Bridges in Kiev
This article deals with the bridges in Kiev over the Dnieper River and its tributaries. For the bridge-like structures elsewhere in the city, see articles on Kiev's architecture and transport. Kiev situated on the right bank of the Dnieper River, now covers both banks of the river whose width, as it flows through the city, reaches several hundred metres. Additionally, several tributaries join the Dnieper inside or just north or south of the historic city. There are eight bridges spanning across the river and a few dozen bridges across the canals and Dnieper tributaries. Due to the location and the width of the river, the bridges have always been a attractive and hard to realize option throughout the long history of Kiev. Temporary floater bridges were known to have existed since the 12th century. Stationary bridges existed in Kiev from the mid-19th century, but none of them survived the turbulent events that followed the 1917 Russian Revolution. According to the chronicles, the earliest floating bridge across the Dnieper River in the area was built in the 1115.
It was located near Vyshhorod or, according to different accounts, near the Vydubychi Monastery. Records exist about another floater in the 17th century with stationary approaches from the shores. Того же лѣта устрои мостъ чересъ Днѣпръ Such bridges could only be temporary, as the Dnieper freezes over in most winters at Kiev's latitude, ice drift each spring remain a concern for modern bridges. Additionally, the river current was strong before the Dnieper was dammed in the 20th century. Therefore, the cross-river traffic was carried by ferries for many centuries. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, Kiev was served by two stationary bridges. Both bridges had similar fates. Built at the times of the industrial revolution in the Russian Empire these engineering masterpieces of their time survived World War I and the Russian Civil War. Both were blown up in 1920 by the Polish troops retreating from Kiev following the joint Polish-Ukrainian anti-Soviet Kiev Offensive; the first stationary bridge in Kiev was built between 1848 and 1853.
This 770 m - long Nicholas Bridge was a chain suspension bridge. Being one of the largest and most beautiful bridges in Europe, it was the pride of the city until it was blown up in 1920 by the Polish troops; the damaged bridge was not subject to the restoration and in 1925 a new bridge was constructed in its place under the name Yevheniya Bosh Bridge. The second stationary bridge was built in 1868-1870 with the construction supervision conducted by Amand Struve; this over 1 kilometre long railroad truss bridge was named to its constructor, engineer Struve. Standing on 13 piers, over 1 km long, the bridge was the longest in Europe at that time. During the construction Struve first in the Russian Empire used caisson method to lay the foundation. On February 17, 1870 the first train by the Kiev-Kursk railroad company arrived through the bridge to the Kiev railroad station. To the Nicholas Bridge, the Struve Bridge survived World War I and the Civil war, but was blown up in 1920 by the retreating Polish troops.
The bridge was blown up in 1943 by the retreating forces of Nazi Germany. Rusanivsky bridge connected the Darnytsia region with the city of Kiev by the Brovary chaussée; the bridge was designed by architect V. Apishkov. In 1965 in its place was erected the Metro Bridge and the Rusanivsky Metropolitan Bridge which both are part of the Svyatoshyno-Brovary Subway Line. New bridges were built in the early Soviet years but were destroyed in the first months of the 1941 Nazi German invasion. Restored by forced labor of war prisoners and civilians during German occupation they were blown up again by Germans when they retreated from Kiev in November 1943. Within months after the Polish troops blew up the original chain bridge, that summer 1920 the Ukrainian engineer Evgeny Paton proposed the reconstruction project that would have reused the old chains to be lifted from under water. However, rusting made the metallic parts of the old bridge unusable and for the following two years Paton worked on several projects of the Nicholas bridge's restoration.
He ended up proposing to construct a new bridge but this proposal was declined by the supporters of the reusing of the old elements from underwater. The year of 1923 passed in arguing between the two proposals; the construction overseen by Paton was finished by 1925 and the completed bridge was named after the former Soviet People's Secretary of Internal Affairs and a fierce Bolshevik Yevgeniya Bosch. Following the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union, the bridge was destroyed on September 18, 1941, by retreating Soviet forces. A pontoon bridge was built on its place by forced labour under German occupation, destroyed again by German troops retreating from Kiev; the replacement Darnytskyi railroad bridge was built in the early 1920s but shared the fate of the Bosh Bridge. Destroyed in the first months of the Great Patriotic War, it was restored during German occupation by forced labor, was destroyed again by retreating German troops. During the Battle of Kiev, Red Army's attempt to catch the bridge by landing forces was unsuccessful.
The Germans blew up the bridge under the eyes of the Soviet landing force unit. The landing unit was disbanded for the operation failure. After the liberation a temporary wooden bridge was built at the location of the blown up Darnytskyi bridge by the Red Army engineers in the record thirteen-day time in the urgency to facilitate the pursuit of the German army on its retreat from Ukraine; the record short construction time
Darnytsia railway station
Darnytsia railway station is the largest Ukrainian Railways station of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, located in the city's Left-bank Darnytsia area. Built in the nineteenth century, the Darnytsia railway hub has grown into a gigantic railway center, expanding for more than 10 km along the main east-west route. Started in 2004, construction is under way at the new Darnytsia railway terminal complex; when finished, the station will serve long-distance passenger trains, house own station of the Kiev metropolitan, a two-storey car parking, an underground tunnel for automobile and tram traffic. The complex is meant to become Kiev's second long-distance terminal, easing the traffic tension in the main Kiev Passenger railway station; the Darnytsia hub comprises: several sorting yards, hump yard, commuter passenger terminal and two additional train stops and railcar depots, Darnytsia Railcar Repair Factory railcar repair company, numerous industrial sidings. On February 16, 2007, the renovated commuter train terminal of the station opened to the public.
Commuter and intra-city directions from Darnytsia: Hrebinka, central terminal, Petrivka Railway Station. Most long-distance trains pass through Darnytsia non-stop. However, the ticket boxes in the commuter terminals sell tickets for all long-distance routes in Ukraine. In 2011, Darnytsia station became the terminus for the new intracity circle rail service called "Urban Electric Train". Trains for both circle directions arrive at change heads. Kiev tram and marshrutkas are connected to Darnytsia station, but they are not up to needs for the existing commuter passenger flow; the railway station is not yet interconnected with the city's rapid transit system. The Darnytsia Metro station is situated well away, despite sharing the same name. Connection to other city transport is to be improved, including through the Kiev Metro, planned to be linked via enlargement of the Syretsko-Pecherska Line. Besides the passenger terminal, Darnytsia train station has it own locomotive and railcar depots. In addition to the east of Darnytsia railway hub is located Darnytsia Railcar Repair Factory, a major railcar repair factory of the Ukrzaliznytsia.
Darnytsia locomotive depot is repair of ChME3 locomotives. Since 2012, Ukrzaliznytsia increases the number of long-distance passenger trains that stop for Darnytsia in order to relieve the Kiev Passenger railway station and prevent some of the passenger flow from crossing the overloaded city bridgesDarnytsia Station will harbor a dedicated depot for Hyundai Rotem high-speed trains that are being launched by the Ukrzaliznytsia in 2012. Ukrzaliznytsia - the national railways company of Ukraine Darnytsia Railcar Repairing Plant Google maps - Satellite view of the Darnytsia passenger railway terminal Wikimapia Larger satellite view of the whole Darnytsia railway hub "The first passenger tunnel of the railway complex opens". 5 Kanal. August 1, 2006
The Kiev Funicular serves the city of Kiev, connecting the historic Uppertown, the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil through the steep Volodymyrska Hill overseeing the Dnieper River. The line consists of only two stations and is operated by the Kiev city community enterprise Kyivpastrans; the funicular was constructed during 1902-1905, was first opened to the public on 20 May 1905. The construction cost, about 230,000 rubles, was covered by a Belgian owner of the Kiev trams; the funicular was the project of Arthur Abrahamson, who received professional training on railroad engineering in Zürich and Saint Petersburg, Russia. The station vestibules were developed by N. Piatnitskiy, the railway structure was designed by N. Barishnikov. Due to its proximity to the St. Michael's Cathedral, it was once named the Mykhailivskyi Mekhanichnyi Pidyom. After the cathedral was destroyed by the Soviet authorities in 1935-1936, the name of the funicular was changed. In 1984 the lower station changed its outlook.
It was redeveloped by architects Janos Vig, Valentine Yezhov, others. The funicular uses passing-loop system; the two cars are designated with П which stand for left and right. The funicular was renovated three times: in 1928, 1958, 1984. Track gauge: 1,200 mm. Total track length: 238 meters; the total gradient of the slope on which the funicular runs on is 36%. The cable cars are powered by an electric motor, located inside the upper station; the travel time between the stations is 3 minutes. The route is from the Mykhailivska Square in the Uptown to the Poshtova Square in the Podil; the ticket price is much like for 8 Hryvnias. The funicular provides daily service to 10,000-15,000 passengers, annually to 2.8 million passengers. The funicular was closed on September 25, 2006 for restoration, conducted every year; the total cost of the restoration was expected to be 455,400 hryvnias. The funicular is operated by Kievpastrans. Odessa Funicular "Kiev's Funicular". Interesting Kiev. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011.
Retrieved September 17, 2006. Київський фунікулер in Wiki-Encyclopedia Kyiv Photos of Kiev Funicular
Baikove Cemetery is an historic cemetery memorial in Holosiiv Raion of Kiev, Ukraine. It is known as a necropolis of distinguished people, it was established in 1833. Among the buried, it includes Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, Lesya Ukrainka, Slava Stetsko, Viacheslav Chornovil, Oles Honchar, Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky, Olena Pchilka, Mykhailo Starytsky, Oleksandr Bilash, Ostap Vyshnya, Ivan Mykolaychuk, Volodymyr Shcherbytsky, Leonid Telyatnikov, Mikhail Vaschenko-Zakharchenko, Oleg Antonov and Valeri Lobanovsky; the cemetery was established in 1833. It has got its name from the nearby Baikovo estate; the oldest part of the cemetery is located south of the present vul. Baikova; the biggest part was established in the 1880s. It is surrounded by a wall. Besides the Orthodox graves there are Catholic and Lutheran sections. In Soviet times the Baikove cemetery became the main necropolis of the Kiev's intelligentsia and upper classes. Many of the headstones became pieces of monumental art. After the Ukrainian independence the cemetery has remained the most prestigious burial ground in the city.
There 87 National Landmarks of History. An Orthodox Church in Byzantine style was built at the cemetery in 1884–1889, it was built on the proceeds from the sale of burial places. During the Soviet times it was preserved as a memorial hall for funeral ceremonies. Today it is again used as a church. In 1975 a new crematorium in modern style was built in the western part of the cemetery. People buried at the Baikove List of cultural heritage landmarks of national significance in Kiev Ruta Malikenaite: Touring Kyiv. Guidebook, p.153–157. Entsyklopediya Kyiv Mysterious places of Kiev: Baikove Cemetery. ForUM. 28 November 2011 Habdrakhimov, D. Baikove Cemetery: so, being buried at the elite necropolis? Ukrainian National News. 12 June 2012 In Kiev hunters for metal destroyed the Baikove Cemetery. Segodnya. 8 October 2015. Malenkov, R. Baikove Necropolis. Ukraina Incognita. 2007
Transport in Kiev
Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, has an extensive and developing transportation infrastructure serving local public needs and facilitating external passenger and cargo traffic. Public transportation includes the Kiev Metro, trolleybuses, trams and a funicular; the city's first references to public transportation date back to the 1880s, when the city introduced omnibuses and was looking for investment in horse-drawn trams. The most popular means of public transport are marshrutkas; the Kiev Tramway, the oldest in Eastern Europe, was for long time being replaced by buses and trolleybuses however the trend is being reversed with the redevelopment of the Kyiv Fast Tram as well planned investments on the classic tram network. The publicly owned and operated system is a fast and affordable network covering most of the city; the metro is expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand. Kyivpastrans operates the Kiev Tramway, some city buses, all trolleybuses and the funicular but not the metro.
There are both Kyivpastrans- and operated marshrutkas. The Kiev Urban Electric Train is a joint project of Ukrzaliznytsia; the extensive Kiev River Port riverboat service along the Dnieper River with the Meteor and Raketa hydrofoil ships is no longer available, limiting Kiev's river transport to cargo and tour boats and private pleasure craft. Kiev is a crossing point for many of Ukraine's main roads; the focal point of the Ukrainian national-road system, Kiev is linked by road to many Ukraine's principal cities. The M05 and the M06 have been reconstructed. Without a grade-separated ring road, Kiev has two urban bypass routes; the Central Ring comprises a number of interconnecting, high-capacity roads encircling the city centre, with a full circular route on both banks of the Dnieper, is congested at rush hour. A Big Bypass Road has no river crossings, is confined to the city's right bank. Despite this, it reduces traffic in the city centre. Plans exist for a grade-separated ring road around Kiev known as KKAD.
As of 2011 construction had not begun, although prime minister Mykola Azarov promised that future state budgets would include funding for the ring road. Construction was planned to begin in 2012. Many Kiev roads are in bad condition, maintenance is poor. According to Kyivavtodor, 80 percent of the city's road surfaces have been in use for 15 to 30 years, 1.5 to 3 times more than the standard 12-year lifespan. All public road transport in Kiev is operated by Kyivpastrans; some passenger groups receive free service. The Kiev public-transport system uses a simple tariff system, regardless of distance traveled. Discount passes are available for students. Monthly passes, good for 60 rides, are available for combinations of public transportation: metro, bus and tram. Owned minibuses cover smaller residential streets with convenient routes. Minibuses run faster, stop on demand and have greater availability. Fares and routes of private minibuses are regulated by the city government; the taxi market in Kiev is poorly regulated and there is brisk competition among private companies.
Many allow the scheduling of a pickup by telephone. Private citizens with cars provide taxi service on an ad hoc basis by picking up people hailing a cab. Traffic congestion and a lack of parking space are problems for Kiev taxis. Regulations allow parking on sidewalks. Air passengers arrive in Kiev at one of two airports: the Boryspil Airport and the smaller Zhulyany Airport; the international passenger terminal at Boryspil was expanded in 2006, there is a separate terminal for domestic flights within walking distance. Passengers flying to other countries from Ukraine travel through Boryspil, since other airports in the country provide limited international connections; the Gostomel cargo airport is in the Kiev northwestern suburb of Hostomel. The Kiev Metro is the city’s primary mode of intracity transportation, it was the first rapid transit system in Ukraine, the third in the USSR. The system has three lines, with a total length of 66.1 kilometres, 51 stations. The metro carries an average of 1.422 million passengers daily, 38 percent of Kiev's public transport.
In 2011, the total number of trips exceeded 519 million. The metro has one of the deepest stations in the world: Arsenalna, at 105.5 m or 346 ft. The funicular climbs the Dnieper's right bank, carrying 10,000–15,000 passengers daily; the city has six cargo stations and repair facilities. Construction is underway to convert the Darnytsia Railway Station on the left bank part of the Dnieper into a long-distance passenger hub, which would ease congestion at the central station; the lack of bridges over the river restricts the development of the city’s rail system. A rail-auto bridge is under construction as a part of Darnytsia project. In 2010 Kiev Urban Electric Train service began, running at four- to ten-minute intervals throughout the day around the city centre and serving many of Kiev's inner suburbs. There are many interchanges with the Kiev Metro. Suburban Elektrichka trains are run by the publicly owned Ukrain
Ukrainian Railways is a state-owned enterprise of rail transport in Ukraine, a monopoly that controls vast majority of the railroad transportation in the country. It possesses a combined total track length of over 23,000 km, making it the 13th largest in the world. Ukrainian Railways is the world's 6th largest rail passenger transporter and world's 7th largest freight transporter. In 2015 Ukrainian Railways transformed through a merger of a state agency and a state-owned enterprise into a public joint stock company owned by state. Ukraine's State Administration of Railroad Transportation is subordinated to the Ministry of Infrastructure, administering the railways through the six territorial railway companies that control and provide of all aspects of the railroad transportation and maintenance under the common Ukrzaliznytsia brand; the general director of the administration is appointed by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The gauge is 1,520 mm; the administration employs more than 403,000 people throughout the country.
In 2008 the Ukrainian State Railways transported around 498.5 million tonnes of domestic freight and 69.8 million tonnes of international freight through Ukrainian territory. Freight transport figures were high on transport Routes 3, 5 and 9, which saw a combined total of 105 million tonnes carried in 2008. Further, Ukrzaliznytsia served around 518.8 million passengers over the course of the year. The state railways ran with an annual consolidated budget of a little more than 40 billion ₴ in 2008. By the end of 2005 the railways had produced a profit equivalent to 1.76 billion ₴ from all their operations including freight, passenger service, associated services and the operation of subsidiaries. The total capital invested in fixed assets of the State Railways is thought to be equivalent to around 22 billion ₴. However, depreciation of these fixed assets is estimated to be around 57%, or in terms of rolling stock, closer to 66.7%. The railways are split into six territorial railway companies: Donetsk, Odesa, South-Western and Near-Dnipro.
The subdivision is purely administrative as it doesn't correspond to the particular railway lines or branches. The names of regional railways are purely historic, inherited from the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires; the six separate territorial railways each have their own directorates, located in the following cities: Donetsk Railway – Lyman Lviv Railway – Lviv Odesa Railway – Odesa Southern Railway – Kharkiv Southwestern Railway – Kiev Cisdnieper Railway – Dnipro Crimea Railway The territorial railways are further divided into several territorial administrations four or five. Such division helps in assignment of commuter railway lines depending on location; the full extent of railways administrated by Ukrzaliznytsia is around 22,300 km, of which 9,752 km is electrified with the use of the overhead wire. The network is interconnected, central-dispatched and consists of 1,648 stations of all sizes spread throughout the country; the largest stations are Darnytsia -- both freight. Intermediate Sorting Freight Sectional PassengerRailway stations have five classes depending on their general performance.
Some stations may be named as railway stop, platform number, passing loop or kilometer post. The Ukrainian railway network is permanently undergoing large scale reconstruction in order to reduce operating costs inherited from the Soviet economy, to implement higher speeds of passenger services. Around 4000 track switches have been upgraded. Ukrzaliznytsia has several repair factories capable of producing railcars. In addition there is a separate Kryukiv Railcar Engineering Factory and Dnieper Railcar Engineering that produce railroad rolling stock for Ukrzaliznytsia and other companies for public transportation. In November 2010, UZ agreed to buy 10 high-speed HRCS2 multiple unit interurban trainsets from Hyundai Rotem, with the prospect of a much larger order or joint venture for local production; the first two trains would be delivered in February 2012, two more in April and another two in May, when they will start operating. They will be rated as Inter City+ and will be connecting Kiev with Kharkiv and Lviv, at a stage with Dnipro and Odesa.
In July 2011 UZ announced plans to buy 433 electric freight locomotives. Due to the 2014 Russian invasion of Ukraine Transmashholding was put on a sanctions list; because of the War in Donbass, some factories that were producing locomotives and railcars were lost, such as Luhanskteplovoz and Stakhanov Railcar Engineering. In December 2017, UZ and GE Transportation agreed a to strategic partnership for the implementation of a 7-year rolling stock renewal program including the delivery of 30 locomotives to Ukrzaliznytsia in September 2018 with 40% manufactured in Ukraine. Acting head of Ukrzaliznytsia, Yevhen Kravtsov, reported in December 2017 that his company had a whole fleet of 25,000 rail cars. Number of freight cars – 174,939 Number of passenger cars – 8,429 Number of locomotives – 2,718 Number of electric locomotives – 1,796 Number of electric multiple units – 1,443 Number of diesel multiple units – 1
The Kiev Fortress is a complex of Russian fortifications in Kiev, Ukraine built from the 17th through 19th centuries. Construction began after the 1654 Council in Pereyaslav, on the site of the existing fortified monastery of Kiev Pechersk Lavra; the Kiev Fortress once belonged to the extensive system of western Russian fortresses that existed in the Russian Empire. The Kiev Fortress complex features many separate fortifications in Pechersk, Old Kiev and Zvirynets located in various city districts of Kiev. Most of the remaining structures have received a historic designation; the main fortification associated with the Kiev Fortress is the Hospital fortification. Having lost their military importance in the 20th century, the buildings continued to be used as barracks and incarceration facilities; some of them played independent historical roles. The Kosyi Caponier became a prison for the political inmates in the 1900s–1920s and was turned into a Soviet museum. Now it is the center of the modern museum.
A small fortress built in 1872 on the legendary Lysa Hora in 1906 became a place of executions for convicted political inmates. It is now a landscape part of the museum complex. Old Pechersk fortresses Kiev Arsenal New Pechersk Fortress Citadel Hosptital fortifications Northern Semi-tower Vasylkiv fortifications separately built fortifications: 3 towers, 3 barracks, other fortifications Zvirynets fortifications Lysohirsky Fort The fortress complex consisted of about four main areas, the western side which had the hospital fortification and the Vasylkiv fortification, the northern side had the Kiev Arsenal area including government buildings and gendarme barracks, the southern side included the Kiev-Pechersk citadel with Lavra which on its southern side was reinforced with four lunettes and further to the south with Zvirynets fortification, on Trukhaniv island across Dnieper was located a brick factory. There were seven round or semi-round fortified buildings conditionally called towers. Three of those towers were part of the Vasylkiv fortification.
One semi-tower was part of the hospital fortification. Constantine Ypsilantis - served as a commandant of the Pechersk Fortress between 1807 and 1816. Within the Kiev Fortress is Kyivska Fortetsya, it is semi-underground. The museum is housed in a 19th-century building,which was a wing of the fortress. Klov Palace Official website