Benjamin William "Ben" Bova is an American writer. He is the author of more than 120 works of science fact and fiction, he is six-time winner of the Hugo Award, a former editor of Analog Magazine, a former editorial director of Omni, he lives in Florida. Ben Bova was born on November 1932 in Philadelphia, he graduated from South Philadelphia High School in 1949 and has been inducted into the SPHS Cultural Hall of Fame in recognition of his achievements. In 1953, while attending Temple University in Philadelphia, he married Rosa Cucinotta; the couple divorced in 1974. In that same year he married Barbara Berson Rose. Barbara Bova died on September 23, 2009. Bova dedicated Power Play to Barbara. In March 2013, he announced on his website. Bova was organized Avco Everett's fencing club. Bova is critical of what he sees as the unquestioning nature of religion, he wrote an op-ed piece in 2012, in which he argued that atheists can be just as moral as religious believers. Bova went back to school in the 1980s, earning a Master of Arts degree in communications in 1987 from the State University of New York at Albany and a Doctor of Education degree from California Coast University in 1996.
Bova worked as a technical writer for Project Vanguard in the 1950s and for the Avco Everett Research Laboratory in the 1960s. When they conducted research in lasers and fluid dynamics. At Avco Everett he met Arthur R. Kantrowitz. In 1972, Bova became editor of Analog Science Fact & Fiction, after John W. Campbell's death in 1971. At Analog, Bova won six Hugo Awards for Best Professional Editor. Bova served as the science advisor for the television series The Starlost and left in disgust after the airing of the first episode, his novel The Starcrossed, loosely based on his experiences, featured a thinly veiled characterization of his friend and colleague Harlan Ellison. Bova dedicated the novel to "Cordwainer Bird", the pen name Ellison uses when he did not want to be associated with a television or film project. In 1974, he wrote the screenplay for an episode of the children's science-fiction television series Land of the Lost, titled "The Search". After leaving Analog in 1978, Bova went on to edit Omni, from 1978 to 1982.
Bova holds the position of President Emeritus of the National Space Society and served as President of Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America from 1990 to 1992. He appeared as the Guest of Honor at the Florida convention Necronomicon in 1995 and 2011. In 2000, he attended the 58th World Science Fiction Convention as the Author Guest of Honor. In 2007, Stuber/Parent Productions hired him as a consultant to provide insight into what the world may look like in the near future, for their film Repo Men starring Jude Law and Forest Whitaker. In 2007 he provided consulting services to Silver Pictures on the film adaptation of Richard K. Morgan's hardboiled cyberpunk science-fiction novel Altered Carbon, he was awarded the Robert A. Heinlein Award in 2008 for his work in science fiction; as of February 2016, Bova has written over 124 books, non-fiction as well as science fiction, drawing on his experiences to create fact and fiction writings rich with references to artificial hearts, environmentalism and martial arts, nanotechnology and spaceflight.
Official website Works by Ben Bova at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ben Bova at Internet Archive Works by Ben Bova at LibriVox Works by Ben Bova at Open Library Ben Bova at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Ben Bova at the Internet Book List Ben Bova at Library of Congress Authorities, with 141 catalog records
VSS Unity referred to as VSS Voyager, is a SpaceShipTwo-class suborbital rocket-powered manned spaceplane. It will be used as part of the Virgin Galactic fleet, it first flew to space on December 13, 2018. The spacecraft was rolled out on 19 February 2016 and completed ground-based system integration testing in September 2016, prior to its first flight on 8 September 2016. VSS Unity, the second SpaceShipTwo suborbital spaceplane for Virgin Galactic, is the first SpaceShipTwo built by The Spaceship Company; the ship's name was announced on 19 February 2016. Prior to the naming announcement, the craft was referred to as SpaceShipTwo, Serial Number Two. There was speculation in 2004 that Serial Number Two would be named VSS Voyager, an unofficial name, used in media coverage; the name Unity was chosen by British physicist Stephen Hawking. Hawking's eye is used as the model for the eye logo on the side of Unity; the manufacture of Unity began in 2012. The spacecraft's registration, N202VG, was filed in September 2014.
As of early November 2014, the build of Unity was about 90 percent structurally complete, 65 percent complete overall. As of April 2015, Unity was 75% complete, initial ground tests were projected to be able to begin as early as late 2015, after being projected as early as mid-2015 as of November 2014. On 21 May 2015, Unity reached the milestone of bearing the weight of the airframe on its own wheels; the spaceship was unveiled on 19 February 2016, as Virgin Galactic founder Richard Branson had projected in November 2015. VSS Unity is the second SpaceShipTwo to be completed. After rollout and unveiling, a phase of testing called "Integrated Vehicle Ground Testing" began on VSS Unity in February 2016. VSS Unity will undergo a test regimen similar to VSS Enterprise will embark on testing beyond what Enterprise experienced; the test flights are expected to be fewer, as Enterprise has tested the design's responses under numerous conditions. For each flight test, the White Knight Two aircraft carries Unity to altitude.
Testing began with captive carry flights. Testing progressed to free-flight glide testing, will continue with powered test flights, it is possible that only 2-3 flights under each regime tested will be performed, instead of the 5 or 10 that Enterprise performed. On 8 September 2016, Virgin Galactic commenced flight testing of Unity with a captive-carry flight. On 1 November 2016, Virgin Galactic conducted another captive-carry flight of Unity but cancelled the glide portion of the flight because of wind speed. On 3 November and 30 November, additional captive-carry flights took place. In July 2017, Richard Branson suggested that the craft was to begin powered tests at three-week intervals. In September 2017, CEO George Whitesides suggested that engine testing was complete, that only a "small number of glide flights" remained before VSS Unity would begin powered test flights; the first powered flight test took place on 5 April 2018 when a 30-second rocket firing accelerated Unity to a speed of Mach 1.87 and an altitude of 84,271 ft.
The first powered test flight of Unity exceeded the altitude of all powered test flights of its predecessor, Enterprise. VSS Unity VP-03, the first suborbital spaceflight of VSS Unity was completed on 13 December 2018, surpassing the 50 miles altitude considered the boundary of outer space by NASA and the United States Air Force. Legend Space tourism
A Ferris wheel is an amusement ride consisting of a rotating upright wheel with multiple passenger-carrying components attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, they are kept upright by gravity. Some of the largest modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on the outside of the rim, with electric motors to independently rotate each car to keep it upright; these wheels are sometimes referred to as observation wheels and their cars referred to as capsules, however these alternative names are used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars. The original Ferris Wheel was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. as a landmark for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The generic term Ferris wheel is now used in American English for all such structures, which have become the most common type of amusement ride at state fairs in the United States; the current tallest Ferris wheel is the 167.6-metre High Roller in Las Vegas, which opened to the public in March 2014.
"Pleasure wheels", whose passengers rode in chairs suspended from large wooden rings turned by strong men, may have originated in 17th-century Bulgaria. The travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608–1667 describes and illustrates "severall Sorts of Swinginge used in their Publique rejoyceings att their Feast of Biram" on 17 May 1620 at Philippopolis in the Ottoman Balkans. Among means "lesse dangerous and troublesome" was one:...like a Craine wheele att Customhowse Key and turned in that Manner, whereon Children sitt on little seats hunge round about in severall parts thereof, And though it turne right upp and downe, that the Children are sometymes on the upper part of the wheele, sometymes on the lower, yett they alwaies sitt upright. Five years earlier, in 1615, Pietro Della Valle, a Roman traveller who sent letters from Constantinople and India, attended a Ramadan festival in Constantinople, he describes the fireworks and great swings comments on riding the Great Wheel: I was delighted to find myself swept upwards and downwards at such speed.
But the wheel turned round so that a Greek, sitting near me couldn't bear it any longer, shouted out "soni! soni!" Similar wheels appeared in England in the 17th century, subsequently elsewhere around the world, including India and Siberia. A Frenchman, Antonio Manguino, introduced the idea to America in 1848, when he constructed a wooden pleasure wheel to attract visitors to his start-up fair in Walton Spring, Georgia. In 1892, William Somers installed three fifty-foot wooden wheels at New Jersey; the following year he was granted the first U. S. patent for a "Roundabout". George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. rode on Somers' wheel in Atlantic City prior to designing his wheel for the World's Columbian Exposition. In 1893 Somers filed a lawsuit against Ferris for patent infringement, however Ferris and his lawyers argued that the Ferris Wheel and its technology differed from Somers' wheel, the case was dismissed; the original Ferris Wheel, sometimes referred to as the Chicago Wheel, was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr..
With a height of 80.4 metres it was the tallest attraction at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, where it opened to the public on June 21, 1893. It was intended to rival the centerpiece of the 1889 Paris Exposition. Ferris was a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Pittsburgh, bridge-builder, he began his career in the railroad industry and pursued an interest in bridge building. Ferris understood the growing need for structural steel and founded G. W. G. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, a firm that tested and inspected metals for railroads and bridge builders. The wheel rotated on a 71-ton, 45.5-foot axle comprising what was at that time the world's largest hollow forging, manufactured in Pittsburgh by the Bethlehem Iron Company and weighing 89,320 pounds, together with two 16-foot-diameter cast-iron spiders weighing 53,031 pounds. There were 36 cars, each fitted with 40 revolving chairs and able to accommodate up to 60 people, giving a total capacity of 2,160; the wheel carried some 38,000 passengers daily and took 20 minutes to complete two revolutions, the first involving six stops to allow passengers to exit and enter and the second a nine-minute non-stop rotation, for which the ticket holder paid 50 cents.
The Exposition ended in October 1893, the wheel closed in April 1894 and was dismantled and stored until the following year. It was rebuilt on Chicago's North Side, near Lincoln Park, next to an exclusive neighborhood; this prompted William D. Boyce a local resident, to file a Circuit Court action against the owners of the wheel to have it removed, but without success, it operated there from October 1895 until 1903, when it was again dismantled transported by rail to St. Louis for the 1904 World's Fair and destroyed by controlled demolition using dynamite on May 11, 1906; the Wiener Riesenrad is a surviving example of nineteenth-century Ferris wheels. Erected in 1897 in the Wurstelprater section of Prater public park in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna, Austria, to celebrate Emperor Franz Josef I's Golden Jubilee, it has a height of 64.75 metres and had 30 passenger cars. A demolition permit for the Riesenrad was issued in 1916, but due to a lack of funds with which to carry out the destruction, it survived.
Following the demolition of
Voyager of the Seas
Voyager of the Seas is the lead ship of the Voyager-class of cruise ships operated by Royal Caribbean International. Constructed by Kværner Masa-Yards at its Turku New Shipyard in Turku, she was launched on November 27, 1998, formally named by Olympic gold medal-winning figure skater Katarina Witt on November 20, 1999. Upon her departure on her maiden voyage the following day, November 21, 1999, Voyager of the Seas was the largest cruise ship in the world, although she was overtaken the following year by her sister ship Explorer of the Seas, she measured 137,276 GT at launch with a displacement of 58,000 t, a 2015 refurbishment increased her tonnage to 138,194 GT. She is 311 m long overall, has a waterline beam of 36.8 m and a height of 63 m. Voyager of the Seas included the first rock climbing wall and the first ice-skating rink at sea. In October and November 2014, Voyager of the Seas underwent dry dock refurbishment; the modifications included the installation of an outdoor movie screen near the pool, replacing the inline skating track with a flowrider surf simulator, Official website Voyager of the Seas at ship-technology.com Voyager-Class.com - the largest online resource for information & pictures of the Voyager-class ships
Amateur radio satellite
An amateur radio satellite is an artificial satellite built and used by amateur radio operators for use in the Amateur-satellite service. These satellites use amateur radio frequency allocations to facilitate communication between amateur radio stations. Many amateur-satellites receive an OSCAR designation, an acronym for Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio; the designation is assigned by AMSAT, an organization which promotes the development and launch of amateur radio satellites. Because of the prevalence of this designation, amateur radio satellites are referred to as OSCARs; these satellites can be used free of charge by licensed amateur radio operators for voice and data communications. Over 18 operational amateur-satellites in orbit act as repeaters, linear transponders or store and forward digital relays. Throughout the years, amateur-satellites have helped make breakthroughs in the science of satellite communications. A few advancements include the launch of the first satellite voice transponder and the development of advanced digital "store-and-forward" messaging transponder techniques.
The information presented regarding functional satellites is outdated as the Amateur Radio Satellite community has become active in building and being provided educational secondary cargo launch opportunities. For current information please visit AMSAT for North America https://www.amsat.org/ and AMSAT-UK for Europe https://amsat-uk.org/ The first amateur satellite named OSCAR 1, was launched on December 12, 1961 four years after the launch of world's first satellite, Sputnik I. The beginning of this project was humble; the satellite had to be built in a specific shape and weight, so it could be used in place of one of the weights necessary for balancing the payload in the rocket stage. OSCAR 1 was the first satellite to be ejected as a secondary payload and subsequently enter a separate orbit; the satellite carried the orbit decayed quickly. Despite being in orbit for only 22 days, OSCAR 1 was an immediate success with over 570 amateur radio operators in 28 countries forwarding observations to Project OSCAR.
Most of the components for OSCAR 10 were "off the shelf" and tested by group members. Jan King led the project. Solar cells were bought in batches of 10 or 20 from Radio Shack and tested for efficiency by group members; the most efficient cells were kept for the project, the rest were returned to RadioShack. Once ready, OSCAR 10 was mounted aboard a private plane and flown on a couple of occasions to evaluate its performance and reliability. Special QSL cards were issued to those. Once it was found to be operative and reliable, the satellite was shipped to Kennedy Space Center where it was mounted in the third stage of the launch vehicle. Height: 1.35 m Width: 2.0 m Weight: 140 kg, 90 kg. Other programs besides OSCAR have included Iskra circa 1982, JAS-1 in 1986, RS, CubeSats.. The first amateur satellites contained telemetry beacons. Since 1965, most OSCARs carry a linear transponder for two-way communications in real time; some satellites have a bulletin board for store-and-forward digital communications, or a digipeater for direct packet radio connections.
Amateur satellites have been launched into low Earth orbits and into elliptical orbits. Amateur-satellites support many different types of operation including FM voice, SSB voice, as well as digital communications of AX.25 FSK and PSK-31. Uplink and downlink designations use sets of paired letters following the structure X/Y where X is the uplink band and Y is the downlink band; the downlink letter is rendered in lower case. With a few exceptions, the letters correspond to IEEE's standard for radar frequency letter bands... Prior to the launch of OSCAR 40, operating modes were designated using single letters to indicate both uplink and downlink bands. While deprecated, these older mode designations are still used in casual conversation. Mode A: 2 m uplink / 10 m downlink Mode B: 70 cm uplink / 2 m downlink Mode J: 2 m uplink / 70 cm downlink Due to the high orbital speed of the amateur-satellites, the uplink and downlink frequencies will vary during the course of a satellite pass; this phenomenon is known as the Doppler effect.
While the satellite is moving towards the ground station, the downlink frequency will appear to be higher than normal. Hence, the receiver frequency at the ground station must be adjusted higher' to continue receiving the satellite; the satellite in turn, will be receiving the uplink signal at a higher frequency than normal so the ground station's transmitted uplink frequency must be lower to be received by the satellite. After the satellite passes overhead and begins to move away, this process is reversed; the downlink frequency will appear lower and the uplink frequency will need to be adjusted higher. The following mathematical formulas relate the doppler shift to the velocity of the satellite. Due to the complexity of finding the relative velocity of the satellite and the speed with which these corrections must be made, these calculations are accomplished using satellite tracking software. Many modern transceivers include a computer interface that allows for automatic doppler effect correction.
Manual frequency-shift correction is possible, but it is difficult to remain near the frequency. Frequency modulation is more tolerant of doppler shifts than single-si
Plymouth Voyager is a nameplate for a range of vans that were marketed by the Plymouth division of Chrysler. From 1974 to 1983, the Voyager was a full-size van, sold as the counterpart of Dodge Sportsman. For 1984, the Voyager became. Following the closure of the Plymouth division in 2000, the Voyager was marketed under the Chrysler brand, where it was sold through 2003. From 1988 to 2016, Chrysler used the Chrysler Voyager name for export-market minivans; when including the Plymouth Voyager and Dodge Caravan with their rebadged Chrysler and Volkswagen variants, the Chrysler minivans collectively rank as the 13th best-selling automotive model line worldwide. The Plymouth Voyager minivan was assembled by Chrysler at its Windsor Assembly facility; the full-size Plymouth Voyager van was assembled at the now-closed Pillette Road Truck Assembly facility. From 1974 to 1983, the Plymouth Voyager was the Plymouth counterpart of the Dodge Sportsman; the first truck marketed by Plymouth since 1942, the Voyager was introduced alongside the 1975 Plymouth Trail Duster.
As with the Sportsman, the Voyager was produced with 12-15 passenger seating. Similar to Canadian Fargo vans, Plymouth badged the Voyager with "Plymouth" lettering centered in the grille instead of Dodge lettering on the hood. In 1978, the lettering was moved to the hood. Located on the driver side, the Plymouth lettering was centered for 1979, as the grille was enlarged and restyled. For 1979 and 1980, the Plymouth Voyager and Dodge Royal Sportsman were indistinguishable. In contrast to its Dodge counterpart, the Plymouth Voyager was equipped with a V8 engine as standard equipment. However, the Voyager was only offered with the 360 V8s. Lee Iacocca and Hal Sperlich had conceived their idea for a modern minivan during their earlier tenure at Ford Motor Company. Henry Ford II had rejected Iaccoca's and Sperlich's idea of a minivan in 1974 rumored to carry the name "Maxivan". Iaccoca followed Sperlich to Chrysler Corporation, together they created the T115 minivan — a prototype, to become the Caravan and Voyager, known colloquially as the "Magic-wagons".
The Chrysler minivans launched a few months ahead of the Renault Espace, making them the first of their kind — creating the modern minivan segment in the US. In 1984, Chrysler marketed the rebadged Plymouth variant of its new minivan as the Voyager, using the Chrysler's S platform, derived from the K-platform; the Voyager shared components with the K-cars including portions of the interior, e.g. the Reliant's instrument cluster and dashboard controls, along with the K-platform front-wheel drive layout and low floor, giving the Voyager a car-like ease of entry. The Voyager was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1985. For 1987, the Voyager received minor cosmetic updates as well as the May 1987 introduction of the Grand Voyager, built on a longer wheelbase adding more cargo room, it was available only with LE trim. First-generation Voyager minivans were offered in three trim levels: an unnamed base model, mid-grade SE, high-end LE, the latter bearing simulated woodgrain paneling. A sportier LX model was added in 1989, sharing much of its components with the Caravan ES.
Safety features included 3-point seat belts for the front two passengers and lap belts for rear passengers. Standard on all Voyagers were mandated side-impact reinforcements for all seating front and rear outboard positions. Safety features such as airbags or ABS were not available. Notably, the Voyager, along with the Dodge Caravan, are considered to be the first mass produced vehicles to have dedicated built in cup holders. Original commercials for the 1984 Voyager featured magician Doug Henning as a spokesperson to promote the Voyager "Magic Wagon's" versatility, cargo space, low step-in height, passenger volume, maneuverability. Commercials in 1989 featured rock singer Tina Turner. Canadian commercials in 1990 featured pop singer Celine Dion. 1984-1986 Voyagers could be equipped for five, seven passengers, with an eight-passenger variant available only in 1985. Five-passenger seating, standard on all trim levels, consisted of two front bucket seats and an intermediate three-passenger bench seat.
In 1985, on base and SE models, the front buckets could be replaced by a 40/60 split three-passenger bench seat, bringing the total number of occupants to six. Seven-passenger seating was an option on SEs and LEs, with dual front buckets, an intermediate two-passenger bench, a rear three-passenger bench. Eight-passenger seating was available on SE models only, with both the additional middle two-passenger bench and three-passenger front bench. Depending on configuration, the base model could seat up to six, the SE could seat up to eight, the LE could seat up to seven; the two bench seats in the rear were independently remova
The Kawasaki Z1300 is a muscle bike with a water-cooled 1,300 cc straight-six engine, manufactured by Kawasaki between 1979 and 1989. Referring to the Z1300 as an Autobahn stormer, when reviewing their'Machine of the Year' competition results in 1979 after readers had voted for the Triumph Bonneville as the winner, UK weekly newspaper Motor Cycle News stated "Kawasaki, with their Z1300 — a superb example of technology by anyone's standards — have gone overboard in many people's minds", adding that the Honda CBX, Suzuki GS1000, Yamaha XS1100 and Z1300 were "hyperbikes"; the Z1300 had six cylinders, water cooling, shaft drive, The undersquare stroke of 71 mm and bore of 62 mm kept the engine width acceptable, but the high piston speed limited the maximum rpm figure. During its ten-year production run, fuelling was switched from carburetors to electronic fuel injection and suspension was upgraded to air systems front and rear. Fuel injection system was adopted to improve fuel consumption, but as a bonus were increased power and torque.
Although its straight-six engine was smooth, the motorcycle was heavy and thirsty, the Z1300 sold poorly in Europe. One amateur reviewer on a modern website criticised the handling, stating it "wallowed and bucked", the engine covered only 30 miles per UK gallon; when released, its output in excess of 120 hp prompted France to introduce a 100 hp limit on new motorcycles. However, no other EU country followed suit, France is set to abolish the 100 bhp limit in 2016; the Kawasaki Z1300 was manufactured in several versions, namely: Z1300, KZ1300, ZG1300 and ZN1300. It is the biggest model of the still-ongoing Z series, started in 1972 with the Z1. In the U. S. the model was equipped with a windshield, a redesigned frame. This new model was called "Voyager". In Europe, the traditional model was still available; the last 200 models, built in 1989, have been called "Legendary Six", were equipped with a special logo on the fuel tank to show that to the public. After a ten-year production run, Kawasaki's only liquid-cooled six-cylinder engine motorcycle was discontinued in 1989 after 20,000 KZ1300/Z1300 models and 4,500 Voyager models had been produced.
Cycle World tested the 1979 KZ1300's 0 to 1⁄4 mile time at 11.93 seconds at 114.79 mph and 0 to 60 mph time at 4.01 seconds. In 1982, Swiss specialty car manufacturer Sbarro constructed a mid-engined sports car with hatchback bodywork called the Sbarro Super Twelve; the Super Twelve had an inline twelve-cylinder engine. The two engines were not a unit, as such, they were connected only by belt; each engine drove its own rear wheel. The car produced 240 bhp. Performance was described as "ferocious". Only one was built. In 2008, noted British engineer and motorcycle customizer Allen Millyard built a one-off 2300 cc version of the Z1300 by joining two Z1300 engines together in a V-12 configuration. Kawasaki Z series