Herbert Clark Hoover was an American engineer and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U. S. Food Administration, served as the 3rd U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Born to a Quaker family in West Branch, Hoover took a position with a London-based mining company after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he became the head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, an international relief organization that provided food to occupied Belgium; when the U. S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Hoover's war-time service made him a favorite of many progressives, he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1920 presidential election. After the 1920 election, newly-elected Republican President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce. Hoover was an unusually active and visible cabinet member, becoming known as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments", he was influential in the development of radio and air travel and led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith; the stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. Hoover pursued a variety of policies in an attempt to lift the economy, but opposed directly involving the federal government in relief efforts. In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election.
Hoover enjoyed one of the longest retirements of any former president, he authored numerous works. After leaving office, Hoover became conservative, he criticized Roosevelt's foreign policy and New Deal domestic agenda. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover's public reputation was rehabilitated as he served for Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower in various assignments, including as chairman of the Hoover Commission. Hoover is not ranked in historical rankings of presidents of the United States. Herbert Hoover was born on August 1874 in West Branch, Iowa, his father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German and English ancestry. Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Like most other citizens of West Branch and Hulda were Quakers; as a child, Hoover attended schools, but he did little reading on his own aside from the Bible. Hoover's father, noted by the local paper for his "pleasant, sunshiny disposition", died in 1880 at the age of 34.
Hoover's mother died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother and his younger sister, May, as orphans. In 1885, Hoover was sent to Newberg, Oregon to live with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before; the Minthorn household was considered cultured and educational, imparted a strong work ethic. Much like West Branch, Newberg was a frontier town settled by Midwestern Quakers. Minthorn ensured that Hoover received an education, but Hoover disliked the many chores assigned to him and resented Minthorn. One observer described Hoover as "an orphan seemed to be neglected in many ways." Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy, but dropped out at the age of thirteen to become an office assistant for his uncle's real estate office in Salem, Oregon. Though he did not attend high school, Hoover learned bookkeeping and mathematics at a night school. Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891, its inaugural year, despite failing all the entrance exams except mathematics.
During his freshman year, he switched his major from mechanical engineering to geology after working for John Casper Branner, the chair of Stanford's geology department. Hoover was a mediocre student, he spent much of his time working in various part-time jobs or participating in campus activities. Though he was shy among fellow students, Hoover won election as student treasurer and became known for his distaste for fraternities and sororities, he served as student manager of both the baseball and football teams, helped organize the inaugural Big Game versus the University of California. During the summers before and after his senior year, Hoover interned under economic geologist Waldemar Lindgren of the United States Geological Survey; when Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the country was in the midst of the Panic of 1893, he struggled to find a job. He worked in various low-level mining jobs in the Sierra Nevada mountain range until he convinced prominent mining engineer Louis Janin to hire him.
After working as a mine scout for a year, Hoover was hired by Bewick, Moreing & Co. a London-based company that operated gold mines in Western Australia. Hoover first went to Coolgardie the center of the Eastern Goldfields. Though Hoover received a $5,000 salary, conditions were h
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 30th president of the United States from 1923 to 1929. A Republican lawyer from New England, born in Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics becoming governor, his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. The next year, he was elected vice president of the United States, he succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small government conservative and as a man who said little and had a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, left office with considerable popularity; as a Coolidge biographer wrote: "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions.
That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength". Scholars have ranked Coolidge in the lower half of those presidents, he is praised by advocates of smaller government and laissez-faire economics, while supporters of an active central government view him less favorably, though most praise his stalwart support of racial equality. John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4, 1872, the only US president to be born on Independence Day. He was the elder of the two children of John Calvin Coolidge Sr. and Victoria Josephine Moor. Coolidge Junior was called by his middle name, Calvin. Coolidge Senior engaged in many occupations and developed a statewide reputation as a prosperous farmer and public servant, he held various local offices, including justice of the peace and tax collector and served in the Vermont House of Representatives as well as the Vermont Senate. Coolidge's mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer.
She was chronically ill and died from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of 15 of appendicitis, when Coolidge was 18. Coolidge's father married a Plymouth schoolteacher in 1891, lived to the age of 80. Coolidge's family had deep roots in New England. Another ancestor, Edmund Rice, arrived at Watertown in 1638. Coolidge's great-great-grandfather named John Coolidge, was an American military officer in the Revolutionary War and one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth, his grandfather Calvin Galusha Coolidge served in the Vermont House of Representatives. Coolidge was a descendant of Samuel Appleton, who settled in Ipswich and led the Massachusetts Bay Colony during King Philip's War. Coolidge attended Black River Academy and St. Johnsbury Academy, before enrolling at Amherst College, where he distinguished himself in the debating class; as a senior, he graduated cum laude. While at Amherst, Coolidge was profoundly influenced by philosophy professor Charles Edward Garman, a Congregational mystic, with a neo-Hegelian philosophy.
Coolidge explained Garman's ethics forty years later: here is a standard of righteousness that might does not make right, that the end does not justify the means, that expediency as a working principle is bound to fail. The only hope of perfecting human relationships is in accordance with the law of service under which men are not so solicitous about what they shall get as they are about what they shall give, yet people are entitled to the rewards of their industry. What they earn is theirs, no matter how small or how great, but the possession of property carries the obligation to use it in a larger service... At his father's urging after graduation, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to become a lawyer. To avoid the cost of law school, Coolidge followed the common practice of apprenticing with a local law firm, Hammond & Field, reading law with them. John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates, introduced Coolidge to law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County.
In 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. With his savings and a small inheritance from his grandfather, Coolidge opened his own law office in Northampton in 1898, he practiced commercial law. As his reputation as a hard-working and diligent attorney grew, local banks and other businesses began to retain his services. In 1903, Coolidge met Grace Anna Goodhue, a University of Vermont graduate and teacher at Northampton's Clarke School for the Deaf, they married on October 4, 1905 at 2:30 p.m. in a small ceremony which took place in the parlor of Grace's family's house, following a vain effort at postponement by Grace's mother. The newlyweds went on a honeymoon trip to Montreal planned for two weeks but cut short by a week at Coolidge's request. After 25 years he wrote of Grace, "for a quarter of a century she has borne with my infirmities and I have rejoiced in her graces"; the Coolidges had two sons: John and Calvin Jr.. Calvin Jr. died at age 16 from blood poisoning. On June 30, 1924 Calvin Jr had played tennis with his brother on the White House tennis courts without putting on socks and developed a blister on one of his toes.
The blister subsequently
Concordia is a city in and the county seat of Cloud County, United States. It is located along the Republican River in the Smoky Hills region of the Great Plains in North Central Kansas; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 5,395. Concordia is the Nazareth Convent and Academy. Concordia holds the distinction of being elected the county seat; the founder of the town, James M. Hagaman had created a complete layout of the town on paper including streets, blocks and parks; the name "Concordia" was chosen because a member of the early group of promoters had once lived in Concordia, Missouri. December 1869 was the first election for the county seat with Concordia and the now defunct town Sibley. Without a clear majority, a second election was held between Concordia and Sibley on January 4, 1870. Concordia was declared the winner over Sibley 165 votes to 129, it was over a year when Concordia became a town when the Republican Land District Office opened on January 16, 1871. The Concordia Land Office continued until February 28, 1889 when it was consolidated with the land office in Topeka, Kansas.
In 1871, Concordia elected its first mayor, R. E. Allen. Under his leadership, Concordia was incorporated as a third class city under Kansas law in August 1872. Concordia was visited in its early years by many traveling shows; as early as 1876 various traveling entertainers including Wild Bill Hickock, Buffalo Bill Cody, Ringling Brothers, others came to Concordia. In 1892, the Ringling train wrecked east of the town killing two men and twenty horses, but the show played the next day to a crowd of 4,000; the first schoolteacher to teach inside the city limits was Milo Stevens, paid a salary of twenty dollars per month. A state normal school was set up in Concordia in 1874 with F. E. Robinson as principal and former state Superintendent H. D. McCarty became president the second year. In 1876 the state ceased to provide funding and the school was closed. In 1887, Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built a branch line from Neva through Concordia to Superior, Nebraska. In 1996, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway merged with Burlington Northern Railroad and renamed to the current BNSF Railway.
Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Santa Fe". In 1897, Pope Leo XIII founded the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kansas; the diocese operated until 1947. It was restored as a titular see in 1995. Carrie Nation visited Concordia in the early 1900s. Records are mixed, but the date is placed between 1908 and 1910; the Concordia Blade newspaper reported: "Carrie Nation is in town. That wonderfully brave little woman who started the crusade against Kansas saloons lectured at the M. E. Church this afternoon, will talk again tonight at the courthouse. While in this city she is the guest of Mrs. George Mohr." A major geographic change in the city and the area occurred on July 9, 1902. The Republican River broke a dam; the flooding resulted in re-routing the river by 1/4 of a mile. The year of 1912 brought a major blizzard to Concordia with snow so deep that a Union Pacific train became stuck northeast of town and snowbanks on main street piled as high as peoples' heads. In 1912, the first official inspection team for Meridian Highway came through Concordia on their tour from Canada to Mexico.
In 1913, the Missouri Pacific Railway depot was rebuilt. Another flood took place on June 20, 1915. Damage from the flood was significant but not as wide-sweeping as the flood of 1902. Concordia is at an elevation of 1,378 feet, it lies on the south side of the Republican River in the Smoky Hills region of the Great Plains. Lost Creek, a tributary of the Republican, flows north along the western edge of the city. Located in north-central Kansas at the intersection of U. S. Route 81 and K-9, Concordia is 125 mi north of Wichita, 149 mi southwest of Omaha, 169 mi west-northwest of Kansas City. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.32 square miles, all land. Concordia has a humid continental climate, with cold, dry winters; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 28.6 °F in January to 79.1 °F in July. On average, there are 8.2 days that reach 100 °F or higher, 49 days that reach 90 °F or higher, 30 days that do not climb above freezing, 5.7 days with a low of 0 °F or below.
The average window for freezing temperatures is October 15 thru April 18, allowing a growing season of 179 days. Extreme temperatures range from −33 °F on January 8, 1886, up to 116 °F on August 12, 1936. Precipitation is greatest in May and has ranged from 12.83 in in 1956 to 44.79 in in 1993. Snowfall averages 20.2 in per season, has ranged from 2.5 in in 1903–04 to 59.1 in in 1959–60. According to the census, Concordia is the most populous city in the county and of all six adjacent counties; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,395 people, 2,186 households, 1,301 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,248.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,545 housin
Harold Theodore Tate
Harold Theodore Tate was Treasurer of the United States from May 31, 1928 until January 17, 1929, serving under President Calvin Coolidge. While holding that post, his duties included being the signatory on United States currency, he was Ariana Peck Tate of Grainger County, Tennessee. He had served as Deputy Treasurer of the United States, one of his duties in that post included signing the President's paycheck, his signature was the first to be included on the modern sized United States paper money as Treasurer of the United States. Managing money seems to have run in this family, H. T. Tate's brother Ernest having served as Treasurer of the Southern Railway, headquartered at 15th and K Street N. W. in Washington, D. C. just a few blocks away from the United States Department of the Treasury. Siblings H. T. Tate and Ernest Tate were the grand-uncle and grandfather of radio broadcaster, David Tate. Leaves from the Family Tree, by Penelope Johnson Allen, reprinted in The Chattanooga Sunday Times, December 6, 1936.
Excerpts from History of Tennessee, The Goodspeed Publishing Co. Nashville, TN 1887
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Carlinville is a city in Macoupin County, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 5,917, 5,665 at a 2015 estimate, it is the county seat of Macoupin County, is an outlying part of the Metro-East region of the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area. Carlinville is the home of Blackburn College, a small college affiliated with the Presbyterian church, Prairie Farms Dairy. Carlinville is named for Thomas Carlin, 7th Governor of Illinois, who as a member of the state legislature was instrumental in creating Macoupin County. Carlinville has long been a site of Illinois history, has played host to many presidential hopefuls via campaign stops at a time in American history when railway routes produced many visits by politicians; the largest and most important hallmark of Carlinville's history is its courthouse, the largest built outside of New York City at the time of its erection. Built in 1870 and designed by famous state capitol building architect Elijah E. Myers, the construction of Carlinville's courthouse produced its candidacy for the location of the State Capitol.
Locally, it is known as "The Million Dollar Courthouse" due to its cost overruns at the time it was built. In the early 1900s Carlinville became the site of a great many Sears Catalog Homes. An entire neighborhood was constructed of the homes and was funded, in 1918, by Standard Oil of Indiana for its mineworkers in Carlinville, at a cost of 1 million dollars. In gratitude, Roebuck named one of its house models the "Carlin." Today 149 of the original 156 homes still exist, the largest single repository of Sears Catalog Homes in the United States. One notable resident of Carlinville was American entomologist Charles Robertson, who carried out what is still the single most intensive study of flower-visiting insects of a single locality, culminating in a 221-page book published in 1928 under the title Flowers and Insects. From among the specimens he collected in the process of doing this study, he named over 100 new species of bees and wasps. Scientists in 1970–1972 did a similar survey, found that most of the bees noted by Robertson were still present.
This is due to the existence of bee habitat in hedgerows, on slopes, in other non-agricultural land in the survey area. Other notable Carlinvillians include nature writer and novelist Mary Hunter Austin, once called "the most intelligent woman in America" by H. G. Wells, distinguished military personnel and others, including Andy Freehill, local scholar and author of The Ontology of the Living Deity. According to the 2010 census, Carlinville has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,685 people, 2,125 households, 1,393 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,390 people per square mile. There were 2,289 housing units at an average density of 962.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.01% White, 1.50% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.76% of the population. There were 2,125 households, of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families.
30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 12.8% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,259, the median income for a family was $39,693. Males had a median income of $35,137 versus $21,286 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,663. About 9.0% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. Illinois Route 4 directly passes through Carlinville. Interstate 55 is within 12 miles of the city. Illinois Route 108 Passes through Carlinville from Interstate 55 to the East, to Kampsville, where it crosses the Illinois River on a free, state-operated ferry.
Alongside a developed road network, the Carlinville Amtrak station is served directly by five daily trains, offering easy access south to St. Louis and north to Springfield and Chicago. Freight rail service is provided by the Union Pacific Railroad the Gulf and Ohio, the Illinois Central Gulf, the Chicago and Western, the Southern Pacific Chicago - St. Louis Railways; the main line of the GM&O passed through Carlinville. The Illinois Terminal Railroad, an electric interurban to St. Louis from Springfied that once provided both freight and passenger service, passed down the middle of Carlinville's West Street, it was still operating freight trains on West Street to a nearby grain elevator into the 1970s. Its trestle crossing Goat Hollow south of Carlinville burned severing the line, abandoned. A small portion of the line is used by Monterey Coal Co. mine to connect with the former Chicago and North Western Transportation Company L & M District], serving coal-fired power plants. Official website
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo