Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain, or effective height above average terrain, is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power in determining the range of broadcasts. For international coordination, it is measured in meters by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States, as Canada and Mexico have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, based on the maximum distance their station class is allowed to cover; the FCC procedure to calculate HAAT is: from the proposed or actual antenna site, either 12 or 16 radials were drawn, points at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 miles radius along each radial were used. The entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station; the altitude of the antenna site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, is the HAAT.
This can create some unusual cases in mountainous regions—it is possible to have a negative number for HAAT. The FCC has divided the Contiguous United States into three zones for the determination of spacing between FM and TV stations using the same frequencies. FM and TV stations are assigned maximum ERP and HAAT values, depending on their assigned zones, to prevent co-channel interference; the FCC regulations for ERP and HAAT are listed under Title 47, Part 73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Maximum HAAT: 150 metres Maximum ERP: 50 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 241 km Maximum HAAT: 600 metres Maximum ERP: 100 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 290 km. In all zones, maximum ERP for analog TV transmitters is. In addition, Zone I-A consists of all of California south of 40° north latitude, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Zones I and I-A have the most "grandfathered" overpowered stations, which are allowed the same extended coverage areas that they had before the zones were established.
One of the most powerful of these stations is WBCT in Grand Rapids, which operates at 320,000 watts and 238 meters HAAT. Zone III consists of all of Florida and the areas of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas within 241.4 kilometers of the Gulf of Mexico. Zone II is all the rest of the Continental United States and Hawaii. Above mean sea level Above ground level Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission List of broadcast station classes United States Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 73 Index FCC: Mass Media Calculated Contours FCC: HAAT Calculator "Superpower" Grandfathered FM stations
K-Love is a contemporary Christian music radio programming service in the United States operated by the Educational Media Foundation. The network is one of three formats produced by the Educational Media Foundation, the other two being K-Love Classics and Air1; as of March 2013, the network's programming is simulcast on over 440 FM stations and translators in 47 U. S. states and 1 U. S. Territory. K-Love has over 12 million listeners weekly online and in cities across the United States on FM radio including Anchorage, Denver, Los Angeles and New York City, it is the sixth-most online-streamed station in the world. K-Love began in 1980 as a single radio station with the call sign KCLB, it was a full-time contemporary Christian music radio station, launched by radio personality Bob Anthony, in Middletown, California. After several tries at purchasing a station in San Francisco, a small, non-commercial radio station was acquired just north of San Francisco for $67,000. On October 15, 1982, 91.9 KCLB came on the air for the first time with Bob Anthony as announcer.
The first song played on KCLB was "Praise The Lord" by The Imperials, a hit on the Christian Music charts in 1979. With the slogan "The Positive Alternative, Christian Music Radio KCLB 92FM", the station continued to grow in listeners. In 1986, Dick Jenkins was hired as General Manager; that same year, Bob Anthony moved to Oregon, to start a new radio ministry. On September 12, 1988, a 9,000-acre brush fire destroyed KCLB's main transmitter building on Geyser Peak; the radio station transmitter was relocated to 4,000-foot Mount Saint Helena. The new location improved signal strength, listeners reported they could now hear the station as far as 125 miles away; as KCLB continued to expand its signal reach, in 1987 the signal could be heard on transmitters in San Rafael and Monterey, California that rebroadcast KCLB's signal. In 1988, KCLB changed its call letters to KLVR, adopted its on-air brand name K-Love and the slogan "Encouraging Words, Positive Music, K-Love Radio". By 1989, the signal could be heard in Santa Cruz, San Jose, Los Gatos, California via microwave transmission and television subcarriers.
K-Love expanded its reach during the 1990s by purchasing small stations and translators, repeating its signal. In 1992, K-Love began using satellite technology to expand to locations further away than just northern California; the Educational Media Foundation continued to purchase small translators in California but bought stations in Portland, Phoenix, Oklahoma City and San Antonio. During the 1990s, K-Love began to expand its on-air personalities. David Pierce joined in 1991. Mike Novak, JD Chandler and Larry Wayne started working air shifts in the late 1990s. In addition to expanding the on-air talent, K-Love expanded its facilities and moved its headquarters from Santa Rosa to Sacramento in 1993. In 1998 K-Love increased its reach online by streaming live on klove.com. During the decade of the 2000s, K-Love went through a period of expansion through the purchase of stations and translators across the United States. On October 5, 2000, Colorado Christian University sold KWBI Morrison / Denver, KJOL Grand Junction and KDRH Glenwood Springs, Colorado as well as 18 translators to K-Love.
The Colorado radio network was sold for a reported $16.6 million. A Colorado Christian University release said the board considered "many offers from Christian, as well as other suitors," but the priority was finding a buyer committed to "top-quality Christian programming." KWBI is now KLDV, is one of K-Love's most listened to signals. K-Love picked up the KWBI calls for their radio station in Kansas. In 2003, the EMF took advantage of a window of time where the Federal Communications Commission allowed for the filing of new applications for FM translators known as the "2003 Auction 83 filing window" and labelled as the "Great Translator Invasion of 2003." During that time, the FCC received over 13,000 applications for original construction permits on translators. EMF filled over 800 applications, of which over 250 have been approved, most of those now carry the K-Love network. In January 2007, the EMF purchased 94.3 WJKL Elgin, which broadcasts to the Chicago area, for $17 million. Shortly after the purchase, a flood hit the WJKL transmitter site that knocked the station off the air for more than a week.
WJKL now broadcasts from Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois to the Chicago market. On November 30, 2007, K-Love purchased 97.3 KCXM, an ESPN radio affiliate for Kansas City, for $16 million. The call letters were changed to KLRX shortly after and now broadcasts from Lee's Summit to the Kansas City area; as a result and other station purchases, plus the new translators approved during the 2003 filing window, the K-Love radio network grew to be the largest broadcaster of contemporary Christian music in the world. By 2010, K-Love had an estimated listenership of 6 million people, from both terrestrial stations and on-line streams. In 2002, the EMF moved its headquarters from California, to Rocklin; the new headquarters now housed K-Love, Air1 and Christian Music Planet magazine. On July 15, 2009, K-Love bought 101.9 WKLU, which broadcasts to Indianapolis, for $4.75 million, plus $1.55 million for the studio. The studio became the broadcast location for the K-Love Morning Show. In January 2004, K-Love partnered with Premier Christian Cruises and had its first annual "K-LOVE Friends & Family Music Cruise".
Passage on the cruise sold out 13 weeks after sales began in April 2003. In 2001, Christian radio personality Jon Rivers, along with his wife Sherry, became the K-Love Morning Show hosts, bro
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
WYSL is a radio broadcasting station in Avon, New York. Broadcasting at 1040 kHz on the AM dial, the station is owned by Robert C. Savage under the name Radio Livingston and serves Livingston County and the Rochester metropolitan area. WYSL streams most of its programming on the Internet; the call letters for WYSL were taken from a radio station in Buffalo. Savage launched an all-news format in 1987 on 1030 kHz as a daytime-only station, but would move to the 1040 frequency to broadcast 24 hours per day; the station was an all-news radio format with both local content and programming from the Associated Press. The all-news format, would end in 2006 for a number of reasons. First, the Associated Press discontinued its radio services in July 2005. WYSL replaced the network with CNN Headline News, the only other national commercial all-news outlet available. After that, however, CNNHN decided to launch "Headline Prime," which eliminated its viability as an all-news network between the hours of 7 PM and 2 AM ET.
This left a large hole in the schedule. Third, the Rochester market's "second-tier" news talker, WROC 950, had been replaced by a progressive talk format and had locked up the area's CBS Radio Network affiliation; as a result, WYSL picked up conservative talkers Laura Ingraham and Bill O'Reilly from the former WROC lineup and added Rusty Humphries and Jerry Doyle from Talk Radio Network to fill in the late evening gap, thereby transforming the station into a news-talker. WYSL shares some news staff with another small station, WSPQ in Springville, which the station refers to as its "Western New York bureau." WYSL was affiliated with ABC News Radio and the Wall Street Journal Radio Network, but switched to the Salem Radio Network for newscasts in 2012, following what Savage described as an unacceptably pro-Democratic bias in ABC's reporting of the 2012 Republican presidential primaries. WYSL increased its daytime power from 2,500 watts to 20,000 watts in November 2006, it operates at reduced power at night to protect clear-channel station WHO in Iowa.
WYSL continued to transition into a full-time talk radio station in 2007. Early in 2007, the station added its first local talk show, hosted by local attorney Bill Nojay, as well as picking up Dennis Miller in the afternoon drive time slot; the CNN Headline News affiliation was dropped by June 2007 and replaced by Jim Bohannon while Jim Quinn's syndicated The War Room with Quinn and Rose was picked up in the morning drive, thus eliminating the last "all news" programming block on the station, in October 2007. Nojay's show began syndication in 2008 on WLEA in Hornell as well as on WGVA and its numerous simulcasts in the Finger Lakes. WYSL is affiliated with WHEC-TV to simulcast that station's local newscasts. Savage is in the process of applying for a sister station for WYSL, which will operate at 1220 kHz and be licensed to Lakeville, New York; the new station will operate from the same tower site as WYSL. An FM translator, W221CL, went on the air in early 2010 which covers the city of Rochester and portions of Monroe County.
The FM station is branded "FM TALK 92.1 WYSL", which simulcasts WYSL 1040 AM. Savage has been a vocal opponent of the new HD Radio technology being used on the AM band, saying that the technology causes undue interference and unnecessary broadcast delay for minimal gain in quality, he has since filed a formal complaint with the Federal Communications Commission over interference caused by WBZ's nighttime HD signal on the adjacent 1030 kHz frequency, from which Savage had moved many years earlier to avoid that interference when his station went to a 24-hour broadcast schedule. Local news updates are heard throughout the day; the War Room with Quinn and Rose, morning drive Glenn Beck Program, mid-mornings Julie Jordan Di Palma, middays Dana Loesch, afternoon drive America Now with Buck Sexton, late night Red Eye Radio, overnightsThe station sells its evening and weekend airtime for brokered programming. In addition to brokered shows, WYSL replays weekday hosts as noted above, carries some local high school and minor league sports.
Attorney Bill Nojay hosted a daily hour-long program on WYSL for several years, prior to his election to the New York State Assembly as well as during his tenure in the legislature. Nojay was still hosting the show when he committed apparent suicide in 2016. Nojay's time slot was filled by Shannon Joy until WYSL abruptly canceled the program in November 2018; the station uses the slogans "Whistle", a pun on its call letters, "News Power 1040" and "The News Station". The "News Power" Slogan was introduced in 2006. WHEC-TV WHAM CNN Headline News The Wall Street Journal Query the FCC's AM station database for WYSL Radio-Locator Information on WYSL Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WYSL Query the FCC's FM station database for W221CL Radio-Locator information on W221CL Query the FCC's FM station database for W238DE Radio-Locator information on W238DE WYSL-1040 official website
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. Many of Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Canada's most populous city, Hamilton, are on the lake's northern or western shores. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters", its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River, it is the only Great Lake not to border the state of Michigan. Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area, although it exceeds Lake Erie in volume, it is the 13th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake's shoreline is 712 miles long.
As the last lake in the Great Lakes' hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean surface elevation of the lakes at 243 feet above sea level. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles and its maximum width is 53 statute miles; the lake's average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot, with a maximum depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet. The lake's primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, with the St. Lawrence River serving as the outlet; the drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles. As with all the Great Lakes, water levels change both among years; these water level fluctuations are an integral part of lake ecology, produce and maintain extensive wetlands. The lake has an important freshwater fishery, although it has been negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution and invasive species. Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors near Prince Edward County and the easternmost shores; the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada capital for its strategic harbour.
Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presqu'ile Bay, Sodus Bay. The bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park; these sand bars are associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species, as well as providing important rest areas for migratory birds. Presqu'ile, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is significant in this regard. One unique feature of the lake is the Z-shaped Bay of Quinte which separates Prince Edward County from the Ontario mainland, save for a 2-mile isthmus near Trenton. Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario include the Niagara River, Don River, Humber River, Trent River, Cataraqui River, Genesee River, Oswego River, Black River, Little Salmon River, the Salmon River; the lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. The action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had the same orientation as today's basin.
Material, pushed southward by the ice sheet left landforms such as drumlins and moraines, both on the modern land surface and the lake bottom, reorganizing the region's entire drainage system. As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet, so the lake surface was at a higher level; this stage is known as Lake Iroquois. During that time the lake drained through present-day Syracuse, New York into the Mohawk River, thence to the Hudson River and the Atlantic; the shoreline created during this stage can be recognized by the beaches and wave-cut hills 10 to 25 miles from the present shoreline. When the ice receded from the St. Lawrence valley, the outlet was below sea level, for a short time the lake became a bay of the Atlantic Ocean, in association with the Champlain Sea; the land rebounded from the release of the weight of about 6,500 feet of ice, stacked on it. It is still rebounding about 12 inches per century in the St. Lawrence area. Since the ice receded from the area last, the most rapid rebound still occurs there.
This means the lake bed is tilting southward, inundating the south shore and turning river valleys into bays. Both north and south shores experience shoreline erosion, but the tilting amplifies this effect on the south shore, causing loss to property owners; the name Ontario is derived from the Huron word Ontarí'io, which means "great lake". The lake was a border between the Huron people and the Iroquois Confederacy in the pre-Columbian era. In the 1600s, the Iroquois drove out the Huron from southern Ontario and settled the northern shores of Lake Ontario; when the Iroquois withdrew and the Anishnabeg / Ojibwa / Mississaugas moved in from the north to southern Ontario, they retained the Iroquois name. It is believed the first European to reach the lake was Étienne Brûlé in 1615; as was their practice, the French explorers introduced other names for the lake. In 1632 and 1656, the lake was referred to as Lac de St. Louis or Lake St. Louis by Samuel de Champlain and cartographer Nicolas Sanson In
Talking Heads were an American rock band formed in 1975 in New York City and active until 1991. The band comprised David Byrne, Chris Frantz, Tina Weymouth, Jerry Harrison. Described by the critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine as "one of the most critically acclaimed bands of the'80s," the group helped to pioneer new wave music by integrating elements of punk, art rock and world music with avant-garde sensibilities and an anxious, clean-cut image. Former art school students who became involved in the 1970s New York punk scene, Talking Heads released their debut album, Talking Heads: 77, to positive reviews in 1977, they collaborated with producer Brian Eno on a trio of experimental and critically acclaimed releases: More Songs About Buildings and Food, Fear of Music, Remain in Light. After a hiatus, Talking Heads hit their commercial peak in 1983 with the U. S. Top 10 hit "Burning Down the House" and released the concert film Stop Making Sense, directed by Jonathan Demme, they released several more albums, including their best-selling LP Little Creatures, before disbanding in 1991.
In 2002, Talking Heads were inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. Four of their albums appear in Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, three of their songs were included among the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll. Talking Heads were number 64 on VH1's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In the 2011 update of Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", they were ranked number 100. From 1971 to 1972, David Byrne was a member of a duo named Bizadi with Marc Kehoe, he developed an interest in performing. He attended the Rhode Island School of Design in the 1970–1971 term, the Maryland Institute College of Art in the 1971–1972 term.. Chris Frantz and Tina Weymouth were alumni of the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, Rhode Island. There and Frantz formed a band called "The Artistics" in 1973. Weymouth was Frantz's girlfriend and provided transportation for the band; the Artistics dissolved the following year, the three moved to New York sharing a communal loft.
Tina Weymouth became the band's bass player. Frantz encouraged Weymouth to learn to play bass by listening to Suzi Quatro albums, they played their first gig as "Talking Heads" opening for the Ramones at CBGB on June 5, 1975. In a interview, Weymouth recalled how the group chose the name Talking Heads: "A friend had found the name in the TV Guide, which explained the term used by TV studios to describe a head-and-shoulder shot of a person talking as'all content, no action', it fit." That year, the trio recorded a series of demos for CBS, but the band was not signed to the label. The band drew a following and were signed to Sire Records in November 1976, they released their first single in February the following year, "Love → Building on Fire". In March 1977, they added Jerry Harrison of Jonathan Richman's band the Modern Lovers, on keyboards and backing vocals. During this time, Byrne asked Weymouth to audition three more times to keep her place in the band; the first Talking Heads album, Talking Heads: 77, received acclaim and produced their first charted single, "Psycho Killer".
Many connected the song to the serial killer known as the Son of Sam, terrorizing New York City months earlier. More Songs About Buildings and Food was Talking Heads' first collaboration with producer Brian Eno, who had worked with Roxy Music, David Bowie, John Cale and Robert Fripp. Eno's unusual style meshed well with the group's artistic sensibilities, they began to explore an diverse range of musical directions, from post-punk to psychedelic funk to African music; this recording established the band's relationship with Compass Point Studios in Nassau, Bahamas. More Songs About Buildings and Food included a cover of Al Green's "Take Me to the River." This broke Talking Heads into the general public's consciousness and gave the band their first Billboard Top 30 hit. The Eno-Talking Heads experimentation continued with 1979's Fear of Music, which flirted with the darker stylings of post-punk rock, mixed with white funkadelia and subliminal references to the geopolitical instability of the late 1970s.
Music journalist Simon Reynolds cited Fear of Music as representing the Eno-Talking Heads collaboration "at its most mutually fruitful and equitable". The single "Life During Wartime" produced the catchphrase "This ain't no party, this ain't no disco." The song refers to two popular New York nightclubs of the time. Remain in Light was influenced by the afrobeat of Nigerian bandleader Fela Kuti, whose music Eno had introduced to the band, it explored West African polyrhythms, weaving these together with Arabic music from North Africa, disco funk, "found" voices. These combinations foreshadowed Byrne's interest in world music. In order to perform these more complex arrangements, the band toured with an expanded group, including Adrian Belew and Bernie Worrell, among others, first at the Heatwave festival in August, in their concert film Stop Making Sense. During this period, Tina Weymouth and Chris Frantz formed a commercially successful splinter group, Tom Tom Club, influenced by the foundational elements of hip hop, Harrison released his first solo album, The Red and the Black.
Byrne—in collaboration wi
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support