs, existence of a notable geothermal field, the characteristic landscape and strange landforms.
The island is rich in minerals of the silica group and in significant industrial minerals. One of the most famous geologic formations on Kimolos is Skiadi. Skiadi is a huge mushroom-shaped stone that dominates the middle of a small valley in the interior of the island, it is created by a process called ablation, in which the dust carried by the wind continuously scratches the rock, eroding the softer layers at the bottom much more than the harder layers at the top. Through centuries, the stone has been shaped into a unique form. According to the last censuses, the population of Kimolos is decreasing, no more than 600 residents remain during winter; the underage population is no more than 100, according to the school records. Most of the working population is involved with the tourist industry of the island in combination with agriculture activities during winter. After the municipal/prefectural elections held in October 2006, the mayor of the island for the period 2007-2010 was Theodoros-Gerasimos Maganiotis, who publishes the only newspaper of the island, Kimoliaka Nea.
However, the current mayor of Kimolos is Ventouris Emanuel Konstantinos. Kimolos has a local Police Department; the Kimolos Port Authority is a department of Milos Coast Guard. Kimolos is part of the Milos regional unit. Internal On the island all vehicles are permitted, but during the summer months, the lack of parking space is the most important problem in populated areas, such as Chorio Kimolou and Psathi. Common kinds of fuels are available at the local fuel station. There are public means of transport, such as bus and taxi, performing routes to popular beaches. External Kimolos belongs to the line of the Western Cyclades and it's connected to nearby islands and Piraeus port of Athens via year-round ferry boat and a catamaran ferry running only during the tourist season. Routes frequency varies with the season. During the tourist period, it has daily connection to Piraeus and other islands. Transport via Milos is possible, because of the frequent connection of the two islands with local ferry boat.
Kimolos is a station for the local connections between Cyclades islands. Kimon Digenis, military officer List of islands of Greece The Official Website of the Municipality of Kimolos Kimolos Travel Guide A View of Kimolos from Milos
An ox known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal. Oxen are castrated adult male cattle. Cows or bulls may be used in some areas. Oxen are used for plowing, for transport, for threshing grain by trampling, for powering machines that grind grain or supply irrigation among other purposes. Oxen may be used to skid logs in forests in low-impact, select-cut logging. Draft oxen are yoked in pairs. Light work such as carting household items on good roads may only require one pair, while for heavier work, further pairs would be added as necessary. A team used for a heavy load over difficult ground might exceed ten pairs. Oxen are thought to have first been harnessed and put to work around 4000 BC. Working oxen are taught to respond to the signals of the ox-driver; these signals are given by verbal command and body language, reinforced by a goad, whip or a long pole. In pre-industrial times, most teamsters were known for their loud voices and forthright language.
Verbal commands for working animals vary throughout the world. In North America, the most common commands are: Back: back up Gee: turn to the right Get up: go Haw: turn to the left Whoa: stopIn the New England tradition, young castrated cattle selected for draft are known as working steers and are painstakingly trained from a young age, their teamster makes or buys as many as a dozen yokes of different sizes for each animal as it grows. The steers are considered trained at the age of four and only become known as oxen. A tradition in south eastern England was to use oxen as dual-purpose animals: for beef. A plowing team of eight oxen consisted of four pairs aged a year apart; each year, a pair of steers of about three years of age would be bought for the team and trained with the older animals. The pair would be kept for about four years sold at about seven years old to be fattened for beef – thus covering much of the cost of buying that year's new pair. Use of oxen for plowing survived in some areas of England until the early twentieth century.
Pairs of oxen were always hitched the same way round, they were given paired names. In southern England it was traditional to call the near-side ox of a pair by a single-syllable name and the off-side one by a longer one. Ox trainers favor larger animals for their ability to pull heavier loads, they are therefore of larger breeds, are males because they are larger. Females can be trained as oxen, but they are smaller. Bulls are used in many parts of the world as oxen Asia and Africa. Working oxen have oxshoes, which are metal devices nailed into their hooves, used to protect them from excessive wear; the continual strain borne on their feet by the weight they carry may injure and lead to cracking of the hooves, just as with horses. Despite this, in England, not all working oxen were shod. Since their hooves are cloven, two separate parts are required for each hoof, unlike the single shoe of a horse. Oxshoes are of a flat shape with an outline similar to a half-moon or a banana, either have or do not have caulkins, are fitted in symmetrical pairs to the hooves.
Unlike horses, oxen are not able to balance on three legs while a farrier shoes the fourth. In England, shoeing was accomplished by laying the ox on the ground and lashing all four feet to a heavy wooden tripod until the shoeing was complete. A similar technique was used in Serbia and, in a simpler form, in India, where it is still practiced. In Italy, where oxen may be large, shoeing is accomplished using a massive framework of beams in which the animal can be or lifted from the ground by slings passed under the body; such devices may today be of metal. Similar devices are found in France, Germany, Spain and the United States, where they may be called ox slings, ox presses or shoeing stalls; the system was sometimes adopted in England where the device was called a crush or trevis. The shoeing of an ox lifted in a sling is the subject of John Singer Sargent's painting Shoeing the Ox, while A Smith Shoeing an Ox by Karel Dujardin shows an ox being shod standing, tied to a post by the horns and balanced by supporting the raised hoof.
While less efficient and sensibly less prevalent than horses, the riding of cattle as a means of transportation has happened throughout history, the act is sometimes known as ox riding and oxback riding. There are many forms of riding equipment used by oxen, some differ from those used by horses. A wide-girthed saddle is mounted on the ox’s back for the rider to sit on. A bridle may attach to reins. While horses may have a bit, the near-equivalent for cattle is the nose ring, although this procedure is painful to the ox; as mentioned, they are not only controlled by being steered using reins.
Mykonos is a Greek island, part of the Cyclades, lying between Tinos, Syros and Naxos. The island spans an area of 85.5 square kilometres and rises to an elevation of 341 metres at its highest point. There are 10,134 inhabitants, most of whom live in the largest town, which lies on the west coast; the town is known as Chora. Mykonos's nickname is "The Island of the Winds". Tourism is a major industry and Mykonos is known for its vibrant nightlife and has many establishments catering for the LGBT community. Herodotus mentions Carians as the original inhabitants of the island. Ionians from Athens seem to have followed next in the early 11th century BC. There were many people living on the neighbouring island of Delos, only 2 km away, which meant that Mykonos became an important place for supplies and transit, it was, during ancient times a rather poor island with limited agricultural resources. Its inhabitants were worshipped many gods. Mykonos came under the control of the Romans during the reign of the Roman Empire and became part of the Byzantine Empire until the 12th century.
In 1204, with the fall of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, Mykonos was occupied by Andrea Ghisi, a relative of the Doge of Venice. The island was ravaged by the Catalans at the end of the 13th century and given over to direct Venetian rule in 1390. In 1537, while the Venetians still reigned, Mykonos was attacked by Hayreddin Barbarossa, the admiral of Suleiman the Magnificent, an Ottoman fleet established itself on the island; the Ottomans, under the leadership of Kapudan Pasha, imposed a system of self-governance comprising a governor and an appointed council of syndics. When the castle of Tinos fell to the Ottomans in 1718, the last of the Venetians withdrew from the region. Up until the end of the 18th century, Mykonos prospered as a trading centre, attracting many immigrants from nearby islands, in addition to regular pirate raids. In June 1794 the Battle of Mykonos was fought between British and French ships in the island's main harbour; the Greek Revolution against the Ottoman Empire broke out in 1821 and Mykonos played an important role, led by the national heroine, Manto Mavrogenous.
Mavrogenous, a well-educated aristocrat guided by the ideas of the Enlightenment, sacrificed her family's fortune for the Greek cause. Greece became an independent state in 1830. A statue of her sits in the middle of Mando Mavrogenous square in the main town; as a result of sailing and merchant activity, the island's economy picked up but declined again during the late 19th century and after the opening of the Corinth Canal in 1904 and the First World War at the beginning of the 20th century. Many Mykonians left the island to find work in mainland Greece and many foreign countries the United States. Tourism soon came to dominate the local economy, owing a lot to the important excavations carried out by the French School of Archaeology, which began work in Delos in 1873. In Greek mythology, Mykonos was named after its first ruler, the son or grandson of the god Apollo and a local hero; the island is said to have been the location of a great battle between Zeus and Titans and where Hercules killed the invincible giants having lured them from the protection of Mount Olympus.
According to myth, the large rocks all over the island are said to be the petrified testicles of the giants. The island spans an area of 85.5 square kilometres and rises to an elevation of 341 metres at its highest point. It is situated 150 kilometres east of Athens in the Aegean Sea; the island features no rivers, but numerous seasonal streams two of which have been converted into reservoirs. The island is composed of granite and the terrain is rocky with many areas eroded by the strong winds. High quality clay and baryte, a mineral used as a lubricant in oil drilling, were mined on the eastern side of Mykonos until the late 1900s, it produces 4,500 cubic metres of water daily, by reverse osmosis of sea water in order to help meet the needs of its population and visitors. The island has a population of nearly 12,500. Mykonos has a typical Mediterranean climate; the sun shines for up to 300 days a year. The rainy season lasts from October until March. Vegetation follows the typical pattern for the region and grows around mid-autumn and ends in the beginning of the summer.
Although temperatures can rise as high as 40 °C in the summer months, average high temperature is around 28 °C and because of the seasonal cool "meltemi" wind, summer days are dry and pleasant. In the winter, average high temperature is around 15 °C; the winters in general are mild and wet, with many sunny days still in mid-winter. Snow doesn't stay long on the ground when it falls. There are ten villages: Local specialities: The municipality of Mykonos is a separate regional unit of the South Aegean region, the sole municipality in the regional unit; as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Mykonos was created out of part of the former Cyclades Prefecture. The municipality, unchanged at the Kallikratis reform includes the islands Delos and several uninhabited islets; the total area of the municipality is 105.183 km2. In the 2012 elections, the centre right New Democracy obtained the highest vote on Mykonos followed by the Coalitio
Schoinoussa or Schinoussa is an island and a former community in the Cyclades, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Naxos and Lesser Cyclades, of which it is a municipal unit, it lies south of the island of Naxos, in the Lesser Cyclades group, between the island communities of Irakleia and Koufonisia. The population was 256 inhabitants at the 2011 census, its land area is 8.512 square kilometres. Schoinoussa is located in the south of Naxos, in the middle about of the Lesser Cyclades island group, it is the fourth largest island of the Lesser Cyclades and the second most populated, after Ano Koufonisi. The island has three settlements, Chora the capital of the island and Mersini where is the port of the island; the derivation of the name Schinoussa is not known. It is believed that the name either derives from the corruption of the ancient name Echinousa or from a Venetian nobleman named Schinoza. Schoinoussa has been inhabited since antiquity. On the island there are sites of archaeological interest including ancient Greek and Roman ruins, ruins of a Byzantine church and a small medieval castle.
From the 11th century the island was the property of the Hozoviotissa Monastery on the nearby island of Amorgos. Visit Greece Website
Antiparos is a small island in the southern Aegean, at the heart of the Cyclades, less than one nautical mile from Paros, the port to which it is connected with a local ferry. Saliagos island is the most ancient settlement in the Cyclades, Despotiko, an uninhabited island in the southwest of Antiparos, is a place of great archaeological importance; the Community of Antiparos was founded in 1914 and was promoted to a municipality in 2010 with the implementation of the Law "Kallikrates", under the principle of "each island a municipality". It occupies an area including the island of Antiparos and Despotiko, it has, according to the 2011 census, 1,211 permanent residents and a density of 27 inhabitants per km². The island's economy is based on tourism, fishing and less on agriculture in the plains, it is known for its white houses, cobbled streets and the flowers that thrive in the yards of the houses. It is a tourist resort in the summer for Greeks and European visitors, as well as land investors from the United States.
The main settlement lies at the northeastern tip of the island, opposite Pounda on the main island of Paros, whence a ferry sails for Antiparos harbour. The historical center is located in the Venetian castle of Antiparos, connected through the shopping streets in the picturesque coastal street. Other settlements are the resort of St. George in the southwest edge and Kampos. Beaches in the wider area of the center are Psaralyki, the Sifneiko, Ag Spiridon and the camping beach. Other beaches include: Soros, Apantima, Monastiria; the ancient name of the island was "Oliaros", a word of Phoenician origin meaning "wooded mountain." The island was named "Antiparos" Situated within walking distance from Paros. The island of Antiparos is located 0.8 nautical mi southwest of Paros, separated by the Strait of Antiparos, known as Amfigeio. It lies 8 kilometres from the port of Parikia; the maximum length of the island is 11 kilometres from north to south, while the maximum width reaches 4.5 kilometres. The total area is estimated at 37 to 38 km.
And the highest peak, St. Elias, in the middle of the island, is at 308 m; the main town is called Antiparos. Antiparos is a volcanic rock and dry climate with high moisture, morphology favors the development of strong winds; the flowers thrive in the region are bougainvillea that adorn the gardens and shops. The morphology of Antiparos is characterised flat, with many small hilly peaks, while the vegetation of the island is low; the island of Antiparos is surrounded by many small uninhabited islands with great historical and archaeological interest, such as Tsimintiri the Round, the Double, Revmatonisi, the Red and Black Tourlos. Well known in the international community is Despotiko, an uninhabited island west of Antiparos, where in recent years excavations of great archaeological importance have been carried out; the island economy is based on tourism: the income from visits to the Cave of Antiparos form a big part of the budget of the municipality. Most people work in the shops and accommodation on the island during the tourist season from Easter to October, with the remainder funded by the Employment Service, or undertaking technical and manual jobs.
The island's economy is helped by agriculture and animal husbandry, fisheries. Since the 1970s and 1980s, Antiparos has become a popular holiday destination for nudists, attracted by the remote and sandy beaches; the best known is the Camping, or Theologians beach, at the north of the island, opposite the uninhabited island of Diplo. The far end of the town beach is nudist, as is the Perigiali beach; however most of the other beaches on Antiparos are textile. Since the 1990s there has been a steady development due to its proximity to Paros, the infrastructure has been improved to accommodate the growing influx of tourists. There are extensive; the first excavations were those made by the traveller Theodore Bent in 1884, who opened up some 40 graves in two cemeteries. In 1889 Christos Tsountas excavated in Despotiko, revealing Cycladic cemeteries. From 1964-5 a Neolithic settlement was excavated on the island of Saliagos by Colin Renfrew and J D Evans for the British School at Athens. Stone foundations of buildings, obsidian arrowheads and pottery were found, together with a marble figurine known as the Fat lady of Saliagos.
Classical remains are concentrated on the island of Despotiko. The Isle of Antiparos was identified with ancient Prepesintho, according to the extant writings of Strabo and Pliny. In 1959 Nikos Zafiropoulos began excavations at Zoumparia and Mantra, on the northeast coast, where there were architecturally Doric temples from the ancient times, dating to 500 BC. In 1997, the archaeologist Yiannos Kourayos began new excavations at Mantra, bringing to light some of the ancillary buildings of a sanctuary; the temple itself has not so far been discovered, though a number of architectural elements from an early Doric temple have been discovered built into walls. The main finding so far has been an elongated building, consisting of five consecutive parallel rooms. In the southern room archaic materials of Eastern Aegean, Rhodian and Egyptian origin have been discovered. Many marble sculptures were found, including two archaic kouros heads, a naked male statue, part of the Archaic period perirrantiriou inscribed with the inscription "Marda anethiken".
Among the significant findings include the built-square marble altar dedicated