Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and an aero engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the "best car in the world"; the First World War brought them into manufacturing aero engines. Joint development of jet engines began in 1940 and they entered production. Rolls-Royce has built an enduring reputation for development and manufacture of engines for defence and civil aircraft. In the late 1960s Rolls-Royce became hopelessly crippled by its mismanagement of development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs, though it proved a great success. In 1971 the owners were obliged to liquidate their business; the useful portions were bought by a new government-owned company named Rolls-Royce Limited which continued the core business but sold the holdings in British Aircraft Corporation immediately and transferred ownership of the profitable but now financially insignificant car division to Rolls-Royce Motors Holdings Limited.
This it sold to Vickers in 1980. Rolls-Royce obtained consent to drop 1971 from its name in 1977; the Rolls-Royce business remained nationalised until 1987 when, renaming the owner Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold it to the public. Rolls-Royce plc still owns and operates Rolls-Royce's principal business though since 2003 it is technically a subsidiary of listed holding company Rolls-Royce Holdings plc. A marketing survey in 1987 showed that only Coca-Cola was a more known brand than Rolls-Royce. In 1884 Henry Royce started an mechanical business, he made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904. Henry Royce was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Manchester on 4 May of that year. Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C. S. Rolls & Co. in Fulham. In spite of his preference for three- or four-cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, in a subsequent agreement on 23 December 1904 agreed to take all the cars Royce could make. There would be four models: a 10 hp, two-cylinder model selling at £395, a 15 hp three-cylinder at £500, a 20 hp four-cylinder at £650, a 30 hp six-cylinder model priced at £890,All would be badged as Rolls-Royces, be sold by Rolls.
The first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904. Rolls-Royce Limited was formed on 15 March 1906, by which time it was apparent that new premises were required for production of cars. After considering sites in Manchester, Coventry and Leicester, it was an offer from Derby's council of cheap electricity that resulted in the decision to acquire a 12.7 acres site on the southern edge of that city. The new factory was designed by Royce, production began in early 1908, with a formal opening on 9 July 1908 by Sir John Montagu; the investment in the new company required further capital to be raised, on 6 December 1906 £100,000 of new shares were offered to the public. In 1907, Rolls-Royce bought out C. S. Rolls & Co. During 1906 Royce had been developing an improved six-cylinder model with more power than the Rolls-Royce 30 hp. Designated the 40/50 hp, this was Rolls-Royce's first all-new model. In March 1908 Claude Johnson, Commercial Managing Director and sometimes described as the hyphen in Rolls-Royce, succeeded in persuading Royce and the other directors that Rolls-Royce should concentrate on the new model, all the earlier models were duly discontinued.
Johnson had an early example named, as if it were a yacht, Silver Ghost. Unofficially the press and public picked up and used Silver Ghost for all the 40/50 cars made until the introduction of the 40/50 Phantom in 1925; the new 40/50 was responsible for Rolls-Royce's early reputation with over 6,000 built. Its chassis was used as a basis for the first British armoured car used in both world wars. Aero-engine manufacture began in 1914. Rolls-Royce's Eagle, the first example was made in 1915, was the first engine to make a non-stop trans-Atlantic crossing by aeroplane when in June 1919 two Eagles powered the converted Vickers Vimy bomber on the transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown. In 1921 Rolls-Royce opened a new factory in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States where a further 1,701 "Springfield Ghosts" were built; this factory operated for 10 years, closing in 1931. It was located at the former American Wire Wheel factory on Hendee Street, with the administration offices at 54 Waltham Ave.
Springfield was the earlier location for the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, the location where the first American gasoline-powered vehicle was built. Their first chassis was completed in 1921. Bodies were supplied by Rolls-Royce Custom Coachwork and by Brewster & Co. in Long Island City, New York. After the First World War, Rolls-Royce avoided attempts to encourage British car manufacturers to merge. Faced with falling sales of the 40/50 Silver Ghost in short-lived but deep postwar slumps Rolls-Royce introduced the smaller, cheaper Twenty in 1922 ending the one-model policy followed since 1908; the new 40/50 hp Phantom replaced the Silver Ghost in 1925. The Phantom III introduced in 1936 was the last large pre-war model. A limited production of Phantoms for heads of state recommenced in 1950 and continued until the Phantom VI ended production in the late 1980s. In 1931 Rolls-Royce acquired
Karrier was a British marque of motorised municipal appliances and light commercial vehicles and trolley buses manufactured at Karrier Works, West Yorkshire, by Clayton and Co. Huddersfield, Limited, they began making Karrier motor vehicles in 1908 in Huddersfield. In 1920, H. F. Clayton sold Clayton and Co's Huddersfield business into public listed company Karrier Motors while keeping their Penistone operation separate and mechanical and electrical engineers Clayton & Co Penistone remains active in 2018. Karrier produced buses as well as their other municipal vehicles and in latter years during the Second World War, notably their Karrier'W' model. In 1934 Karrier became part of the Rootes Group where it retained its brand identity though the business was operated as part of Rootes' Commer commercial vehicle operation; the Karrier name began to disappear from products when Chrysler bought Rootes in 1967. It was dropped in the early 1970s. Herbert Fitzroy Clayton, a prosperous chemicals manufacturer or drysalter and dyer, incorporated in December 1904 a company, Clayton & Co Huddersfield Limited, to own the engineering business he had carried on independently since 1899 when he had left his Dixon Clayton & Co partnership.
In 1908, joined by his second son, Reginald Fitzroy Clayton MIAE, Clayton & Co began designing and making Karrier petrol driven motor vehicles and charabancs which became their main business. In 1920, keeping Clayton & Co Penistone separate and retaining control of this new company, Clayton & Co Huddersfield was sold to a newly incorporated public listed company which they named Karrier Motors Limited. At this time the products had been: Karrier motor lorries vans and wagons and motor charabancs Fog signalling machines and detonators, Clayton Certainty Railway Fog Signal, which remained with Clayton & Co Penistone Patents for and to manufacture the Karrier Combined Motor Roadsweeper and Refuse Collector providing sanitary street cleansing in an economical mannerKarrier Motors Limited Karrier experienced financial difficulties and suffered substantial losses in the late 1920s. A plan to amalgamate T. S. Motors Limited with Karrier agreed in August 1932 was dropped a month without explanation.
The following August 1933 Karrier tardily announced that under difficult trading conditions they had made a substantial loss during that 1932 calendar year. At the beginning of June 1934 Karrier was put into receivership though it was announced that business would continue while "negotiations" were completed, it was bought by Rootes. Rootes Securities, through its partly-owned subsidiaries, acquired Karrier in August 1934 when employee numbers had fallen to 700. Rootes closed the Huddersfield operation and moved production to Commer's Luton works but trolley-bus manufacture was moved to Moorfield Works, Wolverhampton where the same Karrier designs were to be built alongside Sunbeam Commercial Vehicles' trolley-buses. Tilling Stevens would join the Rootes Group in 1950. Dodge Dodge Brothers a leading builder of light trucks in USA, in 1922 began to bring knocked-down kits for assembly in Park Royal, London. Dodge Brothers became a Chrysler subsidiary in 1928 and truck production moved to Chrysler's car plant at Kew.
Dodges built there were known as "Dodge Kews" and the American model cars built beside them, "Chrysler Kews". During the Second World War this Chrysler factory was part of London Aircraft Production Group and built Handley Page Halifax aircraft assemblies. Dodge truck production was merged with Commer and Karrier at Dunstable in 1965; the Public Record Office is now on the site of the Chrysler plant. Chrysler Kew vehicles of the 1930s By 1970, the Rootes Group had been taken over by Chrysler Europe, with support from the British Government, desperate to support the ailing British motor industry; the Dodge brand began to take precedence on all commercial models. The last vestige of Karrier was in the Dodge 50 Series, which began life badged as a Dodge but with a Karrier Motor Company VIN plate. Peugeot and Renault Chrysler withdrew from UK operations, selling the business to Peugeot; the new owner had little interest in heavy trucks and the factory was run in conjunction with Renault Véhicules Industriels.
The combined company used the name Karrier Motors Ltd. The Karrier trademark is still in the possession of Peugeot, it is not uncommon for vehicle marques to be reinstated. Colt In 1929, Karrier started production of the "Colt" three-wheeler as a dustcart chassis for Huddersfield Corporation. In 1930, this was developed into the "Cob" tractor to haul road trailers for the London and Scottish Railway. In 1933, Scammell produced their own, Napier designed, Scammell Mechanical Horse. In the mid-1930s, the "Cob" range was supplemented by the four-wheel "Bantam". CobDescribed by newspapers, quoting Karrier, in 1930 as a "mechanical horse" the small "Cob" tractor was designed by J Shearman, road motor engineer for London and Scottish Railway, its small wheels let it turn in confined spaces and manoeuvre more in traffic. The front wheels are lifted from the ground when the tractor is attached and it was classed as an articulated vehicle, it was capable of pulling a three-ton load at 18 mph and capable of restarting on a gradient of one in eight.
Production tractors powered by Jowett engines were displayed on the Karrier stand at Olympia's
BMW AG is a German multinational company which produces automobiles and motorcycles, produced aircraft engines until 1945. The company is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW produces motor vehicles in Germany, China, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced; the Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float. Automobiles are marketed under the brands Mini and Rolls-Royce. Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad; the company has significant motorsport history in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT. BMW's origins can be traced back to three separate German companies: Rapp Motorenwerke, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, Automobilwerk Eisenach; the history of the name itself begins with an aircraft engine manufacturer. In April 1917, following the departure of the founder Karl Friedrich Rapp, the company was renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke.
BMW's first product was the BMW IIIa aircraft engine. The IIIa engine was known for high-altitude performance; the resulting orders for IIIa engines from the German military caused rapid expansion for BMW. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. To remain in business, BMW produced farm household items and railway brakes. In 1922, former major shareholder Camillo Castiglioni purchased the rights to the name BMW, which led to the company descended from Rapp Motorenwerke being renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG. Castiglioni was an investor in another aircraft company, called "Bayerische Flugzeugwerke", which he renamed BMW; the disused factory of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was re-opened to produce engines for buses, farm equipment and pumps, under the brand name BMW. BMW's corporate history considers the founding date of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to be the birth of the company; as the restrictions of the Armistice Treaty began to be lifted, BMW began production of motorcycles in 1923, with the R32 model.
BMW's production of automobiles began in 1928, when the company purchased the Automobilwerk Eisenach car company. Automobilwerk Eisenach's current model was the Dixi 3/15, a licensed copy of the Austin 7 which had begun production in 1927. Following the takeover, the Dixi 3/15 became BMW's first production car. In 1932, the BMW 3/20 became the first BMW automobile designed by BMW, it was powered by a four-cylinder engine. BMW's first automotive straight-six engine was released in 1933, in the BMW 303. Throughout the 1930s, BMW expanded its model range to include sedans, coupes and sports cars. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe; the factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the Dachau concentration camp. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered “emergency fighter”, the Heinkel He 162 Spatz.
The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing. The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h; the first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm’s light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design; the BMW 003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
During World War II, many BMW production facilities had been bombed. BMW's facilities in East Germany were seized by the Soviet Union and the remaining facilities were banned by the Allies from producing motorcycles or automobiles. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles. In 1947, BMW was granted permission to resume motorcycle production and its first post-war motorcycle - the R24 - was released in 1948. BMW was still barred from producing automobiles, the Bristol Aeroplane Company was producing cars in England based on BMW's pre-war models, using plans that BAC had taken from BMW's German offices. Production of automobiles resumed with the BMW 501 large sedan. Throughout the 1950s, BMW expanded their model range with sedans, coupes and sports cars. In 1954, the BMW 502 was BMW's first to use a V8 engine. To provide an affordable model, BMW began production of the Isetta
A drive shaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load, they must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, while avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia. To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts incorporate one or more universal joints, jaw couplings, or rag joints, sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint; the term drive shaft first appeared during the mid 19th century. In Stover's 1861 patent reissue for a planing and matching machine, the term is used to refer to the belt-driven shaft by which the machine is driven.
The term is not used in his original patent. Another early use of the term occurs in the 1861 patent reissue for the Watkins and Bryson horse-drawn mowing machine. Here, the term refers to the shaft transmitting power from the machine's wheels to the gear train that works the cutting mechanism. In the 1890s, the term began to be used in a manner closer to the modern sense. In 1891, for example, Battles referred to the shaft between the transmission and driving trucks of his Climax locomotive as the drive shaft, Stillman referred to the shaft linking the crankshaft to the rear axle of his shaft-driven bicycle as a drive shaft. In 1899, Bukey used the term to describe the shaft transmitting power from the wheel to the driven machinery by a universal joint in his Horse-Power. In the same year, Clark described his Marine Velocipede using the term to refer to the gear-driven shaft transmitting power through a universal joint to the propeller shaft. Crompton used the term to refer to the shaft between the transmission of his steam-powered Motor Vehicle of 1903 and the driven axle.
The pioneering automobile industry company, was the first to use a drive shaft in a gasoline-powered car. Built in 1901, today this vehicle is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. An automobile may use a longitudinal shaft to deliver power from an engine/transmission to the other end of the vehicle before it goes to the wheels. A pair of short drive shafts is used to send power from a central differential, transmission, or transaxle to the wheels. In front-engined, rear-drive vehicles, a longer drive shaft is required to send power the length of the vehicle. Two forms dominate: The torque tube with a single universal joint and the more common Hotchkiss drive with two or more joints; this system became known as Système Panhard after the automobile company Panhard et Levassor patented it. Most of these vehicles have a clutch and gearbox mounted directly on the engine, with a drive shaft leading to a final drive in the rear axle; when the vehicle is stationary, the drive shaft does not rotate.
Some vehicles, seeking improved weight balance between rear, use a rear-mounted transaxle. In some non-Porsche models, this places the clutch and transmission at the rear of the car and the drive shaft between them and the engine. In this case the drive shaft rotates continuously with the engine when the car is stationary and out of gear. However, the Porsche 924/944/928 models have the clutch mounted to the back of the engine in a bell housing and the drive shaft from the clutch output, located inside of a hollow protective torque tube, transfers power to the rear mounted transaxle, thus the Porsche driveshaft only rotates when the rear wheels are turning as the engine-mounted clutch can decouple engine crankshaft rotation from the driveshaft. So for Porsche, when the driver is using the clutch while briskly shifting up or down, the engine can rev with the driver's accelerator pedal input, since with the clutch disengaged, the engine and flywheel inertia is low and is not burdened with the added rotational inertia of the driveshaft.
The Porsche torque tube is solidly fastened to both the engine's bell housing and to the transaxle case, fixing the length and alignment between the bell housing and the transaxle and minimizing rear wheel drive reaction torque from twisting the transaxle in any plane. A drive shaft connecting a rear differential to a rear wheel may be called a half-shaft; the name derives from the fact. Early automobiles used chain drive or belt drive mechanisms rather than a drive shaft; some used electrical motors to transmit power to the wheels. In British English, the term "drive shaft" is restricted to a transverse shaft that transmits power to the wheels the front wheels. A drive shaft connecting the gearbox to a rear differential is called a propeller shaft, or prop-shaft. A prop-shaft assembly consists of a slip joint and one or more universal joints. Where the engine and axles are separated from each other, as on four-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive vehicles, it is the propeller shaft that serves to transmit the drive force generated by the engine to the axles.
Several different types of drive shaft are used in the automotive industry: One-piece drive shaft Two-piece drive shaft Slip-in-tube drive shaftThe slip-in-tube drive shaft is a new type that improves crash safety. It can be compressed to absorb energy in the event of a crash, so is known as a collapsible drive shaft
Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition; the urbanisation and development of the town coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Bolton was a 19th-century boomtown, at its zenith in 1929 its 216 cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world; the British cotton industry declined after the First World War, by the 1980s cotton manufacture had ceased in Bolton. Close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton is 10 miles northwest of Manchester, it is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the administrative centre. The town of Bolton has a population of 139,403, whilst the wider metropolitan borough has a population of 262,400.
Part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, as a result was stormed by 3,000 Royalist troops led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine in 1644. In what became known as the Bolton Massacre, 1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Bolton Wanderers football club play home games at the University of Bolton Stadium and the WBA World light-welterweight champion Amir Khan was born in the town. Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850. Bolton is a common Northern English name derived from the Old English bothl-tun, meaning a settlement with a dwelling; the first recorded use of the name, in the form Boelton, dates from 1185 to describe Bolton le Moors, though this may not be in relation to a dwelling.
It was recorded as Bothelton in 1212, Botelton in 1257, Boulton in 1288, Bolton after 1307. Forms of Botheltun were Bodeltown, Botheltun-le-Moors, Boltune, Bolton-super-Moras, Bolton-in-ye-Moors, Bolton-le-Moors; the town's motto of Supera Moras means "overcome difficulties", is a pun on the Bolton-super-Moras version of the name meaning "Bolton on the moors". The name itself is referred to in the badge of the Bolton Metropolitan Borough Council using a form of visual pun, a rebus, in combining motifs of arrow for'bolt' and heraldic crown for'tun', the term for the central high point of a defensive position, the etymon of the suffix of Bolton. There is evidence of human existence on the moors around Bolton since the early part of the Bronze Age, including a stone circle on Cheetham Close above Egerton, Bronze Age burial mounds on Winter Hill. A Bronze Age mound was excavated in Victorian times outside Haulgh Hall; the Romans built roads from Manchester to Ribchester to the east and a road along what is now the A6 to the west.
It is claimed. Evidence of a Saxon settlement exists in the form of religious objects found when the Victorian parish church was built. In 1067 Great Bolton was the property of Roger de Meresheys, it became the property of the Pilkingtons who forfeited it in the Civil War and after that the Stanleys who became Earls of Derby. Great Bolton and Little Bolton were part of the Marsey fee, in 1212 Little Bolton was held by Roger de Bolton as plough-land, by the service of the twelfth part of a knight's fee to Randle de Marsey; the parish church in Bolton has an early foundation. A charter to hold a market in Churchgate was granted on 14 December 1251 by King Henry III of England. Bolton became a market town and borough by a charter from the Earl of Derby, William de Ferrers, on 14 January 1253, a market was held until the 18th century. Burgage plots were laid out on Churchgate and Deansgate in the centre of the medieval town close to where Ye Olde Man & Scythe public house, dating from 1251, is situated today.
In 1337 Flemish weavers introduced the manufacture of woollen cloth. More Flemish weavers, fleeing the Huguenot persecutions, settled here in the 17th century; the second wave of settlers wove fustian, a rough cloth made of cotton. Digging sea coal was recorded in 1374. There was an outbreak of the plague in the town in 1623. During the English Civil War, the people of Bolton were Puritans and supported the Parliamentarian cause. A parliamentary garrison in the town was attacked twice without success but on 28 May 1644 Prince Rupert's Royalist army with troops under the command of the Earl of Derby attacked again; the attack became known as the Bolton Massacre in which 1,500 died, 700 were taken prisoner and the town plundered. The attackers took to referring to the town as the "Geneva of the North", referencing Geneva's dominant Calvinism, although historian Malcolm Hardman says this was a description borne "more of irritation than accuracy". At the end of the Civil War, Lord Derby was condemned to death.
When his appeal for pardon to parliament was rejected he attempted to escape but was recaptured and executed for his part in the massacre outside Ye Olde Man & Scythe Inn on 15 October 1651. A tradition of cottage spinning and weaving and improvements to spinning technology by local inventors, Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton, led to rapid growth of the textile industry in the 19t
Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger, their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982, it has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand. The company is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Headquarters and main production site are in Gaydon, England, alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martin's recent cars was named after the 1950s Avro Vulcan bomber. Aston Martin has announced plans to turn itself into a global luxury brand, is branching out into projects including speed boats, bicycles and real estate development submarines and aircraft on a licensing basis.
Aston Martin had a troubled history after the third quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success and stability. "In the first century we went bankrupt seven times", incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe. "The second century is about making sure, not the case." Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, the pair decided to make their own vehicles; the first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta Fraschini. They acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of the first World War, Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford joined the Army Service Corps.
After the war they found new premises at Abingdon Road and designed a new car. Bamford left in 1920 and Bamford & Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16-valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record breaking: chassis number 1914 developed as the Green Pea. 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations. Bamford & Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Bamford & Martin got into financial difficulty again in 1925 and Martin was forced to sell the company; that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business. They renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead-cam four-cylinder engine using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, which they had tested in an Enfield-Allday chassis.
The only "Renwick and Bertelli" motor car made, it was known as "Buzzbox" and still survives. The pair had planned to sell their engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that Aston Martin was no longer in production realised they could capitalise on its reputation to jump start the production of a new car. Between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as "Bertelli cars", they included the 1½-litre "T-type", "International", "Le Mans", "MKII" and its racing derivative, the "Ulster", the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative, the "Speed Model". Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico, with a small number of long-chassis four-seater tourers and saloons produced. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers; the "LM" team cars were successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans. Financial problems reappeared in 1932.
Aston Martin was rescued for a year by Lance Prideaux Brune before passing it on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, Aston Martin decided to concentrate on road cars, producing just 700 until World War II halted work. Production shifted to aircraft components during the war. In 1947, old-established owned Huddersfield gear and machine tools manufacturer David Brown Limited bought Aston Martin putting it under control of its Tractor Group. David Brown became Aston Martin's latest saviour, he acquired without its factory Lagonda's business for its 2.6-litre W. O. Bentley-designed engine. Lagonda moved operations to Newport Pagnell and shared engines and workshops. Aston Martin began to build the classic "DB" series of cars. In April 1950, they announced planned production of their Le Mans prototype to be called the DB2, followed by the DB2/4 in 1953, the DB2/4 MkII in 1955, the DB Mark III in 1957 and the Italian-styled 3.7 L DB4 in 1958. While these models helped Aston Martin establish a good racing pedigree, the DB4 stood out and yielded the famous DB5 in 1963.
Aston stayed true to its grand touring style with the DB6, DBS (1967–1