Whakatane is a town in the eastern Bay of Plenty Region in the North Island of New Zealand, 90 km east of Tauranga and 89 km north-east of Rotorua, at the mouth of the Whakatane River. Whakatane District is the encompassing territorial authority, which covers an area to the south and west of the town, excluding the enclave of Kawerau. Whakatane has an urban population of 19,750, making it New Zealand's 24th largest urban area, the Bay of Plenty's third largest urban area behind Tauranga and Rotorua. Another 15,950 people live in the rest of the Whakatane District. Around 40% of the district's population have Māori ancestry; the District has a land area of 4,442.07 km2. Whakatane District was created in 1976. Whakatane forms part of the parliamentary electorate of East Coast, represented by Anne Tolley of the New Zealand National Party, it is the main urban centre of the Eastern Bay Of Plenty sub-region. It is the seat of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council, chosen as a compromise between the region's two larger cities and Rotorua.
The site of the town has long been populated. Māori pā sites in the area date back to the first Polynesian settlements, estimated to have been around 1200 CE. According to Māori tradition Toi-te-huatahi known as Toi-kai-rakau, landed at Whakatane about 1150 CE in search of his grandson Whatonga. Failing to find Whatonga, he settled in the locality and built a pa on the highest point of the headland now called Whakatane Heads, overlooking the present town; some 200 years the Mataatua waka landed at Whakatane. The Maori name "Whakatāne" is reputed to commemorate an incident occurring after the arrival of the Mataatua; the men had gone ashore and the canoe began to drift. Wairaka, a chieftainess, said "Kia Whakatāne au i ahau", commenced to paddle - something that women were not allowed to do. With the help of the other women, the canoe was saved. Wairaka's efforts are commemorated by a bronze statue of her at the mouth of the Whakatane River, installed in 1965; the region around Whakatane was important during the New Zealand Wars of the mid 19th century the Volkner Incident.
Its role culminated in 1869 with raids by Te Kooti's forces and a number of its few buildings were razed, leading to an armed constabulary being stationed above the town for a short while. Whakatane beach heralded a historic meeting on 23 March 1908 between Prime Minister Joseph Ward and the Māori prophet and activist Rua Kenana Hepetipa. Kenana claimed to be Te Kooti's successor; the town was a notable shipbuilding and trade centre from 1880 and with the draining of the Rangitikei swamp into productive farmland from 1904, Whakatane grew considerably. In the early 1920s it was the fastest growing town in the country for a period of about three years and this saw the introduction of electricity for the first time; the carton board mill at Whakatane began as a small operation in 1939 and continues operating to this day. The Whakatane River once had a much longer and more circuitous route along the western edge of the Whakatane urban area, having been re-coursed in the 1960s with a couple of its loopier loops removed to help prevent flooding and provide for expansion of the town.
Remnants of the original watercourse remain as the Awatapu lagoon. The original wide-span ferro-concrete bridge constructed in 1911 at the Bridge Street was demolished in 1984 and replaced by the Landing Road bridge. Whakatane has in recent years benefited from its relative dominance over numerous smaller and less prosperous towns surrounding it, such as Te Teko and Waimana, its popularity as a retirement and lifestyle destination. The'First International Conference on the Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous Peoples' was held in Whakatane from 12 to 18 June 1993; this resulted in the Mataatua Declaration on Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous Peoples' referred to as the Mataatua Declaration. Whakatane has recorded the highest annual sunshine hours in New Zealand. Since official recording began in 2008, the town has attained upwards of 2600 hours a year; the town recorded an average of over 7.5hrs of sunshine a day in 2013. Whakatane records the national daily high on 55 days of the year.
Whakatane was affected by the 1987 Edgecumbe earthquake. Heavy rain struck the Bay of Plenty region between 16-18 July 2004, resulting in severe flooding and a state of civil emergency being declared. Many homes and properties were flooded; the Rangitaiki River burst its banks, flooding large areas of farmland, numerous roads were closed by floods and slips. A total of 245.8 mm of rain fell in Whakatane in the 48-hour period and many small earthquakes were felt during this time, loosening the sodden earth and resulting in landslips that claimed two lives. Moutohora Island is a small island off the Bay of Plenty coast about 12 kilometres north of Whakatane; the island has numerous sites of pā. It provided shelter for James Cook's Endeavour in 1769. A whaling station existed on the island during the 19th century. Whakaari/White Island is an active marine volcano located 48 kilometres offshore of Whakatane and a popular visitor attraction. Sulphur mining on the island was attempted but abandoned in 1914 after a lahar killed all 10 workers.
The mouth of the Whakatane River and Ohiwa Harbour have b
Tertiary education referred to as third stage, third level, postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education. The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including universities as well as trade schools and colleges. Higher education is taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, while vocational education beyond secondary education is known as further education in the United Kingdom, or continuing education in the United States. Tertiary education culminates in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees; the UNESCO stated. It includes academic and higher vocational education; the World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on the future of work argues that given the future of work and the increasing role of technology in value chains, tertiary education becomes more relevant for workers to compete in the labor market. "Tertiary education" includes further education, as well as higher education.
Since the 1970s specialized FE colleges called “tertiary colleges” have been set up to offer courses such as A Levels, that allow progression to HE, alongside vocational courses. An early example of this which expanded in September 1982 as part of a reorganization of education in the Halesowen area which saw three-tier education axed after just 10 years in force. In some areas where schools do not universally offer sixth forms, tertiary colleges function as a sixth form college as well as a general FE college. Unlike sixth form colleges, the staff join lecturers' rather than teachers' unions. Under devolution in the United Kingdom, education is administered separately in England, Northern Ireland and Scotland. In 2018 the Welsh Government adopted the term "tertiary education" to refer to post-16 education and training in Wales. Within Australia "Tertiary Education" refers to continuing studies after a students Higher School Certificate, it refers to any education a student receives after final compulsory schooling, which occurs at the age of 17 within Australia.
Tertiary Education options include TAFE or private colleges. The higher education system in the United States is decentralized and independent from regulation by the federal government, it is diverse because there are public institutions. Some affiliated with religious organizations. Others could be secular, urban, or suburban. In short, there are a wide variety of options which are locally determined; the United States Department of Education presents a broad-spectrum view of tertiary education and detailed information on the nation's educational structure, accreditation procedures, connections to state as well as federal agencies and entities. The Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education provides an explanation so people will understand how American institutions of higher learning compare to each other; the Carnegie platform separates all accredited schools that give out degrees into categories that describe highest degree granted or special areas of study. US tertiary education includes various non-profit organizations promoting professional development of individuals in the field of higher education and helping expand awareness of related issues like international student services and complete campus internationalization.
Although tertiary education in the EU includes university, it can differ from country to country. Along with IUT and STS, Universities are tertiary educations. After going to Elementary school, Primary school and Lycee, a student may go to university, but may retire at that point. List of countries by tertiary education attainment Education by country List of universities and colleges by country Brick, Jean. "What is academic culture?". Academic Culture: A Student's Guide to Studying at University. Sydney, N. S. W: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. Pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-1-74138-135-1. Tertiary education statistics, UNESCO Master of Tertiary Education Management, LH Martin Institute for Higher Education Leadership & Management, The University of Melbourne Quality Research International - TAFE NSW Official Website
Education in New Zealand
The education system in New Zealand is a three-tier model which includes primary and intermediate schools, followed by secondary schools and tertiary education at universities and polytechnics. The academic year in New Zealand varies between institutions, but runs from early February until mid-December for primary schools, late January to late November or early December for secondary schools, polytechnics, from late February until mid-November for universities. In 2009, the Programme for International Student Assessment, published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ranked New Zealand 7th best at science and reading in the world, 13th in maths; the Education Index, published as part of the UN's Human Development Index ranks New Zealand among the highest in the world. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Māori ran schools to pass on tradition knowledge including songs, tribal history, spiritual understanding and knowledge of medicinal plants; these wānanga were run by elders called tohunga, respected for their tribal knowledge and teaching was confined to the rangatira class.
Reading and writing were unknown. Formal European-style schooling was first introduced in 1815 and was well established in 1832 by the London Missionary Society missionaries, who learnt Māori and built the first schools in the Bay of Islands. Both children and adults were taught; the main resources were the Christian New Testament and slates, teaching was in Māori. For many years the bible was the only literature used in teaching, this became a major factor in how Māori viewed the European world. In the 1850s a Māori trade school was established at Te Awamutu by John Gorst to teach Māori practical skills associated with European-style farming, but in 1863 was burnt down by Rewi Maniapoto in the early stages of New Zealand Wars. In 1853 missionaries Mr and Mrs Ashwell had been running a school for 50 Māori girls for 3 years at Taupiri in the Waikato, teaching arithmetic and reading. Teaching by missionaries and in Native schools was in Māori between 1815 and 1900; the Young Māori Party MPs Sir Maui Pomare and Ngata, advocated the teaching of Māori children using English, as well as teaching hygiene to lower the Māori sickness and death rates.
Pomare was knighted after WW1 for his work in improving Māori learning and integration into New Zealand society. New Zealand did not establish a state education system until 1877; the absence of a national education system meant that the first sizable secondary education providers were Grammar Schools and other private institutions. The first Grammar School in New Zealand, Auckland Grammar School, was established in 1850 and formally recognised as an educational establishment in 1868 through the Auckland Grammar School Appropriation Act. Many children attend some form of early childhood education before they begin school such as: Playcentre Kindergarten Kohanga Reo Licensed Early Childhood Centres Chartered Early Childhood Centres All New Zealand citizens, those entitled to live in New Zealand indefinitely, are entitled to free primary and secondary schooling from their 5th birthday until the end of the calendar year following their 19th birthday. Education is compulsory between a student's 16th birthdays.
In some special cases, 15-year-olds can apply for an early leaving exemption from the Ministry of Education. Families wishing to home-school their children can apply for exemption. To get an exemption from enrolment at a registered school, they must satisfy the Secretary of Education that their child will be taught "as and as well as in a registered school". A 2008 proposal by the New Zealand Government, called Schools Plus, would see students required to remain in some form of education until age 18. Disabled students with special educational needs can stay until the end of the calendar year they turn 21. There are three main types of schools in New Zealand: state schools, state-integrated schools, private schools. State schools educate 84.9% of students, state-integrated schools educate 11.3%, private schools educate 3.6%. There are two additional types of schools: Vote Education schools funded directly out of the education budget, charter schools which are state funded but run; these schools however educate only 0.1% of all students.
New Zealand schools designate school class levels based on the years of schooling of the student cohort, using 13 academic year levels, numbered 1 through to 13. Before 1995, a system of Forms and Juniors/Primers was used. Students turning five enter at Year 1 if they begin school at the beginning of the school year or before the cut-off date. Students who turn five late in the year may start in Year 0 or stay in Year 1 for the next school year, depending on their academic progress; the Ministry of Education draws a distinction between academic and funding year levels, the latter being based on when a student first starts school—students first starting school after July, who therefore do not appear on the July roll returns, are classified as being in Funding Year 0 that year, are recorded as being in Year 1 on the next year's roll returns. Primary education lasts eight years. Depending on the area, the last two years of primary education may be taken at a primary school, at a secondary school, or at a separate intermediate school.
Tribal colleges and universities
In the United States, tribal colleges and universities are a category of higher education, minority-serving institutions defined in the Higher Education Act of 1965. Each qualifies for funding under the Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities Assistance Act of 1978 or the Navajo Community College Act; these educational institutions are distinguished by being controlled and operated by American Indian tribes. The first was founded by the Navajo Nation in 1968 in Arizona, several others were established in the 1970s; as of 1994, they have been authorized by Congress as land-grant colleges. Presently, there are 32 accredited Tribal Colleges and Universities in the United States, with one formal candidate for accreditation; the Tribal College movement grew out of the American Indian "self-determination" movement of the 1960s. Tribal colleges are located on or near Indian reservations and provide access to post-secondary education, accredited degrees, vocational training for both Indian and non-Indian students.
Navajo Community College, now called Diné College, the first tribal college, was founded on the reservation in Tsaile, Arizona, in 1968 and accredited in 1979. Tensions arose between two philosophies: one that the tribal colleges should have the same criteria and procedures for educational quality as mainstream colleges, the other that the faculty and curriculum should be adapted to the particular historical culture of the tribe. There was a great deal of turnover, exacerbated by tight budgets. Several other tribal colleges were established in the 1970s and enrollment has increased. Indian culture and tradition have become a part of the curricula since the 1970s, when many of the colleges were established; these institutions are located on reservations and face problems similar to those of other rural educational institutions: recruitment and retention of students and faculty, curriculum issues. Lack of funding, along with the minimal resources of some tribes, have been obstacles for some tribes.
For some Native American nations, revenues from casino gambling have aided in their building educational institutions. In general, enrollment has increased particularly in areas where reservations have significant populations. In 1982, the total enrollment at tribal colleges in the United States was 2,100. By 2003, it had increased to 30,000; this reflects a return to reservations by numerous American Indians, for instance, on the Great Plains. By contrast, California's only tribal college, D-Q University located west of Davis, closed in 2005, it re-opened with six students in 2006. Unlike most of the institutions, it is not affiliated with reservation. In 1994 under the Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act, the tribal colleges were authorized by the US Congress as land-grant colleges. Most offer two-year degrees, although six are four-year institutions, three have master's degree programs. Several colleges, such as the College of the Menominee Nation, have developed transfer agreements with affiliated state universities to allow students who graduate from the two-year tribal college to receive junior status at the state university system.
Sinte Gleska University in South Dakota has a master's program affiliated with Red Crow Community College and Canadian universities in Alberta. On December 2, 2011 President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13592—Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational Opportunities and Strengthening Tribal Colleges and Universities, which ordered that federal agencies work with tribal governments to help improve educational opportunities provided to all AI/AN students, including students attending postsecondary institutions such as Tribal Colleges and Universities; this executive order was signed to address the high drop out rate, to help close the achievement gap between AI/AN students and their non-native peers, while preserving and revitalizing Native languages. This executive order is run by The White House Initiative on American Indian and Alaska Native Education; this initiative is part of the Department of Education, it supports activities that will expand education opportunities and improve education outcomes for all AI/AN students.
As of 2013, Montana is the only state in which each Indian reservation has established a accredited tribal college. The University of Montana "was the first to establish dual admission agreements with all of the tribal colleges and as such it was the first institution in the nation to facilitate student transfer from the tribal colleges." The Montana legislature passed the Indian Education for All Act, creating the only state mandate for public schools to "teach American Indian history and heritage to preschool through higher education students." In 2017 Ahmed Al-Asfour and Suzanne Young conducted a survey study of the professional development needs of faculty at TCUs. The areas of greatest concern were low salary. Low teacher salaries may be attributed to the unique situation. Most tribal colleges are located on reservations and therefore are not supported by local taxes, they only remain chronically underfunded. Al-Asfour and Young argue that this underfunding and subsequent low faculty salaries may be a cause of low retention of faculty, result in inexperienced faculty accepting positions at TCUs.
Additionally, Al-Asfour and Young found that Non-Native American
Te Awamutu is a town in the Waikato region in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the council seat of the Waipa District and serves as a service town for the farming communities which surround it. Te Awamutu is located some 30 kilometres south of Hamilton on State Highway 3, one of the two main routes south from Auckland and Hamilton. Tainui Maori first settled in the area in about 1450, according to noted Tainui historian Te Hurinui-Jones. Te Awamutu means "the river cut short", as it marked the end of the navigable section of the Mangapiko Stream. Te Awamutu was the birthplace of Pōtatau Te Wherowhero; the first European missionaries visited the area in 1834. A missionary settlement was set up by Benjamin Yate Ashwell of the Church Missionary Society, and Māori Christians in July 1839 after they observed Tainui warriors, fighting at Rotorua, return with 60 backpacks of human remains and proceed to cook and eat them in the Otawhao Pa. In 1842 the Rev. John Morgan moved to the Otawhao Mission Station.
The CMS missionaries established a flourishing trade school that focused on developing agricultural skills. The missionaries introduced European crops such as wheat and peaches. In 1846 Morgan provided advice and some capital to help local Māori to construct eight water mills to grind wheat into flour. Morgan assisted in finding a suitable miller to train Maori in this skill. During the 1850s the wider area prospered on the back of sending surplus farm produce to Auckland. For a brief period wheat was sent overseas. By the late 1850s prices dropped as other foodstuffs were imported from Australia; this caused huge resentment among local Māori. Some of the more warlike Māori such as Rewi Maniapoto blamed the missionaries for having a negative influence on Māori tikanga, he attempted to kill the local missionary and burnt down the trade school and other mission buildings. Other Christian Māori Maori warned other Europeans to leave the Waikato as their lives were in danger. Te Awamutu was a major site during the New Zealand land wars of the 19th century, serving as a garrison town for the colonial settlers from 1864.
European settlement began at the conclusion of the Waikato Wars. The main thoroughfare is Alexandra Street, so named because it was once the main road to the town of Alexandra; the town has a large dairy factory, serves as an important centre in the local dairy industry. The town is referred to as "The Rose Town of New Zealand" because of its elaborate rose gardens in the centre of the town. Many local businesses use "Rosetown" in their name, the symbol of the rose is used on local signs and billboards; the local paper, Te Awamutu Courier, has a symbol of a rose in the masthead on its front page. Te Awamutu means in English "The River's End"; the town is on undulating land close to the banks of a tributary of the Waipa River. The Waikato Plains lie to the north and east, the promontory of Mount Pirongia, 20 kilometres to the west, is visible. Inside the township are two streams called the Mangapiko Stream and the Mangaohoi Stream; the Mangaohoi becomes the Tributary of the Mangapiko near Memorial park.
The town is close to the extinct Pirongia volcanoes. Maungatautari, another extinct volcanic cone, now the site of New Zealand's largest ecological restoration project, is nearby. Other towns surrounding Te Awamutu include Cambridge, 25 kilometres to the northeast, Otorohanga, 30 kilometres to the southwest, Raglan 50 kilometres to the northwest; the small town of Kihikihi lies just to the south of Te Awamutu. It has a population of 10,305 but with Kihikihi and surrounding rural areas a total population of about 14,000 can be claimed. For the census Te Awamutu is divided into four area units, east and west, as in this table. Māori formed 22.8 % in east, 23.2 % in south and 25.7 % in west. Te Awamutu Museum was established in 1935; the museum has a number of permanent exhibitions focusing on the history of Te Awamutu and the surrounding area. There is an exhibition,'Everyone is here' focusing on Tim and Neil Finn, brothers and Te Awamutu natives, of the bands Split Enz and Crowded House; the museum contains one of the most famous early Māori artifacts, a large carved post known as Te Uenuku.
This impressive carving has caused much controversy because its style is markedly different from any other early Māori work, yet it is of a Māori design. The Te Awamutu Museum is one of the attractions of the town, has many exhibitions relating to the history of the area. Te Awamutu itself is located on SH3, one of the major routes used when touring the North Island of New Zealand; the town has three large supermarkets, electronics retailers, a well equipped sports / leisure centre and The Kihikihi Trail cycleway, which opened in 2017. The town's best known residents are the Finn Brothers and Neil, whose musical careers have stretched from Split Enz through the internationally successful Crowded House to their current solo and collaborative works; the town is mentioned in Split Enz's song "Haul Away", in Crowded House's 1986 song "Mean to Me", the debut single from their self-titled debut album. Musician Spencer P. Jones was born in Te Awamutu. Filmmaker and Bilbo double in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit series
Māori culture is indigenous to New Zealand and originated from, is still part of, Eastern Polynesian culture. Māori culture forms a distinctive part of New Zealand culture and is found throughout the world, due to a large diaspora and incorporation of motifs into popular culture. Within the Māori community, to a lesser extent throughout New Zealand as a whole, the word Māoritanga is used as an approximate synonym for Māori culture, the Māori suffix -tanga being equivalent to the qualitative noun ending "-ness" in English. There have been four distinct but overlapping cultural eras—before Māori culture had differentiated itself from other Polynesian cultures, before widespread European contact, the 1800s in which Māori began interacting with European visitors and settlers, the modern era since the beginning of the 20th century. Culture in the modern era has been shaped by increasing urbanisation, closer contact with New Zealanders of European descent and revival of traditional practices. Traditional Māori arts make up a large section of New Zealand art and include whakairo, kapa haka, tā moko.
The patterns and characters represented record the genealogies of Māori. Practitioners follow the techniques of their ancestors, but today Māoritanga includes contemporary arts such as film, television and theatre; the Māori language is shortened to te reo. At the beginning of the twentieth century, it looked like te reo as well as other aspects of Māori life would disappear. In the 1980s however, government-sponsored schools taught te reo, educating those of European descent as well as Māori. Māori cultural history is inextricably tied into the culture of Polynesia as a whole. Aotearoa is the southwestern corner of the Polynesian Triangle, a region of the Pacific Ocean with three island groups at its corners: Hawaiian Islands, Rapa Nui, New Zealand; the many island cultures within the Polynesian Triangle share similar languages derived from a proto-Malayo-Polynesian language used in southeastern Asia 5,000 years ago. Polynesians share cultural traditions such as religion, social organisation and material culture.
Anthropologists believe that all Polynesians have descended from a south Pacific proto-culture created by an Austronesian people that had migrated from southeastern Asia. The other main Polynesian cultures are Rapa Nui, Marquesas, Tahiti and Cook Islands. Over the last five millennia, a sequence of complicated and remarkable transoceanic treks were performed in an unprecedented accomplishment of navigation and curiosity; the final segments of these feats were across extreme and unmatched distances: to Hawaii and Aotearoa. Polynesian seafarers were ocean astronomers. Polynesians would travel long distances by sea; the strong female presence among early settlers in New Zealand suggests Polynesian migration voyages were not accidental but deliberate. The most current reliable evidence indicates that initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE from the Society Islands. In 1769 the experienced Society Island navigator Tupaia joined Captain Cook in the Endeavour on his voyage south. Despite a gap of many hundreds of years Tupaia was able to understand the Māori language, similar to the language he spoke.
His presence and ability to translate avoided much of the friction between other European explorers and Māori in New Zealand. European sailors, including Cook, found Polynesian sailors lost at sea, suggesting that by mid 18th century knowledge of long distance navigation was not ubiquitous. Researchers label the time from about 1280 to about 1450 the Archaic period or "Moa-hunter period" - after the moa, the large flightless bird that formed a large part of the diet of the early settlers. During this period Māori adapted to their new environment, but culturally they changed little from the tropical Pacific peoples they were derived from. Many edible plants were brought from the home islands and of these kūmara was to become the most important. In the far South, however, it was too cold to grow any of these crops. Large quantities of tī tubers were eaten that were slow-cooked in large umu or hāngi to get rid of poison and to produce a sweet pulp. Shellfish, fish and seals were common foods. Native dogs and rats were brought from the Pacific Islands.
The introduction of rats undoubtedly had more impact on New Zealand wildlife than any other organism apart from humans. The dogs were used for hunting but as food; the new environment offered challenges to the settlers. Its cold climate meant that tropical staple crops needed careful cultivation to survive, some failed to grow locally. Kūmara was an important crop. Much of the activity to produce kūmara became ritualised – it was associated with Rongomātāne, a high-ranking atua. Kūmara featured in some whakataukī: "Kaore te kūmara e kōrero mo tōna māngaro" encouraged people to be modest. Seasonal activities included gardening and the hunting of birds. Main tasks were segregated for men and women, but there were a lot of group activities involving food gathering and food cultivation; these early colonists explored New Zealand to find suitable stones for tool-making. The main stone source areas included Mayor Island and Kerikeri for obsidian.