Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
The Grafton Galleries referred to as the Grafton Gallery, was an art gallery in Mayfair, London. The French art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel showed the first major exhibition in Britain of Impressionist paintings there in 1905. Roger Fry's two famous exhibitions of Post-Impressionist works in 1910 and 1912 were both held at the gallery; the date of foundation of the Grafton Galleries is not certain. The gallery was incorporated in London on 16 June 1891, opened in February 1893, first at 8 Grafton Street, from 1896, in Bond Street; the manager was Francis Gerard Prange. From 1905 or earlier, Roger Fry was an advisor to the gallery; the first London exhibition of the Grafton Galleries opened on 18 February 1893. The most celebrated exhibitions held there were Paul Durand-Ruel's Impressionist show of 1905, the two Post-Impressionist exhibitions put on by Roger Fry: Manet and the Post-Impressionists in 1910–11, the Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition of 1912. Exhibitions held at the gallery include: 1893, February: First exhibition, consisting of paintings and sculpture, by British and foreign artists of the present day 1893, May: Second exhibition, consisting of the third exhibition of the Society of Portrait Painters, by British and foreign artists of the present day 1893, November–December: First exhibition of French artists in decorative art 1894: Fair women 1894: Fourth exhibition of Grafton Gallery, including a retrospective exhibition of work of Albert Moore, a general collection of British and foreign works 1895: Winter exhibition of the works of old Scottish portrait painters, with a selection of the pictures of John Thomson of Duddingston and a collection of old Scottish silver and weapons 1895: Fair children 1896: Sixth exhibition of the Society of Portrait Painters 1896: Pictures representing the loss of Sir John Franklin's expedition to the North Pole, painted by Julius von Payer 1896, January–March: A loan collection of modern pictures, chiefly of the Barbizon and Dutch schools, with a collection of 200 original drawings by Paul Renouard and others 1896, April: Charles Sedelmeyer's fine art exhibition 1897: Exhibition of dramatic and musical art 1897: Society of Miniaturists exhibition 1897: Seventh exhibition of the Society of Portrait Painters 1897: Summer exhibition of members' work, Society of Miniaturists 1897, January: Exhibition of the works of Ford Madox Brown 1898: Catalogue of pictures which belong to 68, Princes Gate 1898: Collection of pictures by Old Masters formed by David Sellar 1898: The Gentlewoman photographic competition, exhibition of prize pictures 1898: Eighth exhibition of the Society of Portrait Painters 1898, April–May: Exhibition of Australian Art in London 1898, June: Bibliotheca Lindesiana and examples of metal and ivory bindings exhibited to the Bibliographical Society 1899: Siegfried Bing, 1838–1905 1899, January: Vasily Vereshchagin exhibition: Napoleon I, 1812, from a sketch made by an eye-witness 1899, October–December: Exhibition of modern French art, with a representative collection of the artistic work of Louis Tiffany, of New York 1900: Fourteenth exhibition of the Ridley Art Club 1900: Ninth exhibition of the Society of Portrait Painters 1900, summer: Exhibition of a special selection from the works by George Romney, including a few portraits of Emma, Lady Hamilton by other artists 1900, December: Exhibition of a second selection from the works by George Romney, including a few portraits of Emma, Lady Hamilton, by other artists 1901: Exhibition of South African pictures by R. Gwelo Goodman 1901: Exhibition of works by Willi Wolf Rudinoff, including examples in oil, water-colour and dry point 1901, March–April: Women's International Art Club, second annual exhibition 1902: Exhibition of the works of Emil Fuchs 1902: Works by the late Archibald Stuart Wortley and president of the Society of Portrait Painters 1902: Portraits by the late Benjamin Constant, one hundred pencil studies by Violet Manners, Marchioness of Granby 1902, March: Women's International Art Club, third annual exhibition 1902, November: Works by Emil Fuchs, the designer of the King Edward VII Coronation Medal and the King's head on the new postage stamps 1903, January: Women's International Art Club, fourth annual exhibition 1903, March: Modern Celtic ornament as applied to gold and silver plate, jewelry, garden pottery, etc.
1903, May: Bijoux et objets d'art exposés par M. René Lalique 1903, May–July: French masters exhibition 1904, January: Women's International Art Club, fifth annual exhibition 1904, December: Women's International Art Club, sixth annual exhibition 1905, January-February: pictures by Eugène Boudin, Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley, exhibited by Paul Durand-Ruel and Sons, from Paris 1905: Annual exhibition of the Society of Miniaturists 1905, March: Exhibition by Emil Fuchs 1905, May: Exhibition of a selection from the collection of the late James Staats Forbes, including a few works by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Charles-François Daubigny, Narcisse Virgilio Díaz, Jean-François Millet, Jozef Israëls, Anton Mauve, one of the Maris brothers, other artists 1905, December: Women's International Art Club, seventh annual exhibition 1906: Munich fine art exhibition 1906, January: Eighth exhibition of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society 1906, July: International Congress of Architects in London 1906, December: Women's International Art Club, eighth annual exhibition 1907: Exhibition of paintings and sketches of the Polar regions by Aleksandr Borisov of St. Petersburg 1907: Exhib
Margaret Rose Preston was an Australian painter and printmaker, regarded as one of Australia's leading modernists of the early 20th century. In her quest to foster an Australian "national art", she was one of the first non-Indigenous Australian artists to use Aboriginal motifs in her work. Margaret Rose Preston was born on 29 April 1875 in Port Adelaide to David McPherson, a Scottish marine engineer, Prudence McPherson, she was the first-born child. The family called Margaret by her middle name, it was only in her mid 30s that she began to use Margaret. Preston's family moved to Sydney in 1885, where Preston attended Fort Street Girls' High School for two years, she showed an early interest in art, first with china painting and through private art classes with William Lister Lister. Preston would at the age of 52, write about her childhood and developing interest in art in the article "From Eggs to Electrolux," which ran in Sydney Ure Smith's Art in Australia in 1927. Although written in the third person, it offers glimpses of her legendarily strong personality.
She describes her first visit to the Art Gallery of New South Wales at the age of 12, recalling it as "a big, nice smelling place with a lot of pictures hanging on the walls and here and there students sitting on high stools copying at easels. First impression was not of the beauty of wonder of the pictures, but how nice it must be to sit on a high stool with people giving you'looks' as they went by... This visit led to the decision to be an artist."Following her classes with Lister, Preston went on to study at the National Gallery of Victoria Art School under Frederick McCubbin from 1889 to 1894. Her studies were interrupted for a time in 1894 -- 95 by her father's death; when she returned to the school, she began working with Bernard Hall. She showed a strong preference for painting still lifes instead of people, in 1897, she won the school's Still Life Scholarship, which afforded her a year's free tuition. In 1898, she transferred to Adelaide's School of Design, where she studied under H. P.
Gill and Hans Heysen. Early in Preston's career—especially before her marriage—she taught art to help support herself and her family, she began taking on private students while she was still at Adelaide's School of Design, setting up her own studio in 1899. She taught at St Peter's College and at Presbyterian Ladies' College, both in Adelaide. Among her students were such notable artists as Bessie Davidson, Gladys Reynell, Stella Bowen, who referred to her as "a red-headed little firebrand of a woman, not only an excellent painter, but a most inspiring teacher". Gladys Reynell and Stella Bowen attended her classes in 1908. After her mother died in 1903, Preston and Bessie Davidson traveled to Europe, where they stayed from 1904 to 1907, with sojourns in Munich and Paris and shorter trips to Italy, Spain and Africa. In Munich, Preston studied at the Government Art School for Women but was not taken with either German teaching methods or German aesthetics, she commented, "Half of German art is mad and vicious, a good deal is dull."Paris suited Preston better, she took part in the Paris Salon of 1905 and 1906.
Her developing Modernist sensibility was influenced by French Postimpressionists such as Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse as well as by Japanese art and design, which she encountered at the Musée Guimet. From Japanese art in particular she acquired a preference for asymmetrical composition, a focus on plants as subject matter, an appreciation of pattern as an organizing method, she began to try to reduce her own work to "decoration without ornamentation". Returning to Australia in 1907, Preston leased a studio with Bessie Davidson, they put on a joint exhibition from which one of her paintings Onions, was bought by the National Gallery of South Australia. In 1911, Preston was asked to paint a portrait of Catherine Spence for the National Gallery of South Australia. Preston went back to France in 1912 with Gladys Reynell, but when World War I broke out, they moved to Great Britain. There Preston studied the principles of Modernist design at Roger Fry's Omega Workshops, she and Reynell taught pottery and basket-weaving as therapy for shell-shocked soldiers at the Seale Hayne Military Hospital in Devonshire.
She exhibited her work in both Paris during this period. From these European studies, Preston returned to Australia having adopted Modernist principles; the Modernists' analytical approach to design, sense of underlying form, simplified pictorial space would all become hallmarks of her work. The influence of her European studies can be seen, for example, in her 1927 still life Implement Blue, with its geometric forms, muted palette, stark lighting. In 1919, Preston went to America for an exhibition at the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. On her way back to Australia, she met her future husband, William George "Bill" Preston, a discharged second lieutenant of the Australian Imperial Force, she married her husband on 31 December 1919, wrote a false birthdate on her marriage certificate to make herself eight years younger than her husband. Bill had a placid temperament that complemented Margaret Preston's assertive personality, they were devoted to each other throughout their marriage.
Preston's friend Leon Gellert noted that Bill seemed to regard it as a national duty to keep his beloved Margaret happy and artistically productive. A successful businessman, Bill Preston was a company director for Anthony Horderns retailers, Dalton's packaging company and Tooheys Brewery, their marriage gave Margaret the financial security to pursue h
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region; the name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military, features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire. Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are vast stretches of unspoiled countryside; this can be found in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and with the open aspect of some of the major cities. Yorkshire has been named "God's Own County" or "God's Own Country"; the emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, the most used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background, which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.
Yorkshire Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect. Yorkshire is covered by different Government Office Regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber while the extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar and Startforth, falls within North East England. Small areas in the west of the county are covered by the North West England region. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for Jórvík. "Shire" is from scir meaning care or official charge. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ "shuh", or /-ʃiə/, a homophone of "sheer". Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi; the Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.
That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county; the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius; this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the region. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD. The fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all Roman Britain; the emperor Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from Eboracum for the two years before his death. Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD; this saw his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his contributions to Christianity, proclaimed emperor in the city. In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline. After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and the Kingdom of Elmet to the west. Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king and annexed the region.
At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in the south. Scandinavian York or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before being annexed into England in 954, it was associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army as its enemies referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD; the Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.
The Danes went on to conque
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company
The Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited was a Scottish shipbuilding company in the Govan area on the Clyde in Glasgow. Fairfields, as it is known, was a major warship builder, turning out many vessels for the Royal Navy and other navies through the First World War and the Second World War, it built many transatlantic liners, including record breaking ships for the Cunard Line and Canadian Pacific, such as the Blue Riband-winning sisters RMS Campania and RMS Lucania. At the other end of the scale Fairfields built fast cross-channel mail steamers and ferries for locations around the world; these included ships for the Bosporus crossing in Istanbul and some of the early ships used by Thomas Cook for developing tourism on the River Nile. Charles Randolph, who began trading as a millwright, founded the business as Randolph & Elliott by building engines and machinery in the Tradeston district of Glasgow in 1834. John Elder joined the business in 1852 and it diversified into shipbuilding as Randolph and Company, acquiring the Govan Old Shipyard in 1858.
The first ship was built in 1861 as No 14. The business moved to a new yard at the former Fairfield Farm at the Govan riverside in 1864, changing its name to the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, after the old farm, in 1886, at which time it was owned by Sir William Pearce; the shipyard's imposing red sandstone Drawing Offices were designed by John Keppie of Honeyman and Keppie, with help from a young Charles Rennie Mackintosh, built 1889–91. The sculpted figures flanking the entrance are by James Pittendrigh Macgillivray. John Carmichael was manager of the Fairfield yard in 1894, he had been born in Govan in 1858 and had entered Fairfield as an apprentice in 1873. When his apprenticeship was completed seven years Sir William Pearce made him head draughtsman, he was promoted to assistant manager. In February 1897 a major fire broke out in the yard; the fire spread and within ten minutes the vast majority of the buildings, covering several acres, were ablaze with the joiner's, fitting shops destroyed.
Various ships under construction were threatened, amongst which were HMS Argonaut and RMS Empress Queen. The vessels were however separated from the buildings and no significant damage was sustained; the cost of the damage was caused 4,000 workmen to be thrown idle. Alexander Cleghorn FRSE became the Fairfield manager in 1909; the company established the Coventry Ordnance Works joint venture with Yarrow Shipbuilders and others in 1905. The Fairfield Titan was built for the yard in 1911 by Sir William Arrol & Co. with a maximum lift capacity of 200 tons. It was acknowledged for many years as the largest crane in the world, it was employed in lifting the boilers aboard ships in the fitting out basin. The crane was demolished in 2007 in yard modernisation works. In 1919 the company became part of the Northumberland Shipbuilding Company, with Alexander Kennedy installed as managing director. In 1921 Alexander Kennedy was knighted. Sir Alexander became Fairfield chairman in 1930 and remained so until after Fairfield was taken over by Lithgows of Port Glasgow in 1935, after Fairfield became entangled with the insolvency of the Anchor Line.
The Fairfield West Yard had been added at the outbreak of the First World War for submarine construction, but closed after ten years due to severe recession and was demolished by National Shipbuilders Securities in 1934. The Fairfield West yard site was used by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1944 to build four landing craft. In 1924, the company bought a shipyard at Chepstow on the River Wye in South Wales developed as National Shipyard No.1 in the First World War and taken over by the Monmouthshire Shipbuilding Company. The works specialised in assembling bridges and other major structures. In the 1950s the yard underwent a major £4 million modernisation programme, implemented over a period of ten years to minimise disruption to the yard. In 1963, the Fairfield engine building division merged with another Lithgow subsidiary, David Rowan & Company, to form Fairfield Rowan Ltd. Soon after the decade long shipyard modernisation works were completed, Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd and Fairfield Rowan Ltd were placed into receivership and was subsequently sold by Lithgow's in 1965.
Fairfield's Chepstow works was sold to the Mabey Group in 1966. The marine engine building subsidiary Fairfield Rowan was closed in 1966, but the modernised shipbuilding operation was reconstituted as Fairfield Ltd, in what became known as the famous Fairfield Experiment, into new ways of improving productivity through new reforms to industrial relations and the application of scientific management methods to improve productivity; the era of the Fairfield experiment was captured by Sean Connery in his documentary The Bowler and the Bunnet. In 1968 the company was made part of Upper Clyde Shipbuilders, which collapsed in 1971 when a strike and work-in received national press attention; as part of the recovery deal, Fairfields was formed into Govan Shipbuilders in 1972, itself nationalised and subsumed into British Shipbuilders in 1977. On the break-up of British Shipbuilders under denationalisation in 1988, the former Fairfield yard was sold to the Norwegian Kværner group and renamed Kvaerner Govan.
The yard is now part of BAE Systems Surface Ships. Some of the better-known ships built by Fairfield's include: Battlecruisers: HMS Indomitable HMS New Zealand HMS Renown Battleships: HMS Commonwealth HMS Valiant HMS Howe Cruisers: HMS Liverpool Norfolk Destroyers: HMS Cameleon Torpedo boat destroyers