Etruscan architecture was created between about 700 BC and 200 BC, when the expanding civilization of ancient Rome finally absorbed Etruscan civilization. The Etruscans were considerable builders in stone and other materials of temples, houses and city walls, as well as bridges, from about 630 BC, Etruscan architecture was heavily influenced by Greek architecture, which was itself developing through the same period. In turn it influenced Roman architecture, which in its early centuries can be considered as just a variation of Etruscan architecture. But increasingly, from about 200 BC, the Romans looked directly to Greece for their styling, apart from the podia of temples and some house foundations, only the walls and rock-cut tombs were mainly in stone, and have therefore often largely survived. Usually, only the podium or base platform used stone, with the parts of wood and mud-brick. However, there is evidence for the portico columns sometimes using stone and this has left much about Etruscan temples uncertain.
The only written account of significance on their architecture is by Vitruvius, many aspects of his description fit what archaeologists can demonstrate, but others do not. It is in any case clear that Etruscan temples could take a number of forms, nonetheless Vitruvius remains the inevitable starting point for a description, and a contrast of Etruscan temples with their Greek and Roman equivalents. There are a few temples in pottery, and depictions on tombs or vases. Vitruvius specifies three doors and three cellae, one for each of the main Etruscan deities, but archaeological remains do not suggest this was normal, though it is found. Roman sources were in the habit of ascribing to the Etruscans a taste for triads in things such as city planning, the orientation of the temple is not consistent, and may have been determined by a priest watching the flight of birds at the time of foundation. The exteriors of both Greek and Roman temples were highly decorated and colourful, especially in the entablature and roofs.
When wood was used for columns, the bases and capitals were often encased in painted terracotta, the Apollo of Veii was part of an acroterion group. The groups from Luni and Talamone are among the most impressive, the podia are usually higher, and can only be entered at a section of the front, just presenting a blank platform wall elsewhere. There may only be columns at the front portico, in Etruscan temples, more than Roman ones, the portico is deep, often representing, as Vitruvius recommends, half of the area under the roof, with multiple rows of columns. Fluted Tuscan/Doric columns can be found, against Greek and Roman conventions, Etruscan architecture shared with Ancient Egyptian architecture the use of large cavetto mouldings as a cornice, though not on the same massive scale. The cavetto took the place of the Greek cymatium in many temples, often painted with vertical tongue patterns and its first version was traditionally dedicated in 509 BC, but in 83 BC it was destroyed by fire, and the rebuilt Greek-style temple completed in 69 BC.
But for the building they were summoned from Greece
Tages was a founding prophet of Etruscan religion who is known from reports by Latin authors of the late Roman Republic and Roman Empire. He revealed a cosmic view of divinity and correct methods of ascertaining divine will concerning events of public interest, divination was undertaken in Roman society by priestly officials called haruspices. Political officials also, such as the augures, were constituted with some responsibilities for divination, while the religion flourished, these priests accompanied public officials, including generals in the field, and were consulted on everything of interest to the senate and people of Rome. The religious texts recording the revelations of Tages were called by the Romans the Etrusca Disciplina at least as early as the late republic and they were written in the Etruscan language, despite their Latin titles. The last author claiming to have elements of the disciplina is the sixth-century John the Lydian. Thus, knowledge of Tages comes mainly from what is said about him by the classical authors, as the Etruscan alphabet had no G, Tages is most likely to be a Latinization of an Etruscan word.
The reverse of a third-century BC bronze mirror from Tuscania depicts a youthful haruspex in a conical hat examining a liver, a second, older haruspex with a beard listens and is labeled avl tarchunus. Massimo Pallottino made the generally accepted suggestion that the first name is to be segmented pava Tarchies and means the child, Tarchies. The second name is the son of Tarchon, where Tarchon is the king of Tarquinia, location of Tages revelation. According to legend, Tages appeared at plow-time and taught Etruscans divination and he is either the grandson of Jove, or he was born directly from a freshly plowed lot. Tages, as it is recorded in the works of the Etrurians, possessed the visage of a child, but the prudence of a sage. When the ploughman was surprised at seeing him, and in his astonishment made an outcry, a number of people assembled around him. Tages discoursed in the presence of an crowd, who noted his speech. We received this record from them and this record is preserved in their sacred books, and from it the augurial discipline is deduced.
In Ovids version, Tyrrhenus arator observed a clod turn into a man and begin to speak of things destined to happen, ovid, as a poet primarily interested in telling a good story, would have the less historically credible view. Joannes Laurentius Lydus lived in the sixth century AD, although the last classical-period writer to have read the books, he is the most specific about his sources. He implies that he read the texts of the Etruscans, that is, the Etrusca Disciplina, including the report of the haruspex, tarchons work on Tages, he says, is a dialogue in which Tarchon asks Tages questions in the ordinary language of the Italians. This is presumably Vulgar Latin, as Lydus cannot mean any early Italic dialect, Tages recorded response is in ancient letters, presumably in the Etruscan language
Founding of Rome
The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, the twins who were suckled by a she-wolf. The national epic of mythical Rome, the Aeneid of Virgil, the Aeneid was written under Augustus, who claimed ancestry through Julius Caesar from the hero and his mother Venus. This started a series of armed conflicts with Turnus over the marriage of Lavinia, before the arrival of Aeneas, Turnus was betrothed to Lavinia, who married Aeneas, starting the war. Aeneas won the war and killed Turnus, the Trojans won the right to stay and to assimilate with the local peoples. Toward the end of line, King Procas was the father of Numitor. At Procas death, Numitor became king of Alba Longa, but Amulius captured him and sent him to prison, for many years, Amulius was the king. The tortuous nature of the chronology is indicated by Rhea Silvias ordination among the Vestals, the myth of Aeneas was of Greek origin and had to be reconciled with the Italian myth of Romulus and Remus, who would have been born around 771 BC if taken as historical figures.
They were purported to be sons of Rhea Silvia and either Mars and they were abandoned at birth, in the manner of many mythological heroes, because of a prophecy that they would overthrow their great-uncle Amulius, who had overthrown Silvias father Numitor. They were abandoned on the Tiber River by servants who took pity on the infants, the twins were nurtured by a she-wolf until a shepherd named Faustulus found the boys and took them as his sons. Faustulus and his wife Acca Larentia raised the children, when Remus and Romulus became adults, they killed Amulius and restored Numitor. They decided to establish a city, they quarreled, Rome began with a fratricide, a story that was taken to represent the citys history of internecine political strife and bloodshed. The ancient Romans were certain of the day Rome was founded, April 21, even the official Fasti Capitolini offers its own date,752 BC. Recent discoveries by Andrea Carandini on Romes Palatine Hill have yielded evidence of a series of walls on the north slope that can be dated to the middle of the 8th century BC.
According to the legend, Romulus plowed a furrow around the hill in order to mark the boundary of his new city, there is no consensus on the etymology of the citys name. Jean-Jacques Rousseau suggested Greek ῥώμη, meaning strength, vigor, a modern theory of etymology holds that the name of the city is of Etruscan origin, derived from rumon, river. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from about 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attests to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron age, in any case, the location that became the city of Rome was inhabited by Latin settlers from various regions and pastoralists, as evidenced by differences in pottery and burial techniques
Pliny the Elder
In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions. Pliny is referring to the fact that Tacitus relied on his uncles now missing work on the History of the German Wars. The wind caused by the sixth and largest pyroclastic surge of the eruption would not allow his ship to leave the shore, and Pliny probably died during this event. Plinys dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD79 and a statement of his nephew that he died in his 56th year, Pliny was the son of an equestrian, Gaius Plinius Celer, and his wife, Marcella. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names and their ultimate source is a fragmentary inscription found in a field in Verona and recorded by the 16th century Augustinian monk Onofrio Panvinio at Verona. The reading of the inscription depends on the reconstruction, but in all cases the names come through, whether he was an augur and whether she was named Grania Marcella are less certain. Jean Hardouin presents a statement from a source that he claims was ancient, that Pliny was from Verona.
Hardouin cites the conterraneity of Catullus, additional efforts to connect Celer and Marcella with other gentes are highly speculative. Hardouin is the scholar to use his unknown source. He kept statues of his ancestors there, a statue of Pliny on the facade of the Duomo of Como celebrates him as a native son. He had a sister, who married into the Caecilii and was the mother of his nephew, Pliny the Younger, whose letters describe his work and study regimen in detail. In one of his letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger details how his uncles breakfasts would be light and simple following the customs of our forefathers. This shows that Pliny the Younger wanted it to be conveyed that Pliny the Elder was a good Roman and this statement would have pleased Tacitus. Two inscriptions identifying the hometown of Pliny the Younger as Como take precedence over the Verona theory, one commemorates the youngers career as imperial magistrate and details his considerable charitable and municipal expenses on behalf of the people of Como.
Another identifies his father Lucius village as Fecchio near Como and it is likely therefore that Plinia was a local girl and Pliny the Elder, her brother, was from Como. Gaius was a member of the Plinii gens and he did not take his fathers cognomen, but assumed his own, Secundus. As his adopted son took the same cognomen, Pliny founded a branch, no earlier instances of the Plinii are known. In 59 BC, only about 82 years before Plinys birth, Julius Caesar founded Novum Comum as a colonia to secure the region against the Alpine tribes, whom he had been unable to defeat
Apollo of Veii
The Apollo of Veii is an over-life-size painted terracotta Etruscan statue of Apollo, designed to be placed at the highest part of a temple. The statue was discovered in the Portonaccio sanctuary of ancient Veii and it was created in the so-called international Ionic or late-archaic Etruscan style. It was discovered in 1916, and is now on display in the National Etruscan Museum in Rome, the statue was probably made by Vulca, the only Etruscan artist whose name is known. The statue is dressed in a tunic and short cloak, advancing towards the left with the right arm outstretched, together with other statues, it decorated the roof beams of the Portonaccio temple, a sanctuary dedicated to Minerva. Placed on high plinths, this series of statues were acroterial and they stood some twelve metres above the ground level and even though they were created separately, they narrated events from Greek mythology that were at least in part tied to the god Apollo. This statue, together with the statue of Heracles, formed a group representing one of the labours of the hero before his apotheosis made him one of the divinities of Olympus.
The myth narrates the contention between the god and the hero for the possession of the doe with the golden horns, there was probably a statue of Mercury united to this group, of which only the head and a part of the body remain. With these accomplishments, the creator of the statues can be identified as the “Artist from Veio. Antefix Etruscan civilization Ornament List of classical architecture terms Spivey, Nigel
Tanaquil was the wife of Tarquinius Priscus, fifth king of Rome. She had four children, two daughters and two sons, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and last king of Rome, and Arruns Tarquinius, one of the daughters became the wife to Servius Tullius, when he became the successor of Tarquinius Priscus. Knowing this, Tanaquil encouraged him to move to Rome, which was not at the time dominated by a local aristocracy. Her strong prophetic abilities helped her to install Tarquin as king, while on the road to Rome, an eagle flew off with Tarquins hat and returned it to his head. Tanaquil interpreted this as a sign that the gods wanted him to become a king, tanaquils prophecy was eventually realized for Tarquin - he eventually became friends with King Ancus Marcius, who made Tarquin guardian of his children. When the king died before his children were old enough to become successors to the throne and he ruled from 616 to 579 BCE. Tanaquil played a role in the rise of Servius Tullius, raising him as her own child, Tanaquil believed Servius would be the next successor to the throne.
Her dreams would be realized when, one day Servius was sleeping, the fires danced around his head without hurting him and when Servius awoke, the fire disappeared. Taking this as an omen, Tanaquil knew Servius would one day be king, when Tarquin was murdered, Tanaquil hid his death from her subjects, instead telling them that Tarquin appointed Servius as a temporary king until he got better. After gaining the respect and commanding the kingship, Servius. Tanaquil had a daughter, who married Servius Tullius, and two sons, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and Arruns Tarquinius, who would marry Tullia, the daughter of Servius Tullius. According to Festus, she changed her name to Gaia Cirillo when she arrived at Rome, under this name she is the mythical source of various Roman wedding customs. She was remembered as an artisan in the art of working with wool. Queen Gaia was so admired by the Romans of her day that it was a public decree that any new bride entering their royal palace would announce their name as Gaia when asked.
This was said to be an omen of future frugality for these women, Pliny says that a statue was dedicated to her as Gaia Caecilia in the temple of Semo Sancus. Stemma Tarquiniorum Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories VIII.74.194 Livy, Ab urbe condita I.34,39,41 Cassius Dio, Roman History, retrieved May 9,2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Raia, Ann R. and Sebesta, Judith Lynn, Roman History, vol.1 Loeb Classical Library edition,1914. Who was who in the Roman World, biographical dictionary of ancient Greek and Roman women, notable women from Sappho to Helena
Lars Porsena was an Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome. He ruled over the city of Clusium, there are no established dates for his rule, but Roman sources often place the war at around 508 BC. Lars Porsena came into conflict with Rome after the revolution that overthrew the monarchy there in 509 BC, resulting in the exile of the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. The deposed monarch, whose family was of Etruscan origin and failed to retake the throne a number of times before appealing to Porsena for assistance, at that time Clusium was said to be a very powerful Etruscan city. At this point, the histories diverge, other accounts, suggest that Lars Porsena actually succeeded in subduing the city, and that the Etruscans were only driven out some time afterwards. None of the accounts, suggests that Tarquinius Superbus was returned to the throne, thus, if Lars Porsena did indeed capture Rome, he may have done so with the intent of controlling it himself, not restoring the former dynasty.
Accounts of the war include a number of matters directly concerning Porsena, one story tells that, during his siege of Rome, a Roman youth named Gaius Mucius sneaked into the Etruscan camp with the approval of the Senate, intent on assassinating Porsena. However, when Mucius came into the presence, he could not distinguish Porsena from his secretary. Through misrecognition Mucius stabbed the secretary and tried to flee and he was immediately captured by the Etruscans and brought before Porsena, whereupon Mucius bluntly declared his identity and his intent. He advised Porsena that he was merely the first of 300 Roman youths who would attempt such a deed, to prove his valour, Mucius thrust his right hand into a sacrificial fire, thereby earning for himself and his descendants the cognomen Scaevola. Astonished and impressed by the mans courage, Porsena gave Mucius his freedom. According to Livy, Porsena sought peace by treaty immediately afterward, another tale of the war concerns the Roman hostages taken by Porsena as part of the treaty.
One of the hostages, a woman named Cloelia, fled the Etruscan camp. Porsena demanded that she be returned, and the Romans consented, on her return, Porsena was so impressed by her bravery that he asked her to choose half the remaining hostages to be freed. She selected all the youngest Roman boys, afterwards the Romans gave Cloelia the unusual honour of a statue at the top of the Via Sacra, showing Cloelia mounted on a horse—that is, as an eques. Livy concludes most likely it is because, when Porsena departed Rome, in 507 BC, Porsena once again sent ambassadors to the Roman senate, requesting the restoration of Tarquinius to the throne. Legates were sent back to Porsena, to him that the Romans would never re-admit Tarquinius. Porsena agreed, telling Tarquinius to continue his exile elsewhere than Clusium, Porsena restored to the Romans their hostages, and the lands of Veii that had been taken from Rome by treaty
Etruscan history is the written record of Etruscan civilization compiled mainly by Greek and Roman authors. Remnants of Etruscan writings are almost exclusively concerned with religion, helmut Rixs classification of the Etruscan language in a proposed Tyrsenian language family reflects this ambiguity. The Etruscan language was of a different family from that of neighbouring Italic and Celtic peoples, modern archaeologists have come to suggest that the history of the Etruscans can be traced relatively accurately, based on the examination of burial sites and writing. Etruscan expansion was focused both to the north beyond the Apennines and south into Campania, some small towns in the 6th century BC have disappeared during this time, ostensibly consumed by greater, more powerful neighbors. However, there no doubt that the political structure of the Etruscan culture was similar, albeit more aristocratic. The mining and commerce of metal, especially copper and iron, led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean sea.
Here their interests collided with those of the Greeks, especially in the 6th century BC and this led the Etruscans to ally themselves with the Carthaginians, whose interests collided with the Greeks. Around 540 BC, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean Sea, though the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of both the Etruscans and the Greeks. Etruria saw itself relegated to the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, from the first half of the 5th century BC Campanian Etruria lost its Etruscan character, and the new international political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline. In 480 BC, Etrurias ally Carthage was defeated by a coalition of Magna Graecia cities led by Syracuse, a few years later, in 474, Syracuses tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae. Etrurias influence over the cities of Latium and Campania weakened, and it was taken over by Romans, in the 4th century BC Padanian Etruria saw a Gallic invasion end its influence over the Po valley and the Adriatic coast.
BC Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities and by the beginning of the 1st century BC, the institution of kingship was general. When the last king was appointed, at Veii, the other Etruscan cities were alienated and it is presumed that Etruscan kings were military and religious leaders. In times of no emergency, the position of praetor Etruriae, as Roman inscriptions express it, was no doubt largely ceremonial, BC Tyrsenos Velsu fl. 8th century BC T. W. Potter, Roman Italy
The coins are of Greek style, but with an Etruscan flavour and have a predilection for ‘apotropaic’ images of exotic animals and monsters that drive away evil demons. The wheels with curved struts of Vulci are reminiscent of some 5th century Macedonian tribal coins and these early issues are rare and seem not to have been exported, they have no mark of value and must have had a limited circulation. They correspond to a silver unit of about 2.25 grams, probably representing the silver equivalent of a bronze as or libra. These male heads were probably followed by a more finely produced octopus/amphora silver series, struck on the ‘Chalcidian’ standard, but with exactly double the unit of value of the former. The marks of value 20,10 and 5, give a silver unit or as of about 1.13 grams, approximately one Roman scruple, and probably represent a devaluation of the bronze unit in relation to silver. Find evidence from the Ponte Gini di Orentino excavation suggests a dating for this phase in the first half of the 3rd century.
Last, but by no means least, is a spectacular series of high artistic merit probably from Volsini. The reverse running dog 5-unit coin is reminiscent of the Chiana Valley male head/dog running struck bronze of uncertain date in the 3rd century. By circa 280 BC, the Roman libra or pound weighed about 325 g and this cast coinage seems to mirror the extensive Roman series. Two large struck bronze series with Populonia and Vetulonia are close to the Roman post-semi-libral as standard that is dated by Crawford to about 215-211 BC, convegni del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici di Napoli, Contributi introduttivi allo studio della monetazione etrusca. Atti del V Convegno, Napoli 1975, Istituto italiano di numismatica, Roma,1977 Catalli, alberto Campana, CNIA published in review Panorama Numismatico Head, Barclay Vincent. Greek coinages of Southern Italy and Sicily, ISBN 0-907605-82-6 Rutter, N. K. Historia Nummorum - Italy. Sear, David R. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol.1, sara Sorda, I ripostigli di bronzo protostorici dellItalia centrale, in AA. VV.
Thompson M. Mørkholm O. Kray C. M, an Inventory of Greek Coins Hoards, New York,1973 Italo Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage. A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, hard bound in quarto format,84 pages,92 plates. ISBN 978-0-9575784-0-1 James Millingen, Considérations sur la Numismatique de lancienne Italie, francesco Carelli, Numorum Italiae veteris Tabulae CCII, ed. Cavedoni,1850. Luigi Sambon, Recherches sur les monnaies de la presquíle italique depuis leur origine jusqu´ a la bataille dActium, wilhelm Deecke, Etruskische Forschungen, Heft II. Raffaele Garrucci, Le monete dellItalia antica, theodor Mommsen, Die Geschichte des römische Münzwesen - Berlin 1860
The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome. The hill was known as Mons Saturnius, dedicated to the god Saturn. The word Capitolium first meant the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus built here, Ancient sources refer the name to caput and the tale was that, when laying the foundations for the temple, the head of a man was found. Some sources even saying it was the head of some Tolus or Olus, the Capitolium was regarded by the Romans as indestructible, and was adopted as a symbol of eternity. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Capitolino in Italian, influenced by Roman architecture and Roman republican times, the word Capitolium still lives in the English word capitol. The Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. is widely assumed to be named after the Capitoline Hill, at this hill, the Sabines, creeping to the Citadel, were let in by the Roman maiden Tarpeia. For this treachery, Tarpeia was the first to be punished by being flung from a cliff overlooking the Roman Forum.
This cliff was named the Tarpeian Rock after the Vestal Virgin. The Sabines, who immigrated to Rome following the Rape of the Sabine Women, the Vulcanal, an 8th-century BC sacred precinct, occupied much of the eastern lower slopes of the Capitoline, at the head of what would become the Roman Forum. The summit was the site of a temple for the Capitoline Triad, started by Romes fifth king, Tarquinius Priscus and it was considered one of the largest and the most beautiful temples in the city. The city legend starts with the recovery of a human skull when foundation trenches were being dug for the Temple of Jupiter at Tarquins order, recent excavations on the Capitoline uncovered an early cemetery under the Temple of Jupiter. There are several important temples built on Capitoline hill, the temple of Juno Moneta, the temple of Virtus, the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus is the most important of the temples. It was built in 509 BC and was nearly as large as the Parthenon, the hill and the temple of Jupiter became the symbols of Rome, the capital of the world.
The Temple of Saturn was built at the foot of Capitoline Hill in the end of the Forum Romanum. According to legend Marcus Manlius Capitolinus was alerted to the Gallic attack by the geese of Juno. Vespasians brother and nephew were besieged in the temple during the Year of Four Emperors, the Tabularium, located underground beneath the piazza and hilltop, occupies a building of the same name built in the 1st century BC to hold Roman records of state. The Tabularium looks out from the rear onto the Roman Forum, the main attraction of the Tabularium, besides the structure itself, is the Temple of Veiovis. During the lengthy period of ancient Rome, the Capitoline Hill was the geographical and ceremonial center, however, by the Renaissance, the former center was an untidy conglomeration of dilapidated buildings and the site of executions of criminals
Very little is known of Tolumnius outside of his involvement in Roman legend. His family was part of the Veientine aristocracy, and its nomen is found on a number of inscriptions from votive offerings. Tolumius enters history when the Roman colony of Fidenae revolted against the Republic in 438 BC, the Romans sent four envoys to Fidenae to demand an explanation, but they were murdered by the Fidenates, apparently on the kings orders. Which the Fidenates interpreted as an order to put the Romans to death, Livy is skeptical of this tradition, disbelieving that Tolumnius would have allowed himself to become so easily distracted on an occasion of such importance. Rather, he suggests, Tolumnius intended the execution of the emissaries to involve the Fidenates in a deed that would make it impossible for them to repair the breach with Rome. Marshaling his troops, the dictator fortified a position at the confluence of the Anio and the Tiber and he sent a contingent of Veientes through the hills to attack the Romans from the rear, and the battle commenced.
The fighting was fierce, and made especially noteworthy by the actions of the Roman and Etruscan cavalry, the outcome of the battle was in doubt until Aulus Cornelius Cossus, one of the military tribunes serving in the cavalry, charged at the king and unhorsed him. Before Tolumnius could rise, Cossus dismounted and forced the king to the ground with his shield, with the kings death, the Etruscan cavalry abandoned the field, and the battle was decided. Meanwhile, four statues were erected on the rostra in the forum, bernard Mineo, A Companion to Livy, Wiley, ISBN 978-1-118-33897-1, pp.322 ff, accessed 15 Sept.2014. Gabriël C. L. M. Bakkum, The Latin Dialect of the Ager Faliscus,150 Years of Scholarship, Amsterdam University Press, ISBN 978-90-5629-562-2, pp.38 ff. mainlesson. com search. eb. com
Veii was, in ancient times, an important Etruscan city 16 km north-northwest of Rome, Italy. It now lies in Isola Farnese, in the comune of Rome, many other sites associated with and in the city-state of Veii are in Formello, immediately to the north. Formello is named after the channels that were first created by the Veians. Veii was the richest city of the Etruscan League and on the border of Etruria. It was alternately at war and in alliance with the Roman Republic for over 300 years and it eventually fell in the Battle of Veii to Roman general Camilluss army in 396 BC. Veii continued to be occupied after its capture by the Romans, the site of Veii is a tuff elevation of 190 hectares. The Valchetta flows a few miles eastward to join the Tiber River on the side of Labaro along the Via Flaminia. Veii might be considered to be on the bank of the Tiber. Its proximity to the Tiber and the route to the interior. The site is now an area, part of the Parco di Veio established by the regional authority of Lazio in 1997.
The largest visible monument is the temple of Apollo of 510 BC, also and tombs have been found cut into the rock. Tombs were cut into tuff. but tumuli were not, the most famous is the Grotta Campana, uncovered in 1843, a chamber tomb with the oldest known Etruscan frescoes. There are additionally long tunnels leading into the mound of the city, the walls of Veii, of which small sections remain, bordered the two intersecting streams using the streambeds as a ditch, with a wall across the plateau closing the triangle. Veii is well known for its statuary including the Apollo of Veii of 510 BC, every Etruscan stronghold was built on an elevation, and Veii was no exception. An archaeological site, Piazza dArmi, marks the location today, the settlement and the growth of the city by conurbation can be traced by demographic analysis of the cemeteries and settlements on and around the plateau. The earliest evidence of dates from the 10th century BC in the Late Bronze Age. Small settlements were scattered over an area than the plateau.
In the 9th century BC, the Early Iron Age, the finds are localized to the plateau but appear to be associated with independent settlements, each with its own cemetery