A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road, though the term is applied, in North America, to routes along rivers, and sometimes to highways. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland path or footpath is the term for a walking trail. There are unpaved trails used by dirt bikes and other off-road vehicles, in some places, like the Alps, trails are used for moving cattle and other livestock. In the US, the term was used for a route into or through wild territory used by emigrants. In Australia, the track can be used interchangeably with trail. Walkway is used similarly in St. Johns, Canada, in the United Kingdom, the term trail is in common usage. Longer distance walking routes, and government-promoted long distance paths, collectively known as National Trails, are frequently called ways, as in the Pennine Way. Generally the term footpath is preferred for pedestrian routes, including long distance trails, track is used for wider paths, often used for hiking. The terms bridleway, restricted byway are all recognised legal terms, the increased popularity of mountain biking has led to a proliferation of mountain bike trails in many countries.
Often these will be grouped to form complexes, known as trail centers. A particularly unusual use of the term is in the Canadian province of Alberta, Shared use may be achieved by sharing a trail easement, but within it maintaining segregated and sometimes separated trail treads. This is common in rail trails, Shared use may refer to alternate day arrangements, whereby two uses are segregated by being permitted on alternate days. The Trans Canada Trail can be used by hikers, cyclists, horseback riders, the network makes use of towpaths on river banks and disused railway or vicinal tramway lines. Old railway lines have been leased by the Walloon Government for 99 years using emphyteutic lease contracts, where necessary, new paths are created to link parts of the network. Thus the right to cycle exists even though it may be difficult to exercise on occasion, Cyclists using a bridleway are obliged to give way to other users on foot or horseback. The seawall in Stanley Park, Canada is popular for walking, cycling, there are two paths, one for skaters and cyclists and the other for pedestrians.
The lane for cyclists and skaters goes one-way in a counterclockwise loop, foreshoreway is a term used in Australia for a type of greenway that provides a public right-of-way along the edge of the sea open to both walkers and cyclists. A forest road is a type of access road, built mainly for the forest industry
The wolverine, Gulo gulo, referred to as the glutton, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae. It is a stocky and muscular carnivore, more resembling a small bear than other mustelids. The wolverine, an animal, has a reputation for ferocity and strength out of proportion to its size. Its population has declined since the 19th century owing to trapping, range reduction. The wolverine is now absent from the southern end of its European range. Genetic evidence suggests that the wolverine is most closely related to the tayra and martens, within the Gulo genus, a clear separation occurs between two subspecies, the Old World form Gulo gulo gulo and the New World form G. g. luscus. Some authors had described as many as four additional North American subspecies, including ones limited to Vancouver Island, the most currently accepted taxonomy recognizes either the two continental subspecies or recognize G. gulo as a single Holarctic taxon. Anatomically, the wolverine is a stocky and muscular animal, with short legs and rounded head, small eyes and short rounded ears, it more closely resembles a bear than it does other mustelids.
Though its legs are short, its large, five-toed paws with claws and plantigrade posture enable them to climb up and over steep cliffs, trees. The males are as much as 30% larger than the females, shoulder height is reported from 30 to 45 cm. Wolverines have thick, oily fur which is highly hydrophobic and this has led to its traditional popularity among hunters and trappers as a lining in jackets and parkas in Arctic conditions. A light-silvery facial mask is distinct in some individuals, and a buff stripe runs laterally from the shoulders along the side. Some individuals display prominent white patches on their throats or chests. Like many other mustelids, it has potent anal scent glands used for marking territory, the pungent odor has given rise to the nicknames skunk bear and nasty cat. Wolverines, like other mustelids, possess a special upper molar in the back of the mouth that is rotated 90 degrees and this special characteristic allows wolverines to tear off meat from prey or carrion that has been frozen solid.
Wolverines are considered to be primarily scavengers, a majority of the wolverines sustenance is derived from carrion, on which they depend almost exclusively in winter and early spring. Wolverines may find themselves, feed on it after the predator is done feeding or simply take it from another predator. Wolverines are known to follow wolf and lynx trails, purportedly with the intent of scavenging the remains of their kills, whether eating live prey or carrion, the wolverines feeding style appears voracious, leading to the nickname of glutton
Elk Island National Park
Elk Island National Park is a national park in Canada that played an important part in the conservation of the American bison. The park is administered by the Parks Canada Agency and this “island of conservation” is located 35 km east of Edmonton, Alberta along the Yellowhead Highway, which goes through the park. It is Canadas 8th smallest in area but largest fully enclosed national park, the park is representative of the northern prairies plateau ecosystem and as such, the knob and kettle landscape is a mix of native fescue grassland, aspen parkland and boreal forest. As well, Elk Island plays host to both the largest and the smallest terrestrial mammals in North America, the bison and pygmy shrew respectively. Though there was never any permanent First Nations settlement in the area, there are over 200 archaeological remains of campsites, the land has been influenced by the Blackfoot and Cree peoples. In early post-Contact history, the Beaverhills area was used for commercial hunting. This led to over-hunting and the elimination of beaver from the area by the 1830s.
The area became valuable for timber until 1894, when fire swept through the area, in 1899, the federal government designated the area the “Cooking Lake Forest Reserve”. But while the forest was protected, it did little to protect the moose, thus, in 1906, five men from Fort Saskatchewan put forward $5000 and petitioned the federal government to set up an elk sanctuary, calling it “Elk Park”. Elk Island Park was granted federal status in 1913. In 1951, a replica of a cabin was built in the park to honour the Ukrainian-Canadians who pioneered the area. This replica, known as the Ukrainian Pioneer Home, was the first museum or historic site dedicated to Ukrainian immigration in Canada. In 1993 it was declared a Classified Federal Heritage Building by the federal government, Elk Island is home to the densest population of ungulates in Canada. A variety of species including coyote, plains bison, mule deer, beaver, white-tailed deer, porcupine. Black bears and timber wolves certainly roam within park.
Over two hundred and fifty bird species that can be found in the park at times of year. Most notable among these are the red-necked grebes, American white pelicans, double-crested cormorants, great blue herons, red-tailed hawks, American bitterns and the trumpeter swans. True to its roots, Elk Island National Park still maintains a thriving elk population, estimated at 605 in 2007, as well as around 300 moose, Parks Canada transferred eighteen western moose from Elk Island to Nova Scotias Cape Breton Highlands National Park between 1947 and 1949
The peregrine falcon, known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a back, barred white underparts. As is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, the peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h during its characteristic hunting stoop, making it the fastest member of the animal kingdom. According to a National Geographic TV programme, the highest measured speed of a falcon is 389 km/h. The peregrines breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the tropics and this makes it the worlds most widespread raptor and one of the most widely found bird species. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean wandering falcon, the two species divergence is relatively recent, during the time of the last ice age, therefore the genetic differential between them is relatively small. It has been determined that they are only approximately 0. 6–0. 8% genetically differentiated, while its diet consists almost exclusively of medium-sized birds, the peregrine will occasionally hunt small mammals, small reptiles, or even insects.
Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape, normally on cliff edges or, in recent times, the peregrine falcon became an endangered species in many areas because of the widespread use of certain pesticides, especially DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the early 1970s, populations have recovered, supported by large-scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild. The peregrine falcon is a well respected falconry bird due to its hunting ability, high trainability, versatility. It is effective on most game species from small to large. The peregrine falcon has a length of 34 to 58 cm. Males weigh 330 to 1,000 g and the larger females weigh 700 to 1,500 g. In most subspecies, males less than 700 g and females weigh more than 800 g. The standard linear measurements of peregrines are, the wing chord measures 26.5 to 39 cm, the tail measures 13 to 19 cm and the tarsus measures 4.5 to 5.6 cm. The back and the long pointed wings of the adult are usually black to slate grey with indistinct darker barring.
The white to rusty underparts are barred with thin bands of dark brown or black. The tail, coloured like the back but with thin clean bars, is long and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the very end
The American marten or American pine marten is a North American member of the family Mustelidae, sometimes referred to as the pine marten. The name pine marten is derived from the common but distinct Eurasian species of Martes and it differs from the fisher in that it is smaller in size and lighter in colour. The American marten is broadly distributed in northern North America, from north to south its range extends from the northern limit of treeline in arctic Alaska and Canada to northern New Mexico. From east to west its distribution extends from Newfoundland and south west to Napa County, in Canada and Alaska, American marten distribution is vast and continuous. In the western United States, American marten distribution is limited to mountain ranges that provide preferred habitat, the American marten has been reintroduced in several areas where extinction occurred. Small groups of martens live in the Midwest in Minnesota and Wisconsin and destruction of forest habitat have reduced its numbers, but it is still much more abundant than the larger fisher.
The Newfoundland subspecies of this animal is considered to be threatened, compared to other carnivores, American marten population density is low for their body size. One review reports population densities ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 individuals/km2, population density may vary annually or seasonally. Low population densities have been associated with low abundance of prey species, home range size does not appear to be related to body size for either sex. Home range size ranged from 0.04 sq mi in Maine to 6.1 sq mi in Minnesota for males, and 0.04 sq mi in Maine to 3.0 sq mi in Wisconsin for females. Males generally exhibit larger home ranges than females, which some authors suggest is due to more specific requirements of females that limit their ability to shift home range. However, unusually large home ranges were observed for 4 females in two studies and females in northeastern California appeared to have approximately equal home range size. Home ranges are indicated by scent-marking, American marten male pelts often show signs of scarring on the head and shoulders, suggesting intrasexual aggression that may be related to home range maintenance.
Home range overlap is minimal or nonexistent between adult males but may occur between males and females, adult males and juveniles, and between females. Several authors have reported that home range boundaries appear to coincide with topographical or geographical features, in northeastern California and home range boundaries were influenced by cover and other American marten. In south-central Alaska, home range boundaries included creeks and a major river, in an area burned 8 years previously in interior Alaska, home range boundaries coincided with transition areas between riparian and nonriparian habitats. The American marten is a long, slender-bodied weasel about the size of a mink with relatively large rounded ears, short limbs, American marten have a roughly triangular head and sharp nose. Their long, silky fur ranges in color from pale buff to tawny brown to almost black
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
The golden eagle is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle, like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. These birds are brown, with lighter golden-brown plumage on their napes. Immature eagles of this typically have white on the tail. Golden eagles use their agility and speed combined with powerful feet and massive, Golden eagles maintain home ranges or territories that may be as large as 200 km2. They build large nests in high places to which they may return for several breeding years, most breeding activities take place in the spring, they are monogamous and may remain together for several years or possibly for life. Females lay up to four eggs, and incubate them for six weeks, one or two young survive to fledge in about three months. These juvenile golden eagles usually attain full independence in the fall, once widespread across the Holarctic, it has disappeared from many areas which are now more heavily populated by humans.
It is the largest and least populous of the five species of true accipitrid to occur as a species in both the Palearctic and the Nearctic. Due to its prowess, the golden eagle is regarded with great mystic reverence in some ancient. The golden eagle is one of the most extensively studied species of raptor in the world in some parts of its range, such as the Western United States and the Western Palearctic. The golden eagle is a large, dark brown raptor with broad wings, ranging from 66 to 102 cm in length. This species wingspan is the fifth largest amongst extant eagle species, in the largest race males and females weigh typically 4.05 kg and 6.35 kg. In the smallest subspecies, A. c. japonica, males weigh 2.5 kg, in the species overall, males may average around 3.6 kg and females around 5.1 kg. The maximum size of species is a matter of some debate. Large races are the heaviest representatives of the Aquila genus and this species is on average the seventh-heaviest living eagle species, the golden eagle ranks as the second heaviest breeding eagle in North America and Africa but the fourth heaviest in Asia.
For some time, the largest known mass authenticated for a female was the specimen from the nominate race which weighed around 6.7 kg. No comprehensive range of weights are known for the largest subspecies, captive birds have been measured up to a wingspan of 2.81 m and a mass of 12.1 kg, respectively
The muskrat is found in wetlands over a wide range of climates and habitats. It has important effects on the ecology of wetlands, and is a resource of food, the muskrat is the largest species in the subfamily Arvicolinae, which includes 142 other species of rodents, mostly voles and lemmings. Muskrats are referred to as rats in a sense because they are medium-sized rodents with an adaptable lifestyle. They are not, members of the genus Rattus, the muskrats name probably comes from a word of Algonquian origin, muscascus, or from the Abenaki native word mòskwas, as seen in the archaic English name for the animal, musquash. Similarly, its specific name zibethicus means ‘musky’, being the adjective of zibethus ‘civet musk, the genus name comes from the Huron word for the animal and entered New Latin as Ondatra via French. An adult muskrat is about 40–70 cm long, half of that is the tail, Muskrats are much smaller than beavers, with which they often share their habitat. Muskrats are covered with short, thick fur which is medium to dark brown or black in color, with the belly a bit lighter, as the age increases, the fur has two layers, which helps protect them from the cold water.
They have long tails covered with rather than hair, and to aid them in swimming, are slightly flattened vertically. When they walk on land, their tails drag on the ground, Muskrats spend much of their time in the water and are well suited for their semiaquatic life. They can swim under water for 12 to 17 minutes and their bodies, like those of seals and whales, are less sensitive to the buildup of carbon dioxide than those of most other mammals. They can close off their ears to keep the water out and their hind feet are semiwebbed, although in swimming, their tails are their main means of propulsion. Muskrats are found over most of Canada and the United States and they were introduced to Europe in the beginning of the 20th century and have become an invasive species in northwestern Europe. They mostly inhabit wetlands, areas in or near saline and freshwater wetlands, rivers and they are not found in Florida, where the round-tailed muskrat, or Florida water rat, fills their niche. Their populations naturally cycle, in areas where they become abundant and they are thought to play a major role in determining the vegetation of prairie wetlands in particular.
They selectively remove preferred plant species, thereby changing the abundance of plant species in many kinds of wetlands, species commonly eaten include cattail and yellow water lily. Alligators are thought to be an important natural predator, and the absence of muskrats from Florida may in part be the result of alligator predation and they are able to live alongside streams which contain the sulfurous water that drains away from coal mines. Fish and frogs perish in such streams, yet muskrats may thrive, Muskrats benefit from human persecution of some of their predators. The muskrat is classed as a new organism under New Zealands Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996
Kootenay National Park
Kootenay National Park is located in southeastern British Columbia Canada, covering 1,406 km2 in the Canadian Rockies, and forms part of a World Heritage Site. The park ranges in elevation from 918 m at the park entrance. A strip of land 8 km wide on each side of the newly constructed 94 km, banff–Windermere Highway was set aside as a national park. While the park is open all year, the major tourist season lasts from June to September, most campgrounds are open from early May to late September, while limited winter camping is available only at the Dolly Varden campground. The park takes its name from the Kootenay River, one of the two rivers which flow through the park, the other being the Vermillion River. BC Highway 93 follows the path of rivers through the park. The parks main attractions include Radium Hot Springs, Olive Lake, Marble Canyon, Sinclair Canyon, the hot springs offer a hot springs pool ranging from 35 to 47 °C. The Paint Pots are a group of iron-rich cold mineral springs which bubble up through several small pools, the Paint Pots were a major source of the ochre paint pigment for a number of First Nations groups prior to the 20th century.
Because of the relatively small width of the park, many of the attractions are situated near the road and are wheelchair accessible. Numa Falls is a drive south of Marble Canyon and is accessible directly by Highway 93 which cuts through the park. Ten minutes north of Radium Hot Springs is Olive Lake a popular picnic area surrounded by hiking trails. Just outside the southwestern entrance is the town of Radium Hot Springs. The town is named for the hot springs located just inside the park boundary. The name originated at the turn of the 20th century when the tried to sell the hot springs as a therapeutic cure. The area around the hot springs is home to the rubber boa snake, there are many back country attractions in Kootenay National Park. Floe Lake is a lake which lies on a 10.7 km hiking trail accessible from highway 93. Kaufman Lake is a full day hiking destination. The Fay Hut is accessible from Marble Canyon, and the Neil Colgan Hut located above the Valley of the Ten Peaks is a mountaineering destination
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns, although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea, the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, although Yellowstone was not officially termed a national park in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. The first area to use national park in its legislation was the USs Mackinac Island. Australias Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac Island was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park, as a result, Australias Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence.
The largest national park in the meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park. According to the IUCN,6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006, IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are almost always open to visitors, in 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive. It was known as Hot Springs Reservation, but no authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877, John Muir is today referred to as the Father of the National Parks due to his work in Yosemite. He published two articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation. President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on July 1,1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley, according to this bill, private ownership of the land in this area was no longer possible.
The state of California was designated to manage the park for use, resort. Leases were permitted for up to ten years and the proceeds were to be used for conservation, a public discussion followed this first legislation of its kind and there was a heated debate over whether the government had the right to create parks. The perceived mismanagement of Yosemite by the Californian state was the reason why Yellowstone at its establishment six years was put under national control, in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States first national park, being the worlds first national park. In some European countries, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as Drachenfels, Yellowstone was part of a federally governed territory
This musky odor is used to attract females during mating season. Its Inuktitut name umingmak translates to the bearded one. Muskoxen primarily live in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland, with introduced populations in Sweden, Norway. As members of the subfamily Caprinae of the family Bovidae, muskoxen are more related to sheep and goats than to oxen, they are placed in their own genus. The muskox is one of the two largest extant members of Caprinae, along with the similarly sized takin, the muskoxs closest living relatives appear to be the gorals of the genus Naemorhedus, nowadays common in many countries of central and east Asia. The vague similarity between takin and muskox must therefore be considered an example of convergent evolution, the modern muskox is the last member of a line of ovibovines that first evolved in temperate regions of Asia and adapted to a cold tundra environment late in its evolutionary history. Later migration waves of Asian ungulates that included high-horned muskoxen reached Europe, Euceratherium was larger yet more lightly built than modern muskoxen, looking like a giant sheep with massive horns, and preferred hilly grasslands.
A genus with horns, inhabited Eurasia in the early Pleistocene, from Spain to Siberia. The low-horned Praeovibos was present in Europe and the Mediterranean 1.5 million years ago, colonized Alaska, Praeovibos was a highly adaptable animal that appears associated with cold tundra and temperate woodland faunas alike. It is debated, however, if Praeovibos was directly ancestral to Ovibos, modern Ovibos appeared in Germany almost one million years ago and was common in the region through the Pleistocene. By the Mindel, muskoxen had reached the British Isles, the muskox is known to have survived in Britain during warm interglacial periods. After migrating south during one of the periods of the Illinoian glaciation. The muskox was already present in its current stronghold of Banks Island 34,000 years ago, but the existence of other ice-free areas in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago at the time is disputed. Along with the bison and the pronghorn, the muskox was one of a few species of Pleistocene megafauna in North America to survive the Pleistocene/Holocene extinction event, the muskox is thought to have been able to survive the Last glacial period by finding ice-free areas away from prehistoric peoples.
Fossil DNA evidence suggests that muskoxen were not only more geographically widespread during the Pleistocene, during that time, other populations of muskoxen lived across the Arctic, from the Ural Mountains to Greenland. By contrast, the current genetic makeup of the species is more homogenous, both male and female muskoxen have long, curved horns. Muskoxen stand 1.1 to 1.5 m high at the shoulder, with females measuring 135 to 200 cm in length, the small tail, often concealed under a layer of fur, measures only 10 cm long. Adults, on average, weigh 285 kg and range from 180 to 410 kg, the thick coat and large head suggests a larger animal than the muskox truly is, the bison, to which the muskox is often compared, can weigh up to twice as much. However, heavy zoo-kept specimens have weighed up to 650 kg and their coat, a mix of black and brown, includes long guard hairs that almost reach the ground
Fundy National Park
Fundy National Park is located on the Bay of Fundy, near the village of Alma, New Brunswick. The Park showcases a rugged coastline which rises up to the Acadian Highlands, the highest tides in the world, the Park covers an area of 207 km2 along Chignecto Bay, the northwestern branch of the Bay of Fundy. When one looks across the Bay, they can see the northern Nova Scotia coast, at low tide, park visitors can explore the ocean floor where a variety of sea creatures cling to life. At high tide, the ocean floor disappears under 15 m of salt water, there are 25 hiking trails throughout the park. The Caribou Plains trail and boardwalk provides access to upland forest, Dickson Falls is the most popular trail in the park. Park amenities include a course, a heated saltwater swimming pool. During the winter, Fundy National Park is available for day use, visitors use the park to go cross-country skiing, snowshoeing and winter walking. The cross-country ski trails are groomed by the local Chignecto Ski Club, a variety of scientific projects are ongoing in the Park, with the primary focus on monitoring the parks ecology.
Recent projects have focused on re-establishing aquatic connectivity in the park (Bennett Lake Dam, new Culverts, species such as the endangered Inner Bay of Fundy Salmon and Fishers, brook trout and moose are monitored regularly. The Dobson Trail and Fundy Footpath extend out of the park to Riverview, a unique red-painted covered bridge is located at Point Wolfe. According to the Ecological Framework of Canada, the park is situated in two distinct ecoregions, the southern section of the park falls in the Fundy Coast ecoregion. This region experiences cool, wet summers and mild, rainy winters and its coniferous forest consists of red spruce, balsam fir, and red maple with some white spruce, and white and yellow birch. Some sugar maple and beech trees are found here at higher elevations. The northern section of the falls in the Southern New Brunswick Uplands ecoregion. This ecoregion experiences summers that are warm and rainy, and winters that are mild and its mixed-wood forest contains mainly sugar and red maple and red spruce and balsam fir trees.
Finally, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature the park is located in the New England-Acadian forest ecoregion, the park is home to 658 species of vascular plants,276 species of bryophytes, and more than 400 species of lichens. The Fundy forest is generally a mixed-wood forest composed of red spruce, balsam fir, yellow birch, white birch, sugar maple, the mixed-wood forest floor is blanketed with moss, wood fern, and bunchberry. Pure hardwood stands account for 5. 4% of the Fundy forest cover, the most abundant pure hardwood stands are yellow birch and white birch