Millennium Development Goals
The Millennium Development Goals were eight international development goals for the year 2015, established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 191 United Nations member states at that time, at least 22 international organizations, committed to help achieve the following Millennium Development Goals by 2015: To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger To achieve universal primary education To promote gender equality and empower women To reduce child mortality To improve maternal health To combat HIV/AIDS, other diseases To ensure environmental sustainability To develop a global partnership for development Each goal had specific targets, dates for achieving those targets; the 8 goals were measured by 18 targets. To accelerate progress, the G8 finance ministers agreed in June 2005 to provide enough funds to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the African Development Bank to cancel $40 to $55 billion in debt owed by members of the indebted poor countries to allow them to redirect resources to programs for improving health and education and for alleviating poverty.
Interventions evaluated include improvements required to meet the millennium development goals for water supply, meet the water MDG plus halving by 2015 the proportion of those without access to adequate sanitation, increasing access to improved water and sanitation for everyone, providing disinfection at point-of-use over and above increasing access to improved water supply and sanitation providing regulated piped water supply in house and sewage connection with partial sewerage for everyone Critics of the MDGs complained of a lack of analysis and justification behind the chosen objectives, the difficulty or lack of measurements for some goals and uneven progress, among others. Although developed countries' aid for achieving the MDGs rose during the challenge period, more than half went for debt relief and much of the remainder going towards natural disaster relief and military aid, rather than further development; as of 2013, progress towards the goals was uneven. Some countries achieved many goals.
A UN conference in September 2010 reviewed progress to date and adopted a global plan to achieve the eight goals by their target date. New commitments targeted women's and children's health, new initiatives in the worldwide battle against poverty and disease. Among the non-governmental organizations assisting were the United Nations Millennium Campaign, the Millennium Promise Alliance, Inc. the Global Poverty Project, the Micah Challenge, The Youth in Action EU Programme, "Cartoons in Action" video project and the 8 Visions of Hope global art project. The Sustainable Development Goals replaced the MDGs in 2016. Preparations for the 2000 Millennium Summit launched with the report of the Secretary-General entitled, "We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the Twenty-First Century". Additional input was prepared by the Millennium Forum, which brought together representatives of over 1,000 non-governmental and civil society organizations from more than 100 countries; the Forum met in May to conclude a two-year consultation process covering issues such as poverty eradication, environmental protection, human rights and protection of the vulnerable.
MDGs derive from earlier development targets, where world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration. The approval of the Millennium Declaration was the main outcome of the Millennium Summit; the MDGs originated from the United Nations Millennium Declaration. The Declaration asserted; the MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration. The Brahimi Report provided the basis of the goals in the area of security; the Millennium Summit Declaration was, only part of the origins of the MDGs. More ideas came from Adam Figueroa, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. A series of UN‑led conferences in the 1990s focused on issues such as children, human rights and women; the OECD criticized major donors for reducing their levels of Official Development Assistance. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan signed a report titled, We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century, which.
The OECD had formed its International Development Goals. The two efforts were combined for the World Bank's 2001 meeting to form the MDGs; the MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital and human rights, with the intent of increasing living standards. Human capital objectives include nutrition and education. Infrastructure objectives include access to safe drinking water and modern information/communication technology. Human rights objectives include empowering women, reducing violence, increasing political voice, ensuring equal access to public services and increasing security of property rights; the goals were intended to increase an individual’s human capabilities and "advance the means to a produc
Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, perception, problem solving and thinking". Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines such as Cognitive Science and of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology and economics. Philosophically, ruminations of the human mind and its processes have been around since the times of the ancient Greeks. In 387 BCE, Plato is known to have suggested. In 1637, René Descartes posited that humans are born with innate ideas, forwarded the idea of mind-body dualism, which would come to be known as substance dualism. From that time, major debates ensued through the 19th century regarding whether human thought was experiential, or included innate knowledge; some of those involved in this debate included George Berkeley and John Locke on the side of empiricism, Immanuel Kant on the side of nativism.
With the philosophical debate continuing, the mid to late 19th century was a critical time in the development of psychology as a scientific discipline. Two discoveries that would play substantial roles in cognitive psychology were Paul Broca's discovery of the area of the brain responsible for language production, Carl Wernicke's discovery of an area thought to be responsible for comprehension of language. Both areas were subsequently formally named for their founders and disruptions of an individual's language production or comprehension due to trauma or malformation in these areas have come to be known as Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia. From the 1920s to the 1950s, the main approach to psychology was behaviorism, its adherents viewed mental events such as thoughts, ideas and consciousness as unobservables, hence outside the realm of a science of psychology. One pioneer of cognitive psychology, who worked outside the boundaries of behaviorism was Jean Piaget. From 1926 to the 1950s and into the 1980s, he studied the thoughts and intelligence of children and adults.
In the mid-20th century, three main influences arose that would inspire and shape cognitive psychology as a formal school of thought: With the development of new warfare technology during WWII, the need for a greater understanding of human performance came to prominence. Problems such as how to best train soldiers to use new technology and how to deal with matters of attention while under duress became areas of need for military personnel. Behaviorism provided little if any insight into these matters and it was the work of Donald Broadbent, integrating concepts from human performance research and the developed information theory, that forged the way in this area. Developments in computer science would lead to parallels being drawn between human thought and the computational functionality of computers, opening new areas of psychological thought. Allen Newell and Herbert Simon spent years developing the concept of artificial intelligence and worked with cognitive psychologists regarding the implications of AI.
This encouraged a conceptualization of mental functions patterned on the way that computers handled such things as memory storage and retrieval, it opened an important doorway for cognitivism. Noam Chomsky's 1959 critique of behaviorism, empiricism more initiated what would come to be known as the "cognitive revolution". Inside psychology, in criticism of behaviorism, J. S. Bruner, J. J. Goodnow & G. A. Austin wrote "a study of thinking" in 1956. In 1960, G. A. Miller, E. Galanter and K. Pribram wrote their famous "Plans and the Structure of Behavior"; the same year and Miller founded the Harvard Center for Cognitive Studies, which institutionalized the revolution and launched the field of cognitive science. Formal recognition of the field involved the establishment of research institutions such as George Mandler's Center for Human Information Processing in 1964. Mandler described the origins of cognitive psychology in a 2002 article in the Journal of the History of the Behavioral SciencesUlric Neisser put the term "cognitive psychology" into common use through his book Cognitive Psychology, published in 1967.
Neisser's definition of "cognition" illustrates the then-progressive concept of cognitive processes: The term "cognition" refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, elaborated, stored and used. It is concerned with these processes when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations.... Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might do, but although cognitive psychology is concerned with all human activity rather than some fraction of it, the concern is from a particular point of view. Other viewpoints are legitimate and necessary. Dynamic psychology, which begins with motives rather than with sensory input, is a case in point. Instead of asking how a man's actions and experiences result from what he saw, remembered, or believed, the dynamic psychologist asks how they follow from the subject's goals, needs, or instincts; the main focus of cognitive psychologists is on the mental processes.
Those processes include, but are not limited to, the following: The psychological definition of attention is "a state of focused awareness on a subset of the available perceptual
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment. Natural hazard events can be classified into two broad categories: biological. Geophysical hazards encompass geological and meteorological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, cyclonic storms, droughts and landslides. Biological hazards can refer to a diverse array of disease, infection and invasive species. Many geophysical hazards are related. Floods and wildfires can result from a combination of geological and climatic factors, it is possible. An example of the distinction between a natural hazard and a natural disaster is that the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was a disaster, whereas living on a fault line is a hazard; some natural hazards can be affected by anthropogenic processes. An avalanche occurs. An avalanche is an example of a gravity current consisting of granular material. In an avalanche, lots of material or mixtures of different types of material fall or slide under the force of gravity.
Avalanches are classified by the size or severity of consequences resulting from the event. An earthquake is the sudden release of energy stored as lithospheric stress that radiates seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes may manifest with a displacement of the ground. Most of the world's earthquakes take place in the 40,000-km-long, horseshoe-shaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most part bounds the Pacific Plate. Many earthquakes happen each day. Coastal erosion is a physical process by which shorelines in coastal areas around the world shift and change in response to waves and currents that can be influenced by tides and storm surge. Coastal erosion can result from long-term processes as well as from episodic events such as tropical cyclones or other severe storm events. A lahar is a type of natural event related to a volcanic eruption, involves a large amount of material originating from an eruption of a glaciated volcano, including mud from the melted ice and ash sliding down the side of the volcano at a rapid pace.
These flows can destroy entire towns in seconds and kill thousands of people, form flood basalt. This is based on natural events. A landslide is a mass displacement of sediment down a slope, it can be caused by pressure pulling natural objects down a declining hill. A sinkhole is a localized depression in the surface topography caused by the collapse of a subterranean structure such as a cave. Although rare, large sinkholes that develop in populated areas can lead to the collapse of buildings and other structures. A volcanic eruption is the point in which a volcano is active and releases its power, the eruptions come in many forms, they range from daily small eruptions which occur in places like Kilauea in Hawaii, to megacolossal eruptions from supervolcanoes like Lake Taupo and Yellowstone Caldera. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, 70 to 75 thousand years ago, a supervolcanic event at Lake Toba reduced the human population to 10,000 or 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution.
Some eruptions form pyroclastic flows, which are high-temperature clouds of ash and steam that can travel down mountainsides at speed exceeding an airliner. A blizzard is a severe winter storm with icy and windy conditions characterized by low temperature, strong wind and heavy snow. A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. Scientists warn that global warming and climate change may result in more extensive droughts in coming years; these extensive droughts are to occur within the African continent due to its low precipitation levels and high temperatures. A hailstorm is a natural hazard where a thunderstorm produces numerous hailstones which damage the location in which they fall. Hailstorms can be devastating to farm fields, ruining crops and damaging equipment. A heat wave is a hazard characterized by heat, considered extreme and unusual in the area in which it occurs.
Heat waves are rare and require specific combinations of weather events to take place, may include temperature inversions, katabatic winds, or other phenomena. There is potential for longer-term events causing global warming, including stadial events, or through human-induced climatic warming. Cyclone is a large scale air mass. Hurricane, tropical cyclone, typhoon are different names for the cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans, it is caused by evaporated water that becomes a storm. The Coriolis effect causes the storms to spin.74 mph. Hurricane is used for these phenomena in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, tropical cyclone in the Indian, typhoon in the western Pacific. An ice storm is a particular weather event in which precipitation falls as ice, due to atmosphere conditions, it causes dam
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Superhero fiction is a genre of speculative fiction examining the adventures and ethics of costumed crime fighters known as superheroes, who possess superhuman powers and battle powered criminals known as supervillains. The genre falls between hard fantasy and soft science fiction spectrum of scientific realism. Superhero fiction originated from the cultural intermingling of United States literature, it is most associated with American comic books, though it has expanded into other media through adaptations and original works. A superhero is most the protagonist of superhero fiction, although some titles, such as Marvels by Kurt Busiek and Alex Ross, use superheroes as secondary characters. A superhero is a type of stock character possessing "extraordinary or superhuman powers" and dedicated to protecting the public. Since the debut of the prototypical superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes—ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas—have dominated American comic books and crossed over into other media.
The word itself dates to at least 1917. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine. "SUPER HEROES" is a trademark co-owned by Marvel Comics. By most definitions, characters do not require actual superhuman powers to be deemed superheroes, although terms such as costumed crime fighters or masked vigilantes are sometimes used to refer to those such as Batman and Green Arrow without such powers who share other common superhero traits; such characters were referred to as "mystery men" in the so-called Golden Age of Comic Books to distinguish them from characters with super-powers. Superheroes use their powers to counter day-to-day crime while combating threats against humanity by their criminal counterparts, supervillains. Long-running superheroes such as Superman, Spider-Man and Iron Man have a "rogues gallery" of such enemies. One of these supervillains might be the superhero's archenemy. Superheroes will sometimes combat other threats such as aliens, magical/fantasy entities, natural disasters, political ideologies such as Nazism or communism, godlike or demonic creatures.
A supervillain or supervillainess is a variant of the villain character type found in comic books, action movies, science fiction in various media. They are sometimes used as foils to other heroes. Whereas superheroes wield fantastic powers, the supervillain possesses commensurate powers and abilities so that he can present a daunting challenge to the hero. Without actual physical, superhuman or superalien powers, the supervillain possesses a genius intellect that allows him to draft complex schemes or create fantastic devices. Another common trait is possession of considerable resources to help further his aims. Many supervillains share some typical characteristics of real-world dictators and terrorists and have aspirations of world domination or universal leadership. Superheroes and supervillains mirror each other in their powers, abilities, or origins. In some cases, the only difference between the two is that the hero uses his extraordinary powers to help others, while the villain uses his powers for selfish, destructive or ruthless purposes.
Both superheroes and supervillains use alter egos while in action. While sometimes the character's real name is publicly known, alter egos are most used to hide the character's secret identity from their enemies and the public. With superheroes, the duality of their identities is kept a secret and guarded to protect those close to them from being harmed and to prevent them from being called upon even for problems not serious enough to require their attention; this can be a source of drama with the superhero being forced to devise means of getting out of sight to change without revealing their identity, or bearing the price of keeping such a secret. In addition, this narrative trope can allow fantasy character to be in occasional realistic stories without the fantasy element of the sub-genre appearing. With supervillains, by contrast, the duality of their identities is kept a secret and guarded to conceal their crimes from the general public, so that they may inflict greater harm on the general public, to enable them to act and hence illegally, without risk of arrest by law-enforcement authorities.
Death in superhero fiction is permanent, as characters who die are brought back to life through supernatural means or via retcons, the alteration of established facts in the continuity of a fictional work. Fans have termed the practice of bringing back dead characters "comic book death". Another common trait of superhero fiction is the killing off of a superhero's significant other by a supervillain to advance the plot. Comic book writer Gail Simone has coined the term "Women in Refrigerators" to refer to this practice. Many works of superhero fiction occur in a shared fictional universe, sometimes establishing a fictional continuity of thousands of works spread over many decades. Changes to continuity are common, ranging from small changes to established continuity called retcons, to full reboots, erasing all previous continuity, it is common for stories works of superhero fiction to contain established characters and setting while occurring outside of the main canon
Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations and private, communities and individuals". Analyzing the health of a population and the threats it faces is the basis for public health; the public can be as large as a village or an entire city. The concept of health takes into account physical and social well-being; as such, according to the World Health Organization, it is not the absence of disease or infirmity. Public health is an interdisciplinary field. For example, epidemiology and management of health services are all relevant. Other important subfields include environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, mental health, occupational safety, gender issues in health, sexual and reproductive health. Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease, including mental health.
This is done through the surveillance of cases and health indicators, through the promotion of healthy behaviors. Common public health initiatives include promotion of handwashing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, suicide prevention, distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Modern public health practice requires multidisciplinary teams of public health workers and professionals. Teams might include epidemiologists, medical assistants, public health nurses, medical microbiologists, sociologists, data managers, physicians. Depending on the need, environmental health officers or public health inspectors and veterinarians, gender experts, or sexual and reproductive health specialists might be called on. Access to health care and public health initiatives are difficult challenges in developing countries. Public health infrastructures are still forming in those countries; the focus of a public health intervention is to prevent and manage diseases and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments.
Many diseases are preventable through nonmedical methods. For example, research has shown that the simple act of handwashing with soap can prevent the spread of many contagious diseases. In other cases, treating a disease or controlling a pathogen can be vital to preventing its spread to others, either during an outbreak of infectious disease or through contamination of food or water supplies. Public health communications programs, vaccination programs and distribution of condoms are examples of common preventive public health measures. Measures such as these have contributed to the health of populations and increases in life expectancy. Public health plays an important role in disease prevention efforts in both the developing world and in developed countries through local health systems and non-governmental organizations; the World Health Organization is the international agency that coordinates and acts on global public health issues. Most countries have their own governmental public health agency called the ministry of health, with responsibility for domestic health issues.
In the United States and local health departments are on the front line of public health initiatives. In addition to their national duties, the United States Public Health Service, led by the Surgeon General of the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are involved with international health activities. In Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada is the national agency responsible for public health, emergency preparedness and response, infectious and chronic disease control and prevention; the Public health system in India is managed by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the government of India with state-owned health care facilities. Most governments recognize the importance of public health programs in reducing the incidence of disease and the effects of aging and other physical and mental health conditions. However, public health receives less government funding compared with medicine. Public health programs providing vaccinations have made strides in promoting health, including the eradication of smallpox, a disease that plagued humanity for thousands of years.
The World Health Organization identifies core functions of public health programs including: providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed. In particular, public health surveillance programs can: serve as an early warning system for impending public health emergencies. Diagnose and monitor health problems and health hazards of the communityPublic health surveillance has led to the identification and prioritization of many public health issues facing the world today, including HIV/AIDS, waterborne diseases, zoonotic diseases, antibiotic resistance leading to the reemergence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Antibiotic resistance kno