The Biddulph Baronetcy, of Westcombe in the County of Kent, is a title in the Baronetage of England. It was created on 2 November 1664 for Theophilus Biddulph, of Westcombe Park, Kent, Member of Parliament for the City of London and Lichfield, his son, the second Baronet represented Lichfield in the House of Commons. This line of the family failed on the death of the second Baronet's son, the third Baronet, in 1743; the late Baronet was succeeded by his first cousin once removed and namesake, the fourth Baronet. He was the son of elder son of Simon Biddulph, younger son of the first Baronet, his grandson, the sixth Baronet, fought in the Battle of Waterloo and served as High Sheriff of Warwickshire in 1849. He was succeeded by his son, the seventh Baronet, he was Justice of the Peace for Warwickshire. On the death of his son, the eighth Baronet, in 1948, the line of Edward, elder son of Simon Biddulph, younger son of the first Baronet, failed; the late Baronet was succeeded by his fourth cousin once removed, the ninth Baronet.
He was the great-great-grandson of younger son of Simon Biddulph. As of 2008 the title is held by his grandson, the eleventh Baronet, who succeeded his father in 1986; the three most recent baronets have resided in Australia. Michael Biddulph, 1st Baron Biddulph, was a descendant of Anthony Biddulph, uncle of Sir Theophilus Biddulph, 1st Baronet, of Westcombe. Sir Theophilus Biddulph, 1st Baronet Sir Michael Biddulph, 2nd Baronet Sir Theophilus Biddulph, 3rd Baronet Sir Theophilus Biddulph, 4th Baronet. Biddulph was the son of Edward Biddulph of Birdingbury Hall, Warwickshire, he was educated at University College, Oxford matriculating 26 June 1736 at age 16, inherited the baronetcy on the death of his second cousin 16 May 1743. Biddulph married Jane Biddulph, a cousin, was succeeded by his son Theophilus. Buried 26 March 1798 at Birdingbury, aged 78. Sir Theophilus Biddulph, 5th Baronet Sir Theophilus Biddulph, 6th Baronet Sir Theophilus Biddulph, 7th Baronet Sir Theophilus George Biddulph, 8th Baronet Sir Francis Henry Biddulph, 9th Baronet Sir Stuart Royden Biddulph, 10th Baronet Sir Ian D'Olier Biddulph, 11th Baronet The heir apparent to the baronetcy is Paul William Biddulph, eldest son of the 11th Baronet.
Baron Biddulph Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Lundy, Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage
Dean of Gloucester
The Dean of Gloucester is the head and chair of the chapter of canons, the ruling body of Gloucester Cathedral. The dean and chapter are based at the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity in Gloucester; the cathedral is the mother church of the Diocese of Gloucester and seat of the Bishop of Gloucester. The current dean is Stephen Lake. S:Page:Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae Vol.1 body of work.djvu/485 s:Page:Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae Vol.1 body of work.djvu/486 s:Page:Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae Vol.1 body of work.djvu/487 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=35315#s1
Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal
Karl Konstantin Albrecht Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal was a Prussian Field Marshal, chiefly remembered for his decisive intervention at the Battle of Königgrätz in 1866, his victories at Wörth and Weißenburg, above all his refusal to bombard Paris in 1870 during the siege, which he directed. Von Blumenthal was born in Schwedt, Brandenburg on 30 July 1810, the son of Captain Ludwig von Blumenthal, killed in 1813 at the Battle of Dennewitz. Brought up on his grandfather's estate at Reddentin, where his uncle Gustav von Below was founding what would become the Pentecostal movement, von Blumenthal was educated at the military schools of Culm and Berlin, he entered the Guards as 2nd lieutenant in 1827. He studied at the Berlin General War School. After serving in the Rhine Province, he joined the topographical division of the general staff in 1846; as lieutenant of the 31st foot, he took part in 1848 in the suppression of the Berlin riots, in 1849 was promoted captain on the general staff. The same year he served on the staff of General Eduard von Bonin in the First Schleswig War, so distinguished himself at Fredericia, that he was appointed chief of the staff of the Schleswig-Holstein army, when the previous chief of staff, Captain von Delius, was killed.
In 1850, von Blumenthal was general staff officer of the mobile division under Tietzen in Hesse-Kassel. He was sent on a mission to England in that year, on several subsequent occasions. Having attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he was appointed personal adjutant to Prince Frederick Charles in 1859. In 1860 he became colonel of the 31st, of the 71st, regiment, he was chief of the staff of the III Corps when, on the outbreak of the Second Schleswig War of 1864, he was nominated chief of the general staff of the army against Denmark, displayed so much ability at Dybbøl and the night attack on the island of Als, which he masterminded and which ended the war, that he was promoted major-general and given the order Pour le Mérite, only its 50th recipient. In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, von Blumenthal was chief of the general staff to the crown prince of Prussia, commanding the 2nd army, it was upon this army that the brunt of the fighting fell, its arrival at Königgrätz saved the day. Von Blumenthal's own part in these battles and in the campaign was most conspicuous.
At Königgrätz the crown prince said to him, "I know to whom I owe the conduct of my army", von Blumenthal soon received promotion to lieutenant-general and the oak-leaf of the order Pour le Mérite. He was made a knight of the Hohenzollern Order. From 1866 to 1870, he commanded the 14th division at Düsseldorf. In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, von Blumenthal was chief of staff of the 3rd army under the crown prince. Eighteen other members of his family fought in this war, including both his sons and three nephews, of whom two were killed. Von Blumenthal's soldierly qualities and talent were most conspicuous in the critical days preceding the battle of Sedan, his services in the war have been considered as scarcely less valuable and important than those of Moltke himself. Bismarck said: So far as one can see, the papers make no mention of him, although he is chief of the staff to the Crown Prince and, next after Moltke, deserves most credit for the conduct of the war.... He won the battles of Wörth and Wissembourg, after that of Sedan, as the Crown Prince was not always interfering with his plans.
He resisted calls to bombard it. He directed the operations conducted by General von der Tann around Orleans, defended the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg from interference by Moltke. In 1871, Blumenthal represented Germany at the British manoeuvres at Chobham, was given the command of the IV Corps at Magdeburg. In 1873, he became a general of infantry, ten years he was made a count. In 1888 he was made a general field marshal, after which he was in command of the 4th and 3rd army inspections, he retired in 1896, died at Quellendorf near Köthen on 21 December 1900. He was noted for his sense of humour. Like the Crown Prince and other key Prussian leaders, he had an English wife, Delicia Vyner and it was thought in conservative circles that this was the basis of a liberal Prussian clique, his least appreciated but arguably most important work was the development of the doctrine of Fire and Infiltration, the basis of Blitzkrieg. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Blumenthal, Leonhard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. Cambridge University Press. Journals of Field Marshal Count von Blumenthal for 1866 and 1870-71, edited by his son, Count Albrecht von Blumenthal, translated by Major Gillespie-Addison, published by Edward Arnold, 1903. Bismarck, Some Secret Pages of His History - the diary of Dr. Moritz Busch published by Macmillan & Co, 1898 The War Diary of Emperor Frederick III 1870-1871 translated and edited by A. R. Allinson, published by Stanley Paul & Co, 1927 Works by or about Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal at Internet Archive Journals of Field-Marshal Count von Blumenthal for 1866 and 1870-71 "Blumenthal, Leonhardt". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Lord Mayor of London
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London; this office differs from the much more powerful Mayor of London, a popularly elected position and covers the much larger Greater London area. In 2006 the Corporation of London changed its name to the City of London Corporation, when the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was reintroduced to avoid confusion with the Mayor of London. However, the legal and used title remains Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony. The Lord Mayor's Show is held on the day after taking office. One of the world's oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayor's main role nowadays is to represent and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London.
Today, these businesses are in the financial sector and the Lord Mayor is regarded as the champion of the entire UK-based financial sector regardless of ownership or location throughout the country. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority and has important ceremonial and social responsibilities. All Lord Mayors of London are apolitical; the Lord Mayor of London delivers many hundreds of speeches and addresses per year, attends many receptions and other events in London and beyond. Many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor ex-officio Rector of London's City, University of London and Admiral of the Port of London, is assisted in day-to-day administration by the Mansion House'Esquires' and whose titles include the City Marshal, Sword Bearer and Common Crier. Peter Estlin is serving as the 691st Lord Mayor, for the 2018–19 period. Of the 69 cities in the United Kingdom, the City of London is among the 30.
The Lord Mayor is entitled to the style The Right Honourable. The style, however, is used; the latter prefix applies only to Privy Counsellors. A woman who holds the office is known as a Lord Mayor; the wife of a male Lord Mayor is styled as Lady Mayoress, but no equivalent title exists for the husband of a female Lord Mayor. A female Lord Mayor or an unmarried male Lord Mayor may appoint a female consort a fellow member of the corporation, to the role of Lady Mayoress. In speech, a Lord Mayor is referred to as "My Lord Mayor", a Lady Mayoress as "My Lady Mayoress", it was once customary for Lord Mayors to be appointed knights upon taking office and baronets upon retirement, unless they held such a title. This custom was followed with a few inconsistencies from the 16th until the 19th centuries. However, from 1964 onwards, the regular creation of hereditary titles such as baronetcies was phased out, so subsequent Lord Mayors were offered knighthoods. Since 1993, Lord Mayors have not automatically received any national honour upon appointment.
Furthermore, foreign Heads of State visiting the City of London on a UK State Visit, diplomatically bestow upon the Lord Mayor one of their suitable national honours. For example, in 2001, Sir David Howard was created a Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence of Jordan by King Abdullah II. Lord Mayors have been appointed at the beginning of their term of office Knights or Dames of St John, as a mark of respect, by HM The Queen, Sovereign Head of the Order of St John; the office of Mayor was instituted in 1189, the first holder of the office being Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone. The Mayor of the City of London has been elected by the City, rather than appointed by the Sovereign since a Royal Charter providing for a Mayor was issued by King John in 1215; the title "Lord Mayor" came to be used after 1354, when it was granted to Thomas Legge by King Edward III. Lord Mayors are elected for one-year terms. Numerous individuals have served multiple terms in office, including: As Mayor: 24 terms: Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone 9 terms: Ralph de Sandwich 8 terms: Gregory de Rokesley 7 terms: Andrew Buckerel.
Sir Robert Vyner, 1st Baronet
Sir Robert Vyner, 1st Baronet, Lord Mayor of London, was born in Warwick, but migrated in early life to London, where he was apprenticed to his uncle, Sir Thomas Vyner, a goldsmith-banker, was Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1674–1675. After moving to London, Robert soon became a partner in his uncle's business, in 1666 was elected an Alderman of the City of London, he was sheriff during the year of the Great Fire of London, was chosen Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1674. Combining like his uncle the business of a banker with that of a goldsmith, who produced the jewel-studded replica of the Crown of St. Edward and the King's Orb, used for Charles II's coronation in 1661, was brought much into contact with Charles II and with the court; the king attended his mayoral banquet, the Lord Mayor erected an equestrian statue in his honour on a spot now covered by Mansion House. Sir Robert bought Swakeleys House in Ickenham, west of London from the wife of Sir James Harrington soon after Harrington had fled to France in 1660.
Following the banquet attended by Charles II, Samuel Pepys visited the house twice to borrow money on behalf of the king. Pepys recorded in his diary how Sir Robert had shown him the body of a black boy who had worked as a servant, but had died of consumption; the body had been kept in a box, which would be shown to visitors. Vyners School, a secondary school in Ickenham is named after Sir Robert. In 1659 he served as High Sheriff of Norfolk. Having been appointed the king's goldsmith in 1661, Sir Robert was one of those who lent large sums of money for the expenses of the state and the extravagances of the court, he obtained from the state an annuity of £25,000. Viner died in Windsor on 2 September 1688. Welch, Charles. "Viner, Robert". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 58. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 366–268. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Viner, Sir Robert". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. P. 97.
This work in turn cites: Viner: a Family History, published anonymously. Aylmer, G. E.. "Vyner, Sir Robert, baronet". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28318
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate