Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna." Hawaiian religion is polytheistic, with four deities most prominent: Kū, Lono and Kanaloa. Other notable deities include Laka, Haumea, Papahānaumoku, most famously, Pele. In addition, each family is considered to have one or more guardian spirits known as ʻaumakua that protected family. One breakdown of the Hawaiian pantheon consists of the following groups: the four gods – Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa the forty male gods or aspects of Kāne the four hundred gods and goddesses the great multitude of gods and goddesses the spirits the guardians Another breakdown consists of three major groups: the four gods, or akua: Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa many lesser gods, or kupua, each associated with certain professions guardian spirits, ʻaumakua, associated with particular families One Hawaiian creation myth is embodied in the Kumulipo, an epic chant linking the aliʻi, or Hawaiian royalty, to the gods.
The Kumulipo is divided into two sections: night, or pō, day, or ao, with the former corresponding to divinity and the latter corresponding to mankind. After the birth of Laʻilaʻi, the woman, Kiʻi, the man, the man succeeds at seducing and reproducing with the woman before the god Kāne has a chance, thereby making the divine lineage of the gods younger than and thus subservient to the lineage of man. This, in turn, illustrates the transition of mankind from being symbols for the gods into the keeper of these symbols in the form of idols and the like; the Kumulipo was recited during the time of Makahiki, to honor the god of Lono. The kahuna were well respected, educated individuals that made up a social hierarchy class that served the King and the Courtiers and assisted the Maka'ainana. Selected to serve many practical and governmental purposes, Kahuna were healers, builders, prophets/temple workers, philosophers, they talked with the spirits. Kahuna Kūpaʻiulu of Maui in 1867 described a counter-sorcery ritual to heal someone ill due to hoʻopiʻopiʻo, another’s evil thoughts.
He said. Prayers were said. "If the evil spirit appears and possesses the patient he or she can be saved by the conversation between the practitioner and that spirit."Pukui and others believed kahuna did not have mystical transcendent experiences as described in other religions. Although a person, possessed would go into a trance-like state, it was not an ecstatic experience but a communion with the known spirits. Kapu refers to a system of taboos designed to separate the spiritually pure from the unclean. Thought to have arrived with Pāʻao, a priest or chief from Tahiti who arrived in Hawaiʻi sometime around 1200 AD, the kapu imposed a series of restrictions on daily life. Prohibitions included: The separation of men and women during mealtimes Restrictions on the gathering and preparation of food Women separated from the community during their menses Restrictions on looking at, touching, or being in close proximity with chiefs and individuals of known spiritual power Restrictions on overfishingHawaiian tradition shows that ʻAikapu was an idea led by the kahuna in order for Wākea, the sky father, to get alone with his daughter, Hoʻohokukalani without his wahine, or wife, the earth mother, noticing.
The spiritually pure or laʻa, meaning "sacred" and unclean or haumia were to be separated. ʻAikapu included: The use of a different ovens to cook the food of male and female Different eating places Women were forbidden to eat pig, coconut and certain red foods because of their male symbolism. During times of war, the first two men to be killed were offered to the gods as sacrifices. Other Kapus included Mālama ʻĀina, meaning Niʻaupiʻo. Tradition says that mālama ʻāina originated from the first child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani being deformed so they buried him in the ground and what sprouted became the first kalo known as taro; the Hawaiian islands are all children of Papa, Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani so meaning that they are older siblings of the Hawaiian chiefs. Second child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani became the first Aliʻi Nui, or "Grand Chief"; this came to be called Niʻaupiʻo, the chiefly incest to create the "godly child". Punishments for breaking the kapu could include death, although if one could escape to a puʻuhonua, a city of refuge, one could be saved.
Kāhuna nui mandated long periods. No baby could cry, dog howl, or rooster crow, on pain of death. Human sacrifice was not unknown; the kapu system remained in place until 1819. Prayer was an essential part of Hawaiian life, employed when building a house, making a canoe, giving lomilomi massage. Hawaiians addressed prayers to various gods depending on the situation; when healers picked herbs for medicine, they prayed to Kū and Hina and female, right and left and supine. The people worshiped Lono during Kū during times of war. Histories from the 19th century describe prayer throughout the day, with specific p
Rulers of the Hawaiian Islands
The rulers of the Hawaiian islands are a line of native Hawaiians who were independent rulers of various subdivisions of the land and islands of Hawaii. Their genealogy is traced to others; the caste system of ancient Hawaiian society was established around 1200 AD and separated the people into 4 distinct ranks that were all below the supreme ruler of the island. The ali‘i nui would distribute the land to the lower ranking chiefs who would run the land and collect offerings and taxes; the ali‘i nui would ultimately be responsible for the sacred kapu, a system of rules designed to control social order. The noho ali‘i were known for their brightly colored and intricately constructed battle regalia of feathered capes and helmets called a mahiole and ʻahu ʻula; the history of the ancient Polynesians was passed down through oral genealogy chants that were recited at both formal and family functions. The genealogy of the high chiefs could be traced back to the period believed to be inhabited by gods.
The pua ali‘i were considered to be living gods. Sometime between 1 and 600, the first Polynesians began to settle the islands. By about 1000, settlements founded along the perimeters of the islands were beginning to cultivate their own foods in gardens, by 1500, they would begin to spread inward to the interiors of the islands and religion began to be more emphasised. A Tahitian priest named Pā‘ao is said to have brought a new order to the islands around 1200; the new order included new laws and a new social structure for the islands separating the people into classes. The ali‘i nui was the king, with his ‘aha kuhina just below them; the ali‘i were the royal nobles with the kahuna below them, the maka‘āinana next with the kauā below them as the lowest ranking social caste. Land was divided up in strict adherence to the wishes of the Ali‘i Nui; the island was split into several Kapana. The Kapana parameters ran from the highest mountain peak down to about a mile out to sea; these divisions were ruled by an Aliʻi ʻAikapana.
Each of these Kapana were further split into Ahupua'au, named after the dividing boundary alter where taxes were collected for each area during the Makahiki. And each Ahupua'a was ruled by an Alii'Ai Ahupua'a; each ahupua'a was managed by a headman called a Konohiki. Furthermore, each Ahupua'a was cut into smaller slivers of land, each ruled by an Alii'Ai'Iliahupua'a; these were the divisions of land which Maka'ainana possessed. Although the land belonged to the Chiefs, the commoners were their tenants and were given use of the land; the ali`i nui were responsible for making sure. The system had rules regarding many aspects of Hawaiian social order, fishing rights, where women could eat. After the death of Kamehameha I the system was abolished, the Hawaiian religion soon fell as the gods were abandoned; the ali‘i had a number of specific items and other regalia that identified them as divine, high ranking and wealthy by ancient Hawaiian standards. Many of these items were status symbols for high value, or magnificence.
The regalia was designed to emulate European royalty after foreign contact was established on a regular basis. The mahiole and ʻAhu ʻula were the right of only the highest ranking chiefs, they were created using intricate feather crafting in designs to represent the divinity of the chiefs as well as their power. A single ʻahu ʻula took thousands of birds to supply feathers; the regalia were worn only during battle or ceremonial acts. On his contact with the islands, Captain James Cook was given several ʻahu ʻula and a mahiole as gifts from Kalaniʻōpuʻu; the Niho Palaoa is a sperm whale ivory tooth carved for the use of the ruling chiefs. It suspended by finely coiled human hair and, when worn, is called a lei niho palaoa; the royal standard of the ali`i was a symbol of the ruling chiefs. It was a stem of bundled feathers. Ulukau.org
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states, tribal chiefs may represent their tribe or ethnicity in a form of self-government; the most common types are the chairman of a council and/or a broader popular assembly in "parliamentary" cultures, the war chief, the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman. The term is distinct from chiefs at lower levels, such as village chief or clan chief; the descriptive "tribal" requires an ethno-cultural identity as well as some political expression. In certain situations, in a colonial context, the most powerful member of either a confederation or a federation of such tribal, clan or village chiefs would be referred to as a paramount chief.
This term has fallen out of use and such personages are now called kings. A woman who holds a chieftaincy in her own right or who derives one from her marriage to a male chief has been referred to alternatively as a chieftainess, a chieftess or in the case of the former, a chief. Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings. Tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations and empires beginning in the Bronze Age. An important source of information for tribal societies of the Iron Age is Greco-Roman ethnography, which describes tribal societies surrounding the urban, imperialist civilisation of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had again coalesced into super-regional monarchies. Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World. Exceptions to tribal societies outside of Europe and Asia were Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances tribes have retained or regained partial self-government. Lonco among the Mapuche Morubixaba — tribal Cacique of the Tupi people Oubutu Rajiv Tyee, a tribal chief of the Chinookan peoples in the Pacific Northwest of the present-day United States Cacique, a term used among the Taino Nation of the Caribbean islands adopted by the Spanish to refer to all heads of chiefdoms whom they encountered: Cuauhtémoc, Tecun Uman, Atlacatl, Nicarao, Tupac Amaru II Sachem, term of chiefdom of the Algonquian nations of present-day New England in the United States Afro Bolivian king Eze Gbong Gwon Jos Kgosi Mogho Naba Nkosi Oba and Oloye.
Obai Omanhene Orkoiyot Sarkin Obong Tor Tiv of the Tiv people of Central Nigeria Aliʻi and Aliʻi nui were the chiefs and high chiefs of the islands of Hawaii Islands Ariki,'ariki henua Grade-taking systems of northern Vanuatu Ibedul Meena means Chief of tribals in South Asia. Iroijlaplap Matai, in the Samoan fa'amatai system Nahnmwarki, Lepen Palikir Rangatira, a chief of Māori in New Zealand Ratu, Fijian Chief, Malay for Queen Datu and Filipino Chief Arabs, in particular peninsular Arabs and nomadic Bedouins, are organized in tribes, many of whom have official representatives in governments. Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism; the Afro-Bolivian people, a recognized ethnic constituency of Bolivia, are led by a king whose title is recognized by the Bolivian government. In Botswana, the reigning chiefs of the various tribes are empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi, the national House of Chiefs.
In addition to this, they serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes, where political and social matters are discussed. The band is the fundamental unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada. Most bands have elected chiefs, either directly elected by all members of the band, or indirectly by the band council, these chiefs are recognized by the Canadian state under the terms of the Indian Act; as well, there may be traditional hereditary or charismatic chiefs, w
The Cook Islands is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 islands; the Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone covers 1,800,000 square kilometres of ocean. New Zealand is responsible for the Cook Islands' defence and foreign affairs, but they are exercised in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent times, the Cook Islands have adopted an independent foreign policy. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, not given to other New Zealand citizens; the Cook Islands has been an active member of the Pacific Community since 1980. The Cook Islands' main population centres are on the island of Rarotonga, where there is an international airport. There is a larger population of Cook Islanders in New Zealand itself. With about 100,000 visitors travelling to the islands in the 2010–11 financial year, tourism is the country's main industry, the leading element of the economy, ahead of offshore banking and marine and fruit exports.
In March 2019 it was reported that the Cook Islands had plans to change its name and remove the reference to Captain James Cook in favour of "a title that reflects its'Polynesian nature'". The Cook Islands were first settled in the 6th century by Polynesian people who migrated from Tahiti, an island 1,154 kilometres to the northeast. Spanish ships visited the islands in the 16th century; the first written record came in 1595 when the island of Pukapuka was sighted by Spanish sailor Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, who gave it the name San Bernardo. Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, a Portuguese captain working for the Spanish crown, made the first recorded European landing in the islands when he set foot on Rakahanga in 1606, calling the island Gente Hermosa. British navigator Captain James Cook arrived in 1773 and again in 1777 giving the island of Manuae the name Hervey Island; the Hervey Islands came to be applied to the entire southern group. The name "Cook Islands", in honour of Cook, first appeared on a Russian naval chart published in the 1820s.
In 1813 John Williams, a missionary on the Endeavour made the first recorded sighting of Rarotonga. The first recorded landing on Rarotonga by Europeans was in 1814 by the Cumberland; the islands saw no more Europeans until English missionaries arrived in 1821. Christianity took hold in the culture and many islanders are Christians today; the islands were a popular stop in the 19th century for whaling ships from the United States and Australia. They visited, from at least 1826, to obtain water and firewood, their favourite islands were Rarotonga, Aitutaki and Penrhyn. The Cook Islands became a British protectorate in 1888 because of community fears that France might occupy the islands as it had Tahiti. On 6 September 1900, the islanders's leaders presented a petition asking that the islands be annexed as British territory. On 8 and 9 October 1900, seven instruments of cession of Rarotonga and other islands were signed by their chiefs and people. A British Proclamation was issued, stating that the cessions were accepted and the islands declared parts of Her Britannic Majesty's dominions.
However, it did not include Aitutaki. Though the inhabitants regarded themselves as British subjects, the Crown's title was unclear until the island was formally annexed by a Proclamation dated 9 October 1900. In 1901 the islands were included within the boundaries of the Colony of New Zealand by Order in Council under the Colonial Boundaries Act, 1895 of the United Kingdom; the boundary change became effective on 11 June 1901, the Cook Islands have had a formal relationship with New Zealand since that time. When the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect on 1 January 1949, Cook Islanders who were British subjects automatically gained New Zealand citizenship; the islands remained a New Zealand dependent territory until the New Zealand Government decided to grant them self-governing status. Albert Henry of the Cook Islands Party was elected as the first Premier. Henry led the nation until 1978, when he resigned, he was succeeded by Tom Davis of the Democratic Party.
In March 2019 it was reported that the Cook Islands had plans to change its name and remove the reference to Captain James Cook in favour of "a title that reflects its'Polynesian nature'". The Cook Islands are in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, between French Polynesia and American Samoa. There are 15 major islands spread over 2,200,000 km2 of ocean, divided into two distinct groups: the Southern Cook Islands and the Northern Cook Islands of coral atolls; the islands were formed by volcanic activity. The climate is moderate to tropical; the Cook Islands consist of two reefs. The table is ordered from north to south. Population figures from the 2016 census; the Cook Islands is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system in an associated state relationship with New Zealand. Executive power is exercised with the Chief Minister as head of government. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of the Cook Islands. There is a pluriform multi-party system; the Judiciary is inde
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane; the gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, slows its rotation. Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water by oceans; the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms; some geological evidence indicates. Since the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely. Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans have developed diverse cultures. The modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most spelled eorðe, it has cognates in every Germanic language, their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest appearances, eorðe was being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world, the globe itself; as with Terra and Gaia, Earth was a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: the Angles were listed by Tacitus as among the devotees of Nerthus, Norse mythology included Jörð, a giantess given as the mother of Thor. Earth was written in lowercase, from early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, the earth became the Earth when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More the name is sometimes given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the, it always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?" The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4.54±0.04 Bya the primordial Earth had formed. The bodies in the Solar System evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, dust. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth taking 10–20 million years to form. A subject of research is the formation of some 4.53 Bya. A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object, named Theia, hit Earth.
In this view, the mass of Theia was 10 percent of Earth, it hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth. Between 4.1 and 3.8 Bya, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth. Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic outgassing. Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids and comets. In this model, atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. By 3.5 Bya, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. A crust formed; the two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or, more a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. Continents formed by plate tectonics
Niʻihau is the westernmost and seventh largest inhabited island in Hawaiʻi. It is 17.5 miles southwest of Kauaʻi across the Kaulakahi Channel. Its area is 69.5 square miles. Several intermittent playa lakes provide wetland habitats for the Hawaiian coot, the Hawaiian stilt, the Hawaiian duck; the island is designated as critical habitat for Brighamia insignis, an endemic and endangered species of Hawaiian lobelioid. The United States Census Bureau defines Niʻihau and the neighboring island and State Seabird Sanctuary of Lehua as Census Tract 410 of Kauai County, Hawaii, its 2000 census population was 160. Elizabeth Sinclair purchased Niʻihau in 1864 for $10,000 from the Kingdom of Hawaii and private ownership passed on to her descendants, the Robinson family. During World War II, the island was the site of the Niʻihau Incident: A Japanese navy fighter pilot crashed on the island and terrorized its residents for a week after the attack on Pearl Harbor; the people of Niʻihau are known for their gemlike lei pūpū craftsmanship, speak Hawaiian as a primary language.
The island is off-limits to all but the Robinson family and their relatives, U. S. Navy personnel, government officials, invited guests, giving it the nickname "The Forbidden Isle". Beginning in 1987, a limited number of supervised activity tours and hunting safaris have opened to tourists; the island is managed by brothers Bruce Robinson and Keith Robinson. Niʻihau is located about 18 miles west of Kauaʻi, the tiny, uninhabited island of Lehua lies 0.7 miles north of Niʻihau. Niʻihau's dimensions are 6.2 miles by 18.6 miles. The maximum elevation is 1,280 feet; the island is about 4.9 million years old, making it geologically younger than the 5-million-year-old neighboring island of Kauaʻi to the northeast. Niʻihau consists of one extinct volcano; the island is arid because it lies in the rain shadow of Kauaʻi, lacks the elevation needed to catch significant amounts of trade wind rainfall. Niʻihau therefore depends for its rain on winter Kona storms, when more northerly weather systems intrude into the region.
As such, the island is subject to long periods of drought. Historical droughts on Niʻihau have been recorded several times, one in 1792 by Captain James Cook's former junior officer, George Vancouver, told that the people of Niʻihau had abandoned the island because of a severe drought and had moved to Kauaʻi to escape famine; as an arid island, Niʻihau was barren of trees for centuries — Captain James Cook reported it treeless in 1778. Aubrey Robinson, grandfather of current owners Bruce Robinson and Keith Robinson, planted 10,000 trees per year during much of his ownership of the island. Island co-owner Keith Robinson, a noted conservationist and documented many of Niʻihau's natural plant resources; the island is designated as a critical habitat for the ʻōlulu, an endemic and endangered species of Hawaiian lobelioid. Aylmer robinsonii, a Pritchardia palm tree named for Keith Robinson's uncle Aylmer Robinson, is an endangered species native to Niʻihau. Several bird species thrive on Niʻihau; the largest lakes on the island are Halulu Lake and Nonopapa Lake.
These intermittent playa lakes on the island provide wetland habitats for the ʻalae keʻokeʻo, the āeʻo, the koloa maoli. The critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal is found in high numbers on Niʻihau's shores. Robinson states that Niʻihau's secluded shoreline offers them a safe haven from habitat encroachments. According to Robinson, conditions there are better than the government refuges of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; when the Robinsons purchased Niʻihau, no monk seals were present, because they lived in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian island chain and Midway islands. They have been relocated to the main Hawaiian island chain by NOAA fisheries over the past thirty years, some have found homes on Niʻihau. Big game herds, imported from stock on Molokaʻi Ranch in recent years, roam Niʻihau's forests and flatlands. Eland and aoudad are abundant, along with wild boars and feral sheep; these big game herds provide income from hunting safari tourism. Prior to the unification of the Kingdom of Hawaii under Kamehameha I, Niʻihau was ruled by the aliʻi.
Kahelelani was the first of the Niʻihau aliʻi. His name is now used to refer to the Niʻihau kahelelani, the puka shell of the wart turbans, used to make exquisite Niʻihau shell jewelry. Kāʻeokūlani was a ruler of northern Niʻihau who unified the island after defeating his rival, a chief named Kawaihoa. A stone wall across a quarter of the island's southern end marked the boundaries of the two chiefs: Kāʻeo's land was identified by black stones and Kawaihoa's by white stones. A great battle took place, known as Pali Kamakaui. Kāʻeo's two brothers from the island of Maui and his half-brother Kahekili II, the King of Maui, fought for Kāʻeo and Niʻihau was united under his rule. Kawaihoa was banished to the south end of the island and Kāʻeo moved to the middle of the island to govern. Kāʻeo married the Queen Kamakahelei and a future king of Niʻihau and Kauaʻi named Kaumualiʻi was born in 1790. Kauaʻi and Niʻihau are said to have carried the "highest blood lines" in the Hawaiian Islands. Kamehameha managed to unify all of the islands by 1795, except for Kauaʻi and Niʻihau: Two attempts to conquer those islands had failed, Kamehameha lost many men: bodies covered the beaches on Kauaʻi's eastern shores.
Wakea madinika is a species of frogs in the mantellid subfamily Mantellinae. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Wakea, it is endemic to Madagascar. Wakea madinika reaches males 11–13 mm snout-vent length and females 15–16 mm length, is thereby the smallest species in the family Mantellidae This species was described as a member of the genus Mantidactylus, but was transferred to its own genus in 2006